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Kristina M Jordahl, Timothy W Randolph, Xiaoling Song, Cassandra L Sather, Lesley F Tinker, Amanda I Phipps, Karl T Kelsey, Emily White, Parveen Bhatti
BACKGROUND: Differential DNA methylation as measured in blood is a promising marker of bladder cancer susceptibility. However, previous studies have exclusively used post-diagnostic blood samples, meaning that observed associations may be markers of disease rather than susceptibility. METHODS: Genome-wide methylation was measured in pre-diagnostic blood samples, using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Array, among 440 bladder cancer cases with the transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) subtype and 440 matched cancer-free controls from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohort...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Joon Ha Park, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Dae Won Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that is stored in vesicles located in the presynaptic terminal. Glutamate is transported into vesicles via the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). In the present study, the age‑associated changes of the major VGLUTs, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, in the hippocampus were investigated, based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis at postnatal month 1 (PM1; adolescent), PM6, PM12 (adult group), PM18 and PM24 (the aged groups). VGLUT1 immunoreactivity was primarily detected in the mossy fibers, Schaffer collaterals and stratum lacunosum‑moleculare...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Katherine Ward, Angela Deneris
Menopause-related symptoms frequently lead women to seek health care. Recommendations for prescribing hormone therapy have changed significantly since the publication of initial results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study in 2002. The North American Menopause Society and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have newer guidelines based on long-term analyses of the WHI participants as well as emerging data from other clinical trials. Women with an intact uterus who are using systemic estrogen must also use a progestogen; however, there are 2 new selective estrogen receptor modulators on the market for use without a progestogen...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
V A Levin, X Jiang, R Kagan
Menopause predisposes women to osteoporosis due to declining estrogen levels. This results in a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increase in fractures. Osteoporotic fractures lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, and are considered one of the largest public health priorities by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is therefore essential for menopausal women to receive appropriate guidance for the prevention and management of osteoporosis. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trial first proved hormonal therapy (HT) reduces the incidence of all osteoporosis-related fractures in postmenopausal women...
March 8, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Leena Paakkari, Shanti George
BACKGROUND: Schools are seen as crucial environments to influence and develop the health literacy of new generations, but without sufficient reflection on the ethical underpinnings of intentions and interventions around health literacy. In contrast, we argue here that ethics are fundamental to all education. The article adopts a 'One world' approach that generalizes broadly across the so-called Global North and Global South. It also generalizes across various age groups among school pupils, advocating age appropriate application of the arguments advanced...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
L B Harrington, M Blondon, M Cushman, A M Kaunitz, M A Allison, L Wang, S Sullivan, N F Woods, A Z LaCroix, S R Heckbert, B McKnight, J Rossouw, N L Smith
BACKGROUND: Vasomotor symptoms may be markers of changes in cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether these symptoms are associated with the risk of venous thrombosis (VT). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of vasomotor symptom presence and severity with incident VT risk among postmenopausal women, independent of potential explanatory variables. METHODS: This cohort study included participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Therapy Trials (n=24,508) and Observational Study (n=87,783), analyzed separately...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
A Vanasse, M Courteau, J-F Ethier
OBJECTIVES: To synthesize concepts and approaches related to the analysis of patterns or processes of care and patient's outcomes into a comprehensive model of care trajectories, focusing on hospital readmissions for patients with chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). STUDY DESIGN: Narrative literature review. METHODS: Published studies between January 2000 and November 2017, using the concepts of 'continuity', 'pathway', 'episode', and 'trajectory', and focused on readmissions and chronic ACSCs, were collected in electronic databases...
February 27, 2018: Public Health
Hyunje G Cho, Katherine J Ransohoff, Lingyao Yang, Haley Hedlin, Themistocles Assimes, Jiali Han, Marcia Stefanick, Jean Y Tang, Kavita Y Sarin
BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with melanoma have been identified though genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, the combined impact of these SNPs on melanoma development remains unclear, particularly in post-menopausal women who carry lower melanoma risk. OBJECTIVE: To examine the contribution of a combined polygenic risk score on melanoma development in post-menopausal women. METHODS: Genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated using 21 GWAS-significant SNPs...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Jasmin Dvorah Korbl, Benjamin Andrew Wood, Nathan Tobias Harvey
Certain diagnoses in dermatopathology have significant implications for patient management and on occasion appropriate clinical care may be facilitated by a phone call from the reporting dermatopathologist to the referring doctor. Whether this is appropriate depends on a number of factors. The concept of 'critical diagnoses' is now well established in surgical pathology, having evolved from critical value policies in clinical pathology and haematology. However, only limited attempts have been made to assess perceptions among different clinical groups...
February 26, 2018: Pathology
Rebecca C Chester, Juliana M Kling, JoAnn E Manson
Our understanding of the complex relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has been informed by detailed analyses in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), the largest randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating MHT in postmenopausal women. Although the WHI demonstrated increased risk of CVD events with MHT in the overall cohort, subsequent secondary analyses demonstrated that these risks were influenced by the woman's age and time since menopause, with lower absolute risks and hazard ratios for younger than older women...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Rhonda Arthur, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, JoAnn E Manson, Juhua Luo, Linda Snetselaar, Theresa Hastert, Bette Caan, Lihong Qi, Thomas Rohan
Although several modifiable risk factors have been independently associated with risk of breast cancer, few studies have investigated their joint association with breast cancer risk. Using a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score, we assessed the association of a combination of selected modifiable risk factors (diet, alcohol, physical activity, BMI and smoking) with risk of invasive breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). This study comprised 131,833 postmenopausal women, of whom 8168 had breast cancer, who were enrolled in the WHI Observational Study or the WHI clinical trials...
