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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806185/graft-quality-verification-in-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-how-when-and-why
#1
Teresa M Kieser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operation is one of the few remaining operations/interventions on diseased arteries that are not routinely verified during or immediately after the procedure. This review answers the 'how', 'when' and 'why' of intraoperative CABG assessment. RECENT FINDINGS: More recent than new literature on this topic, is the increased interest in quality assurance of CABG. This is most likely due to reports in the last 5 years suggesting CABG superiority to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for improved mid-term and long-term outcomes; for example, for patients with diabetes mellitus (Freedom Trial by Farkouh in 2012), and for patients with SYNTAX score ≥ 33 (SYNTAX Trial by Mohr in 2013)...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801526/an-update-on-hormone-therapy-in-postmenopausal-women-mini-review-for-the-basic-scientist
#2
Virginia M Miller, S Mitchell Harman
The worlds of observational, clinical and basic science collided in 2002 with the publication of results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a large scale, prospective, blinded, randomized-controlled trial designed to provide evidence regarding use of hormone treatment to prevent cardiovascular disease in menopausal women. The results of the WHI dramatically changed clinical practice, negatively impacted funding for hormone research and left scientists to unravel the "why" of the results. Now over a decade and a half since the initial publication of the WHI results, basic and clinical scientists often do not interpret the results of the WHI with the precision needed to move the science forward...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770438/differential-effects-of-low-and-high-dose-zinc-supplementation-on-synaptic-plasticity-and-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-control-and-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon
In the present study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation on the adult hippocampus in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mouse model. Four-weeks after HFD- and control diet (CD)-feeding, mice were provided with low (15 ppm) or high (60 ppm) doses of Zn in their drinking water for additional 4 more weeks along with their respective diets. Compared to the CD-fed mice, HFD-feeding elicited the reduction of neurogenic markers such as nestin, Ki67, doublecortin (DCX), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the dentate gyrus...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752618/cell-size-control-a-mechanism-for-maintaining-fitness-and-function
#4
REVIEW
Teemu P Miettinen, Matias J Caldez, Philipp Kaldis, Mikael Björklund
The maintenance of cell size homeostasis has been studied for years in different cellular systems. With the focus on 'what regulates cell size', the question 'why cell size needs to be maintained' has been largely overlooked. Recent evidence indicates that animal cells exhibit nonlinear cell size dependent growth rates and mitochondrial metabolism, which are maximal in intermediate sized cells within each cell population. Increases in intracellular distances and changes in the relative cell surface area impose biophysical limitations on cells, which can explain why growth and metabolic rates are maximal in a specific cell size range...
July 28, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747976/immunohistochemical-localization-of-glucose-transporter-1-and-3-in-the-scrotal-and-abdominal-testes-of-a-dog
#5
Kyu Ri Hahn, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Jong Whi Kim, Yang Hee Kim, Young Kwang Jo, Geon A Kim, Jin Young Chung, Jung Hoon Choi, In Koo Hwang, Goo Jang, Yeo Sung Yoon
Glucose is essential for testicular function; the uptake of carbohydrate-derived glucose by cells is mediated by glucose transporters (GLUTs). In the present study, we investigated the activity of GLUT1 and GLUT3, the two main isoforms of GLUTs found in testes, in the left scrotal and right abdominal testes of a German Shepherd dog. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GLUT1 immunoreactivity was absent in the scrotal and abdominal testes. In contrast, weak to moderate GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in mature spermatocytes as well as spermatids in the scrotal testis...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713906/chronic-administration-of-sumo%C3%A2-1-has-negative-effects-on-novel-object-recognition-memory-as-well-as-cell-proliferation-and-neuroblast-differentiation-in-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus
#6
Dae Young Yoo, Dae Won Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Hyo Young Jung, Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, Soo Young Choi, In Koo Hwang
Post‑translational modifications have been associated with developmental and aging processes, as well as in the pathogenesis of certain diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of small ubiquitin‑like modifier 1 (SUMO‑1) on hippocampal dependent memory function, cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation. To facilitate the delivery of SUMO‑1 into hippocampal neurons, a transactivator of transcription (Tat)‑SUMO‑1 fusion protein was constructed and mice were divided into two groups: A vehicle (Tat peptide)‑treated group and a Tat‑SUMO‑1‑treated group...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689316/higher-lipophilic-index-indicates-higher-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-postmenopausal-women
