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Angus Deaton, Nancy Cartwright
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are increasingly popular in the social sciences, not only in medicine. We argue that the lay public, and sometimes researchers, put too much trust in RCTs over other methods of investigation. Contrary to frequent claims in the applied literature, randomization does not equalize everything other than the treatment in the treatment and control groups, it does not automatically deliver a precise estimate of the average treatment effect (ATE), and it does not relieve us of the need to think about (observed or unobserved) covariates...
December 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Kwang Yeon Kim, Ju Whi Kim, Kyung Jae Lee, Eunhyang Park, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Young Hun Choi, Woo Sun Kim, Jung Min Ko, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko
Patients with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency and glycogen storage disease (GSD) demonstrated hepatomegaly and dyslipidemia. In our case, a 6-year-old boy presented with hepatosplenomegaly. At 3 years of age, GSD had been diagnosed by liver biopsy at another hospital. He showed elevated serum liver enzymes and dyslipidemia. Liver biopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular fatty changes in hepatocytes, septal fibrosis and foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated numerous lysosomes that contained lipid material and intracytoplasmic cholesterol clefts...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Whi-An Kwon, Jae Whan Lee, Ho Kyung Seo, Tae Hoon Oh, Seung Chol Park, Hee Jong Jeong, Ill Young Seo
OBJECTIVE: Often a sick or an anxious person can experience pain or anxiety relief if another person holds his or her hand. In this study, we conducted investigations to determine whether hand-holding during cystoscopy decreases patient anxiety, pain, and dissatisfaction while at the same time increasing patient comfort and tolerance during the procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-six male patients who underwent flexible cystoscopy between November 2015 and March 2017 were randomized as follows: hand-holding (group I, n = 43) or non-hand-holding (group II, n = 43) during the procedure...
December 22, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
Dae Seong Kim, Whi Hyeong Lee, Myoung Woo Lee, Hyun Jin Park, In Keun Jang, Ji Won Lee, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Keon Hee Yoo
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known for their prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated immunosuppressive function but the precise molecular mechanisms underlying PGE2 biosynthesis during inflammation have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the involvement of PGE2 pathway members in PGE2 production by bone marrow (BM)-MSCs in response to inflammatory stimuli, and their role in immunosuppression mediated by BM-MSCs. We found that IFN-γ and TNF-α increased cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression but not that of prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), or PGE2 production...
December 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer, Cecilia Yee, Electra Paskett, Ann G Schwartz, Dorothy Lane, Nynikka R A Palmer, Cathryn H Bock, Rami Nassir, Michael S Simon
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. METHODS: Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009...
December 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
Mary C Playdon, Sally B Coburn, Steven C Moore, Louise A Brinton, Nicolas Wentzensen, Garnet Anderson, Robert Wallace, Roni T Falk, Ruth Pfeiffer, Xia Xu, Britton Trabert
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Potential mechanisms include altered oestrogen metabolism. Parent oestrogens metabolise into alternate pathways of oestrogen metabolites that may have variable effects on cancer pathogenesis. We examined associations of alcohol consumption with circulating oestrogen/oestrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-Observational Study (OS). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of prediagnosis ovarian/endometrial cancer case-control data within WHI-OS (N=1864)...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Soo-Yeon Kim, Whi-An Kwon, Seung-Pil Shin, Ho Kyung Seo, Soo-Jeong Lim, Yuh-Seog Jung, Hyo-Kyung Han, Kyung-Chae Jeong, Sang-Jin Lee
In a previous report, 3-aminopropyl functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate (aminoclay) improved adenovirus transduction efficiency by shielding the negative surface charges of adenovirus particles. The present study analyzed the physicochemical characterization of the electrostatic complex of adenoviruses with aminoclay and explored whether it could be utilized for enhancing tumor suppressive activity in the bladder. As a result of aminoclay-adenovirus nanobiohybridization, its transduction was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, increasing transgene expression in bladder cancer cells and in in vivo animal models...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Yue Yen Lee, Eric Fang, Yanyi Weng, Sashikumar Ganapathy
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Singapore involving children were evaluated, with particular focus on the epidemiology, surrounding circumstances and outcomes of these accidents. Key factors associated with worse prognosis were identified. We proposed some measures that may be implemented to reduce the frequency and severity of such accidents. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of RTAs involving children aged 0-16 years who presented to the Children's Emergency at KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, from January 2011 to June 2014...
December 7, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
David G Ashbrook, Megan K Mulligan, Robert W Williams
What was once expensive and revolutionary-full genome sequence-is now affordable and routine. Costs will continue to drop, opening up new frontiers in behavioral genetics. This shift in costs from the genome to the phenome is most notable in large clinical studies of behavior and associated diseases in cohorts that exceed hundreds of thousands of subjects. Examples include the Women's Health Initiative (, the Million Veterans Program (www. RESEARCH:, the 100,000 Genomes Project (genomicsengland...
November 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
M Kelleher
Has the state's manipulation of the NHS dental contract systems deliberately, or accidentally, had corrupting effects on the behaviours of some members of the dental profession? If the answer is 'possibly' or 'probably', then obvious questions that follow include, 'was this done deliberately' and if so, 'why'? Could this have been done for largely altruistic reasons, or was it done to achieve government control for minimum cost? Might this have been undertaken for political, financial or ideological reasons - regardless of any adverse longer term consequences for some patients or for some dental professionals? Might it have been done to take greater control of the dental profession on the grounds that all professions are a conspiracy against the laity, as the mildly paranoid George Bernard Shaw once alleged? Is it possible that some of this manipulation might have been done to help to disempower yet another profession, allegedly to 'modernise it', but perhaps to enslave it for its own reasons? Was this just another example of some statist politicians wanting to interfere in all aspects of UK society, regardless of their lack of specific understanding, or any proven expertise, in many areas? Could the state's manipulation of contracts and processes be regarded as an abuse of power by a virtual monopoly, which has been used to control a largely altruistic profession by imposing corrupting NHS dental contract systems with the most recent one involving 'units of dental activity' (UDAs)? Perhaps it was really about some politicians wanting ever more power, control or money - their usual drivers - with the dental and medical professions accidentally becoming casualties?...