February 26, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Yilin Meng, Cen Gao, David K Clawson, Shane Atwell, Marjanne Russell, Michal Vieth, Benoît Roux
Understanding protein conformational variability remains a challenge in drug discovery. The issue arises in protein kinases, whose multiple conformational states can affect the binding of small-molecule inhibitors. To overcome this challenge, we propose a comprehensive computational framework based on Markov State Models (MSMs). Our framework integrates the information from explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations to accurately rank-order the accessible conformational variants of a target protein. We tested the methodology using Abl kinase with a reference and blind-test set...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Minjeong Kim, Jin Myung Park, Sung Joon Lee, Chang Don Kang, MyungHo Kang, Ji Hyun Kim, Seungkoo Lee, Seong Whi Cho
We report a case of acute pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. A 46-year old man presented with upper abdominal pain. The serum amylase and lipase were elevated. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a 1.7 cm sized mass at the pancreas body with a dilatation of the upstream pancreatic duct and mild infiltrations of peripancreatic fat. An endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy was performed for the pancreatic mass, but only necrotic tissue was observed on the pathologic examination...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Pablo Valdés-Badilla, Andrés Godoy-Cumillaf, Jenny Ortega-Spuler, Tomás Herrera-Valenzuela, Samuel Durán-Agüero, José Zapata-Bastias, Rodrigo Vargas-Vitoria, Eduardo Guzmán-Muñoz, Antonio López-Fuenzalida
OBJECTIVE: To associate health anthropometric indexes with physical fitness of elderly women (EW) who participate in physical exercise workshops. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 272 Chilean women over 60 years took part in the study. The variables studied were BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-height index (WHI) and physical fitness (PF). Correlations were made through the Pearson or Spearman coefficient, and bivariate associations using Pearson's Chi-square and the Fisher's exact test, considering p<0...
November 2017: Salud Pública de México
Kyung Jae Lee, Byung Ho Choe, Jae Young Choe, Ju Young Kim, In Sook Jeong, Ju Whi Kim, Hye Ran Yang, Ju Yuong Chang, Kyung Mo Kim, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term efficacy of entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LAM) therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who had not received nucleoside analogue treatment. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, we included pediatric CHB patients younger than 20 years who received ETV or LAM treatment for at least 12 months and had no concomitant diseases. All of the patients were followed up every 1 to 3 months...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jin Young Chung, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon
The present study investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the dentate gyrus to elucidate the roles of COX‑2 in the hypothyroid hippocampus. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats by treating with 0.03% 2‑mercapto‑1‑methyl‑imidazole dissolved in drinking water for 5 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Hypothyroidism rats exhibited decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels in the serum, while the levels of thyroid‑stimulating hormone and the weight of thyroid glands were significantly higher in the hypothyroid rats compared with those in the vehicle‑treated group...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Katherine W Reeves, Michael Pennell, Randi E Foraker, Carolyn J Crandall, Marcia Stefanick, Electra D Paskett
PURPOSE: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are a common side effect of breast cancer treatment, yet modifiable factors that may predict VMS among breast cancer survivors are unknown. METHODS: We estimated multivariable-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (aOR, 95% CI) for predictors of VMS among 3595 breast cancer survivors enrolled in the Life and Longevity after Cancer (LILAC) study, an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). RESULTS: VMS post-diagnosis were reported by 790 (22...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Pinkal Desai, Robert Wallace, Matthew L Anderson, Barbara V Howard, Roberta M Ray, Chunyuan Wu, Monika Safford, Lisa W Martin, Thomas Rohan, JoAnn E Manson, Michael S Simon
BACKGROUND: Statins have anti proliferative activity in vitro against endometrial and ovarian cancer and can affect levels of reproductive hormones. We analyzed data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) to assess whether statins are associated with risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. METHODS: The WHI study included 161,808 postmenopausal women in which incident cases of endometrial (n = 1377) and ovarian cancer (n = 763) were identified over an average of 10...
February 5, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Atsushi Goto, Brian H Chen, Kei-Hang K Chan, Cathy Lee, Sarah C Nelson, Andrew Crenshaw, Ebony Bookman, Karen L Margolis, Michèle M Sale, Maggie C Y Ng, Alexander P Reiner, Simin Liu
BACKGROUND: Sex hormones are implicated in diabetes development. However, whether genetic variations in sex hormone pathways (SHPs) contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk remains to be delineated. We investigated the associations between genetic variations in all candidate genes in SHPs and T2D risk among a cohort of women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: We comprehensively examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within 30 kb upstream and 30 kb downstream of SHP genes in 8,180 African-American, 3,498 Hispanic-American, and 3,147 European-American women in the WHI...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Eileen E Reynolds, Carol Bates, Martha Richardson, Risa B Burns
Hormone therapy (HT) was widely prescribed in the 1980s and 1990s and has been controversial since the initial results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial in the early 2000s suggested that it increased risk for breast cancer and coronary heart disease and did not prolong life. However, more recent data and reexamination of the WHI results suggest that HT is safe and effective for many women when used around the time of menopause. Two experts debate the 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society, which recommends HT as first-line treatment of vasomotor symptoms, and apply it to the care of Ms...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
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