#7
Qing Liu, Alice H Lichtenstein, Nirupa R Matthan, Chanelle J Howe, Matthew A Allison, Barbara V Howard, Lisa W Martin, Carolina Valdiviezo, JoAnn E Manson, Simin Liu, Charles B Eaton
Fatty acids (FAs) are essential components of cell membranes and play an integral role in membrane fluidity. The lipophilic index [LI, defined as the sum of the products between FA levels and melting points (°C), divided by the total amount of FA: [Formula: see text]] is thought to reflect membrane and lipoprotein fluidity and may be associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we examined the associations of dietary and plasma phospholipid (PL) LI with CHD risk among postmenopausal women...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682183/interaction-between-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-low-fat-dietary-intervention-on-colorectal-cancer-incidence-the-women-s-health-initiative-whi-dietary-modification-trial
#8
Ikuko Kato, Dorothy Lane, Catherine R Womack, Cathryn H Bock, Lifang Hou, Jennifer H Lin, Chunyuan Wu, Jennifer Beebe Dimmer, Michael S Simon
BACKGROUND: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification (DM) trial did not show that reductions in dietary fat accompanied by increases in vegetable and fruit consumption decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer. Secondary analyses suggested that aspirin use may modify the intervention effects of DM on colorectal cancer development, although a recent reanalysis including the postintervention period confirmed no main effect of the intervention on reducing colorectal cancer incidence Methods: We analyzed data from 48,834 postmenopausal women who were randomized into the low-fat DM (N = 19,540) or comparison (N = 29,294) group for an average 8...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680415/construing-morality-at-high-versus-low-levels-induces-better-self-control-leading-to-moral-acts
#9
Chia-Chun Wu, Wen-Hsiung Wu, Wen-Bin Chiou
Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering 'how' questions), a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering 'why' questions) promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676217/calcium-plus-vitamin-d-supplementation-and-lung-cancer-incidence-among-postmenopausal-women-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#10
Meng-Hua Tao, Qi Dai, Shande Chen, Jo L Freudenheim, Thomas Rohan, Heather Wakelee, Mridul Datta, Jean Wactawski-Wende
BACKGROUND: Magnesium and calcium are antagonistic in many physiologic processes. However, few studies have investigated the associations of supplemental calcium with lung cancer risk taking this antagonism into account. We evaluated the effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on lung cancer incidence and explored whether the ratio of baseline calcium to magnesium (Ca:Mg) intake modifies the association in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) calcium plus vitamin D supplementation (CaD) trial...
August 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664754/safety-and-benefit-considerations-for-menopausal-hormone-therapy
#11
REVIEW
James H Pickar, David F Archer, Risa Kagan, JoAnn V Pinkerton, Hugh S Taylor
While benefits and risks of hormone therapy (HT) have been shown in rigorous randomized, controlled trials, clinical use and further study have discovered effects of age, time of HT initiation, and differential effects of various regimens and administration routes on its safety profile. Areas covered: The safety of HT with regard to cardiovascular disease, thrombosis, the endometrium, the breast, and cognition was reviewed. Differential safety effects of estradiol versus conjugated equine estrogens, and progesterone versus synthetic progestins are reported...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663410/procedure-practice-and-legal-requirements-a-commentary-on-why-i-wrote-my-advance-decision
#12
Alexander Ruck Keene
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632035/a-comprehensive-study-of-worldwide-selfie-related-accidental-mortality-a-growing-problem-of-the-modern-society
#13
Mohit J Jain, Kinjal J Mavani
Since Oxford dictionary has described 'Selfie', selfie deaths have received a fair amount of coverage but the extent of the problem and the data behind it have not been appropriately explored. The aim of our study is to obtain epidemiological characteristics of selfie-related mortality worldwide with the objective of providing an insight to 'Why selfie', 'Why risky', 'Psychological basis' and 'measures of control.' Despite thousands of web pages, very few scientific articles are available in medical journals...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630033/trust-and-credibility-in-web-based-health-information-a-review-and-agenda-for-future-research
#14
Laura Sbaffi, Jennifer Rowley