November 24, 2017: British Dental Journal
N M Perttila, K H Pitkala, H Kautiainen, R Tilvis, T Stranberg
BACKGROUND: Frailty predisposes individuals to a variety of complications. However, there is no consensus on the definition of frailty. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether various frailty measures are equivalent in identifying the same individuals as being frail and whether the measures also predict similar outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Helsinki Businessmen Study cohort, which is a long-term observational study of men born in 1919-1934, was used as the population...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Hsiang-Ping Huang, Li-Fen Chao, Yu-Hsin Wang, Ying-Mei Liu, Lee-Fen Ni, Sui-Whi Jane
BACKGROUND: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is one of the evaluation strategies used to examine the clinical competence of nursing students. More attention needs to be paid to establishing an examination that is based on the standardized protocol and on reliability and validity. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to develop an OSCE that is based on a standardized protocol and to analyze the content validity and predictive validity, inter-rater consistency, internal consistency, item-to-total correlation, and the degree of discrimination and difficulty of this OSCE...
December 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Crystal D Grant, Nadereh Jafari, Lifang Hou, Yun Li, James D Stewart, Guosheng Zhang, Archana Lamichhane, JoAnn E Manson, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Karen N Conneely
DNA methylation (DNAm) has been found to show robust and widespread age-related changes across the genome. DNAm profiles from whole blood can be used to predict human aging rates with great accuracy. We sought to test whether DNAm-based predictions of age are related to phenotypes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the goal of identifying risk factors potentially mediated by DNAm. Our participants were 43 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. We obtained methylation data via the Illumina 450K Methylation array on whole blood samples from participants at three timepoints, covering on average 16 years per participant...
November 20, 2017: GeroScience
Yifan Jiang, Weijie Tian
The safety of progestogens as a class has drawn much attention after the publication of data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease. Depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and potency of action, progestogens have a divergent range of properties that may translate to very different clinical effects. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of varied progestogens in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), especially focusing on blood lipids, which are the most important parameters for assessing cardiovascular disease risk...
November 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Tasneem Siyam, Humirah Sultani, Sue Ross, Trish Chatterley, Nese Yuksel
OBJECTIVE: Decision-making during menopause (especially surgical menopause) can be complex given the variability in risk-benefit perceptions of menopausal treatments. Decision aid tools (DATs) help women participate in decision-making about options. Our objective is to identify and evaluate the content and development of DATs for managing menopause, with a special focus on surgical menopause. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, from inception to March 2017 for relevant records...
December 2017: Maturitas
Gerd B Müller
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2017.0015.].
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
Dahin Kim, Young Kuk Lee, Dongkyu Lee, Whi Dong Kim, Wan Ki Bae, Doh C Lee
To capitalize on shape- and structure-dependent properties of semiconductor nanorods (NRs), high-precision control and exquisite design of their growth are desired. Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE; E = S or Se) NRs are the most studied class of such, whose growth exhibits axial anisotropy, i.e., different growth rates along the opposite directions of {0001} planes. However, the mechanism behind asymmetric axial growth of NRs remains unclear because of the difficulty in instant analysis of growth surfaces. Here, we design colloidal dual-diameter semiconductor NRs (DDNRs) under the quantum confinement regime, which have two sections along the long axis with different diameters...
November 16, 2017: ACS Nano
Patricia Lavand'homme
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) has become a health priority and is scheduled to be included in the upcoming version of the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11). Recent studies on CPSP show unchanged prevalence despite progress made in fundamental research about underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, clinical research has allowed better understanding of some CPSP aspects such as the development of neuropathic CPSP. Actually, some improvements are ongoing such as a refined definition and the assessment of CPSP in vulnerable populations, for example, paediatric patients...
November 2017: British Journal of Pain
Therése Bielsten, Ingrid Hellström
This scoping review is an extended version of a narrative review of couple-centred interventions in dementia shared in part A and the previous publication in this edition. The rationale for expanding study A emerged through the fact that most dyadic interventions have samples consisting of a majority of couples. The exclusion of interventions with samples of mixed relationships in part A therefore contributed to a narrow picture of joint dyadic interventions for couples in which one partner has a dementia. The aim of this second review is to explore the 'what' (types of interventions) and the 'why' (objectives and outcome measures) of dyadic interventions in which sample consists of a majority of couples/spouses and in which people with dementia and caregivers jointly participate...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
Evan H Baugh, Hua Ke, Arnold J Levine, Richard A Bonneau, Chang S Chan
The p53 gene contains homozygous mutations in ~50-60% of human cancers. About 90% of these mutations encode missense mutant proteins that span ~190 different codons localized in the DNA-binding domain of the gene and protein. These mutations produce a protein with a reduced capacity to bind to a specific DNA sequence that regulates the p53 transcriptional pathway. Eight of these mutations are localized in codons that account for ~28% of the total p53 mutations and these alleles appear to be selected for preferentially in human cancers of many tissue types...
November 3, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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