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Mara A Schonberg, Vicky W Li, A Heather Eliassen, Roger B Davis, Andrea Z LaCroix, Ellen P McCarthy, Bernard A Rosner, Rowan T Chlebowski, Susan E Hankinson, Edward R Marcantonio, Long H Ngo
PURPOSE: Accurate risk assessment is necessary for decision-making around breast cancer prevention. We aimed to develop a breast cancer prediction model for postmenopausal women that would take into account their individualized competing risk of non-breast cancer death. METHODS: We included 73,066 women who completed the 2004 Nurses' Health Study (NHS) questionnaire (all ≥57 years) and followed participants until May 2014. We considered 17 breast cancer risk factors (health behaviors, demographics, family history, reproductive factors) and 7 risk factors for non-breast cancer death (comorbidities, functional dependency) and mammography use...
October 21, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Hee Sun Yim, Dae Won Kim, Hajin Nam, Jun Gyo Suh, Jung Hoon Choi, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Dynamin 1 is a known synaptic protein, which has is key in the presynaptic regulation of endocytosis. The present study investigated the association between age and the observed changes in Morris water maze performance, and immunoreactivity and protein levels of dynamin 1 in the mouse hippocampal formation. In addition, the effects of dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin 1, on the hippocampal dependent memory were determined to elucidate the correlation between dynamin 1 and memory. In the training phase of the Morris water maze task, the mean escape latency of the aged group (24 months old) was significantly longer, compared with that of the adult group (4 months old), although the average swimming speed and the total distance traveled during the probe trial were similar in the two groups...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rocío Mera-Gallego, Patricia García-Rodríguez, Marta Fernández-Cordeiro, Ángeles Rodríguez-Reneda, Natalia Vérez-Cotelo, N Floro Andrés-Rodríguez, J Antonio Fornos-Pérez, Itxaso Rica-Echevarría
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The current guidelines for treatment of high blood pressure do not include any section dedicated to hypertension in children and adolescents or to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention strategies in that age group. Our study was aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in an adolescent sample. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17years (n=630), conducted from October 2014 to February 2015 in four schools in Cangas do Morrazo (Pontevedra)...
October 13, 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Dae Young Yoo, Dae Won Kim, Jin Young Chung, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang, Jung Hoon Choi, Goang-Min Choi, Soo Young Choi, Seung Myung Moon
In the present study, we investigated the ability of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) to improve the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) against ischemic damage in the spinal cord. Animals were divided into four groups: the control group, vehicle (PEP-1 peptide and artificial cerebrospinal fluid)-treated group, Ad-MSC alone group, and Ad-MSC-treated group with PEP-1-SOD1. The abdominal aorta of the rabbit was occluded for 30 min in the subrenal region to induce ischemic damage, and immediately after reperfusion, artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Ad-MSCs (2 × 10(5)) were administered intrathecally...
October 14, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Virginia E M Zweigenthal, Emma Marquez, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Public health (PH) approaches underpin the management and transformation of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the Master of Public Health (MPH) rarely being a prerequisite for health service employment in South Africa, many physicians pursue MPH qualifications. OBJECTIVES: This study identifies their motivations and career intentions and explored MPH programme strengths and gaps in under- and post-graduate PH training. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was completed by physicians graduating with an MPH between 2000 and 2009 and those enrolled in the programme in 2010 at the University of Cape Town...
2016: Global Health Action
Roger A Lobo
For several decades, the role of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) has been debated. Early observational data on HRT showed many benefits, including a reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. More recently, randomized trials, including the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), studying mostly women many years after the the onset of menopause, showed no such benefit and, indeed, an increased risk of CHD and breast cancer, which led to an abrupt decrease in the use of HRT. Subsequent reanalyzes of data from the WHI with age stratification, newer randomized and observational data and several meta-analyses now consistently show reductions in CHD and mortality when HRT is initiated soon after menopause...
October 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Sui-Whi Jane, Ming-Shyan Lin, Wen-Nan Chiu, Randal D Beaton, Mei-Yen Chen
OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence, discomfort, and self-relief behaviours of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) among rural community residents with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A community-based, cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of a nurse-led health promotion programme for preventing foot ulceration in Chiayi County, Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred and twenty-eight community adults with type 2 diabetes participated in this study...
October 3, 2016: BMJ Open
Ashlea Bartram, Jaklin Eliott, Shona Crabb
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol is ingrained in Australian culture, playing an important role in many social occasions. This can make reducing or stopping alcohol consumption challenging, as one risks rejecting, not just a drink but also the valued social norms that drink represents. This study aimed to investigate the social experiences of adults who stop or reduce their alcohol consumption. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with people aged over 25 years who had stopped or significantly reduced their alcohol consumption for at least 3 months in the past year and were thematically analysed...
September 28, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Anuj Mehta, Mayuresh Naik, Sangeeta Abrol, Prerna Garg, Mukesh Joshi
PURPOSE: To review cases of granuloma formation after sling surgery with a view to find out possible aetiological factors and propose a further plan of management MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 120 eyes of 108 patients who underwent frontalis sling surgery with silicone rod from Jan 2008 to Dec 2015 was conducted. All patients with severe ptosis and poor levator function who underwent frontalis sling surgery with silicone rod were included in the study irrespective of the cause of ptosis and method of passing the sling...