BACKGROUND: Internet sources are becoming increasingly important in seeking health information, such that they may have a significant effect on health care decisions and outcomes. Hence, given the wide range of different sources of Web-based health information (WHI) from different organizations and individuals, it is important to understand how information seekers evaluate and select the sources that they use, and more specifically, how they assess their credibility and trustworthiness...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580392/a-genome-wide-association-study-meta-analysis-of-clinical-fracture-in-10-012-african-american-women
#15
Kira C Taylor, Daniel S Evans, Digna R Velez Edwards, Todd L Edwards, Tamar Sofer, Guo Li, Youfang Liu, Nora Franceschini, Rebecca D Jackson, Ayush Giri, Macarius Donneyong, Bruce Psaty, Jerome I Rotter, Andrea Z LaCroix, Joanne M Jordan, John A Robbins, Beth Lewis, Marcia L Stefanick, Yongmei Liu, Melissa Garcia, Tamara Harris, Jane A Cauley, Kari E North
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem associated with excess disability and mortality. It is estimated that 50-70% of the variation in osteoporotic fracture risk is attributable to genetic factors. The purpose of this hypothesis-generating study was to identify possible genetic determinants of fracture among African American (AA) women in a GWAS meta-analysis. METHODS: Data on clinical fractures (all fractures except fingers, toes, face, skull or sternum) were analyzed among AA female participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) (N = 8155), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (N = 504), BioVU (N = 704), Health ABC (N = 651), and the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project (JoCoOA) (N = 291)...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576289/psychological-counseling-as-an-adjunct-to-stuttering-treatment-clients-experiences-and-perceptions
#16
Alanna Lindsay, Marilyn Langevin
PURPOSE: Stuttering can trigger anxiety and other psychological and emotional reactions, and limit participation in society. It is possible that psychological counseling could enhance stuttering treatment outcomes; however, little is known about how clients view such counseling. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of clients' experiences with, and perceptions of, a psychological counseling service that was offered as an optional adjunct to speech therapy for stuttering...
June 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559853/proteogenomics-reveals-enriched-ribosome-assembly-and-protein-translation-in-pectoralis-major-of-high-feed-efficiency-pedigree-broiler-males
#17
Walter G Bottje, Kentu Lassiter, Alissa Piekarski-Welsher, Sami Dridi, Antonio Reverter, Nicholas J Hudson, Byung-Whi Kong
Background: In production animal agriculture, the cost of feed represents 60-70% of the total cost of raising an animal to market weight. Thus, development of viable biomarkers for feed efficiency (FE, g gain/g feed) to assist in genetic selection of breeding stock remains an important goal in commercial breeding programs. Methods: Global gene (cDNA microarray, RNAseq) and protein expression (shotgun proteomics) analyses have been conducted on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree broiler males (PedM) exhibiting high and low FE phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541993/the-bigger-picture-a-new-nurse-embraces-her-ability-to-still-ask-why
#18
Sarah Szulecki
Updated several times a week with posts by a wide variety of authors, AJN's blog Off the Charts allows us to provide more timely-and often more personal-perspectives on professional, policy, and clinical issues. Best of the Blog will be a regular column to draw the attention of AJN readers to posts we think deserve a wider audience. To read more, please visit: www.ajnoffthecharts.com.
June 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523731/wble2-transcription-factor-in-streptomyces-griseus-s4-7-plays-an-important-role-in-plant-protection
#19
Hyun Ji Cho, Young Sang Kwon, Da-Ran Kim, Gyeongjun Cho, Seong Won Hong, Dong-Won Bae, Youn-Sig Kwak
Streptomyces griseus S4-7 was originally isolated from the strawberry rhizosphere as a microbial agent responsible for Fusarium wilt suppressive soils. S. griseus S4-7 shows specific and pronounced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae. In the Streptomyces genus, the whi transcription factors are regulators of sporulation, cell differentiation, septation, and secondary metabolites production. wblE2 function as a regulator has emerged as a new group in whi transcription factors. In this study, we reveal the involvement of the wblE2 transcription factor in the plant-protection by S...
May 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522360/sex-with-no-regrets-how-sexual-reproduction-uses-a-no-regret-learning-algorithm-for-evolutionary-advantage
#20
Omer Edhan, Ziv Hellman, Dana Sherill-Rofe
The question of 'why sex' has long been a puzzle. The randomness of recombination, which potentially produces low fitness progeny, contradicts notions of fitness landscape hill climbing. We use the concept of evolution as an algorithm for learning unpredictable environments to provide a possible answer. While sex and asex both implement similar machine learning no-regret algorithms in the context of random samples that are small relative to a vast genotype space, the algorithm of sex constitutes a more efficient goal-directed walk through this space...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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