September 27, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Mariel G Slater, Ian D Pavord, Dominick E Shaw
Many people with asthma do not achieve disease control, despite bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroid therapy. People with uncontrolled asthma are at higher risk of an asthma attack and death, with mortality rates estimated at 1000 deaths/year in England and Wales. The recent National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) report, 'Why asthma still kills', recommended that patients at step 4 or 5 of the British Thoracic Society/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (BTS/SIGN) guidance must be referred to a specialist asthma service...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Dae Young Yoo, Kwon Young Lee, Joon Ha Park, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Yeo Sung Yoon, Moo-Ho Won, Jung Hoon Choi, In Koo Hwang
Recent evidence exists that glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the brain. Most previous studies have been conducted using focal or hypoxic ischemia models and have focused on changes in GLUT3 expression based on protein and mRNA levels rather than tissue levels. In the present study, we observed change in GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the adult gerbil hippocampus at various time points after 5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region was weak, in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region increased in a time-dependent fashion 24 hours after ischemia, and in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased significantly between 2 and 5 days after ischemia, with high level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity observed in the CA1 region 10 days after ischemia...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Alba Matas-Céspedes, Anna Vidal-Crespo, Vanina Rodriguez, Neus Villamor, Julio Delgado, Eva Giné, Heleia Roca-Ho, Pablo Menéndez, Elias Campo, Armando López-Guillermo, Dolors Colomer, Gaël Roué, Adrian Wiestner, Paul Whi Parren, Parul Doshi, Jeroen J Lammerts-van Bueren, Patricia Perez-Galan
PURPOSE: To establish a proof-of-concept for the efficacy of the anti-CD38 antibody daratumumab in the poor prognosis CD38+ CLL subtype. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The mechanism of action of daratumumab was assessed in CLL primary cells and cell lines using peripheral blood mononuclear cells to analyze antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), murine and human macrophages to study antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) or human serum to analyze complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC)...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Judy L Bolton
The release of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study in 2002 was a shock to the medical community. Hormone therapy (HT) had generally been considered to be highly beneficial for postmenopausal women since it was the gold standard for relief of menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal atrophy) and it was thought to protect women from osteoporosis, heart disease, and cognitive decline and to generally improve quality of life. However, WHI showed a statistically significant increase in a number of disease states, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Hye-Kyung Yoon, Seong Whi Cho
Brain ultrasound is widely used for the screening of prematurely born babies. Although the best imaging modality for the central nervous system anomaly is brain MRI, the first imaging study in the post-natal period is brain ultrasonography in most cases. Anomalies could be found incidentally on screening ultrasound, or in those cases already suspected on prenatal ultrasound. In order not to miss congenital structural abnormalities of the brain on screening ultrasound, systematic approaches would be very helpful...
September 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
Myeongjun Lee, Hyunjung Kim, Donghee Shin, Sangyun Lee
BACKGROUND: Harassment means systemic and repeated unethical acts. Research on workplace harassment have been conducted widely and the NAQ-R has been widely used for the researches. But this tool, however the limitations in revealing differended in sub-factors depending on the culture and in reflecting that unique characteristics of the Koren society. So, The workplace harassment questionnaire for Korean finace and service workers has been developed to assess the level of personal harassment at work...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Shimon M Glick, Alan Jotkowitz
The recent essay by Schuklenk and Smalling opposing respect for physicians' conscientious objections to providing patients with medical services that are legally permitted in liberal democracies is based on several erroneous assumptions. Acting in this manner would have serious harmful effects on the ethos of medicine and of bioethics. A much more nuanced and balanced position is critical in order to respect physicians' conscience with minimal damage to patients' rights.
September 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Whi-An Kwon, Sohee Kim, Sung Han Kim, Jae Young Joung, Ho Kyung Seo, Kang Hyun Lee, Jinsoo Chung
BACKGROUND: In the present study we examined the effect of the Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) on the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with targeted therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 125 patients with metastatic RCC. Pretreatment PNI was calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dL) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count (per mm(3)). Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the correlation between pretreatment PNI and OS and PFS...
August 8, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Shefalee K Bhavsar, Yogesh Singh, Piyush Sharma, Vishal Khairnar, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Shaqiu Zhang, Monica Palmada, Ivan Sabolic, Hermann Koepsell, Karl S Lang, Philipp A Lang, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: Similar to tumor cells, activated T-lymphocytes generate ATP mainly by glycolytic degradation of glucose. Lymphocyte glucose uptake involves non-concentrative glucose carriers of the GLUT family. In contrast to GLUT isoforms, Na+-coupled glucose-carrier SGLT1 accumulates glucose against glucose gradients and is effective at low extracellular glucose concentrations. The present study explored expression and regulation of SGLT1 in activated murine splenic cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and human Jurkat T cells...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jane A Cauley, Stephen F Smagula, Kathleen M Hovey, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Christopher A Andrews, Carolyn J Crandall, Meryl S LeBoff, Wenjun Li, Mace Coday, Maryam Sattari, Hilary A Tindle
Traits of optimism and cynical hostility are features of personality that could influence the risk of falls and fractures by influencing risk taking behaviors, health behaviors or inflammation. To test the hypothesis that personality influences falls and fracture risk, we studied 87,342 women enrolled in WHI-OS. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test - Revised and cynical hostility, the cynicism subscale of the Cook-Medley questionnaire. Higher scores indicate greater optimism and hostility. Optimism and hostility were correlated at r = -0...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Bart Ecg de Goeij, Tom Vink, Hendrik Ten Napel, Esther Cw Breij, David Satijn, Richard Wubbolts, David Miao, Paul Whi Parren
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are designed to be stable in circulation and to release potent cytotoxic drugs intracellularly following antigen-specific binding, uptake and degradation in tumor cells. Efficient internalization and routing to lysosomes where proteolysis can take place is therefore essential. For many cell surface proteins and carbohydrate structures on tumor cells, however, the magnitude of these processes is insufficient to allow for an effective ADC approach. We hypothesized that we could overcome this limitation by enhancing lysosomal ADC delivery via a bispecific antibody (bsAb) approach, in which one binding domain would provide tumor specificity, whereas the other binding domain would facilitate targeting to the lysosomal compartment...
August 24, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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