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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159506/a-longitudinal-study-of-dna-methylation-as-a-potential-mediator-of-age-related-diabetes-risk
#1
Crystal D Grant, Nadereh Jafari, Lifang Hou, Yun Li, James D Stewart, Guosheng Zhang, Archana Lamichhane, JoAnn E Manson, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Karen N Conneely
DNA methylation (DNAm) has been found to show robust and widespread age-related changes across the genome. DNAm profiles from whole blood can be used to predict human aging rates with great accuracy. We sought to test whether DNAm-based predictions of age are related to phenotypes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the goal of identifying risk factors potentially mediated by DNAm. Our participants were 43 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. We obtained methylation data via the Illumina 450K Methylation array on whole blood samples from participants at three timepoints, covering on average 16 years per participant...
November 20, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157280/the-effects-of-progesterones-on-blood-lipids-in-hormone-replacement-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Yifan Jiang, Weijie Tian
The safety of progestogens as a class has drawn much attention after the publication of data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease. Depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and potency of action, progestogens have a divergent range of properties that may translate to very different clinical effects. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of varied progestogens in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), especially focusing on blood lipids, which are the most important parameters for assessing cardiovascular disease risk...
November 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150170/evaluating-the-content-and-development-of-decision-aid-tools-for-the-management-of-menopause-a-scoping-review
#3
REVIEW
Tasneem Siyam, Humirah Sultani, Sue Ross, Trish Chatterley, Nese Yuksel
OBJECTIVE: Decision-making during menopause (especially surgical menopause) can be complex given the variability in risk-benefit perceptions of menopausal treatments. Decision aid tools (DATs) help women participate in decision-making about options. Our objective is to identify and evaluate the content and development of DATs for managing menopause, with a special focus on surgical menopause. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, from inception to March 2017 for relevant records...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147560/correction-to-why-an-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-is-necessary
#4
Gerd B Müller
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2017.0015.].
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131591/colloidal-dual-diameter-and-core-position-controlled-core-shell-cadmium-chalcogenide-nanorods
#5
Dahin Kim, Young Kuk Lee, Dongkyu Lee, Whi Dong Kim, Wan Ki Bae, Doh C Lee
To capitalize on shape- and structure-dependent properties of semiconductor nanorods (NRs), high-precision control and exquisite design of their growth are desired. Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE; E = S or Se) NRs are the most studied class of such, whose growth exhibits axial anisotropy, i.e., different growth rates along the opposite directions of {0001} planes. However, the mechanism behind asymmetric axial growth of NRs remains unclear because of the difficulty in instant analysis of growth surfaces. Here, we design colloidal dual-diameter semiconductor NRs (DDNRs) under the quantum confinement regime, which have two sections along the long axis with different diameters...
November 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123659/-why-me-the-problem-of-chronic-pain-after-surgery
#6
Patricia Lavand'homme
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) has become a health priority and is scheduled to be included in the upcoming version of the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11). Recent studies on CPSP show unchanged prevalence despite progress made in fundamental research about underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, clinical research has allowed better understanding of some CPSP aspects such as the development of neuropathic CPSP. Actually, some improvements are ongoing such as a refined definition and the assessment of CPSP in vulnerable populations, for example, paediatric patients...
November 2017: British Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105499/an-extended-review-of-couple-centred-interventions-in-dementia-exploring-the-what-and-why-part-b
#7
Therése Bielsten, Ingrid Hellström
This scoping review is an extended version of a narrative review of couple-centred interventions in dementia shared in part A and the previous publication in this edition. The rationale for expanding study A emerged through the fact that most dyadic interventions have samples consisting of a majority of couples. The exclusion of interventions with samples of mixed relationships in part A therefore contributed to a narrow picture of joint dyadic interventions for couples in which one partner has a dementia. The aim of this second review is to explore the 'what' (types of interventions) and the 'why' (objectives and outcome measures) of dyadic interventions in which sample consists of a majority of couples/spouses and in which people with dementia and caregivers jointly participate...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099487/why-are-there-hotspot-mutations-in-the-tp53-gene-in-human-cancers
#8
REVIEW
Evan H Baugh, Hua Ke, Arnold J Levine, Richard A Bonneau, Chang S Chan
The p53 gene contains homozygous mutations in ~50-60% of human cancers. About 90% of these mutations encode missense mutant proteins that span ~190 different codons localized in the DNA-binding domain of the gene and protein. These mutations produce a protein with a reduced capacity to bind to a specific DNA sequence that regulates the p53 transcriptional pathway. Eight of these mutations are localized in codons that account for ~28% of the total p53 mutations and these alleles appear to be selected for preferentially in human cancers of many tissue types...
November 3, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096533/a-review-of-couple-centred-interventions-in-dementia-exploring-the-what-and-why-part-a
#9
Therése Bielsten, Ingrid Hellström
Introduction Symptoms of dementia bring about challenges to couples' relationships. Relationship-focused support has been highlighted to be of significant importance for sustained relationship quality and to reduce the negative impact of dementia on the dyadic relationship. This review aimed to explore the 'what' and 'why' of interventions aimed at couples where one partner has a diagnosis of dementia and in which the couple jointly participate. Method Searches were performed in Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from January 2000 to August 2017...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079563/coronary-artery-calcification-cac-and-post-trial-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-within-the-women-s-health-initiative-whi-estrogen-alone-trial
#10
Indu G Poornima, Rachel H Mackey, Matthew A Allison, JoAnn E Manson, J Jeffrey Carr, Michael J LaMonte, Yuefang Chang, Lewis H Kuller
BACKGROUND: Among women aged 50 to 59 years at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Estrogen-Alone (E-Alone) trial, randomization to conjugated equine estrogen-alone versus placebo was associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction and mortality, and, in an ancillary study, the WHI-CACS (WHI Coronary Artery Calcification Study) with lower CAC, measured by cardiac computed tomography ≈8.7 years after baseline randomization. We hypothesized that higher CAC would be related to post-trial coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and total mortality, independent of baseline randomization or risk factors...
October 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075781/association-of-cataract-surgery-with-mortality-in-older-women-findings-from-the-women-s-health-initiative
#11
Victoria L Tseng, Rowan T Chlebowski, Fei Yu, Jane A Cauley, Wenjun Li, Fridtjof Thomas, Beth A Virnig, Anne L Coleman
Importance: Previous studies have suggested an association between cataract surgery and decreased risk for all-cause mortality potentially through a mechanism of improved health status and functional independence, but the association between cataract surgery and cause-specific mortality has not been previously studied and is not well understood. Objective: To examine the association between cataract surgery and total and cause-specific mortality in older women with cataract...
October 26, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057667/no-increased-death-toll-for-long-term-menopausal-hormone-therapy
#12
A Pines
It took many years since the initial publication of data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study until further analyses and additional accumulated clinical information allowed realization of the full scope of its results. At first, the focus was on morbidity, mainly the slightly higher incidence of cardiovascular events and breast cancer cases among postmenopausal hormone users. Then, the age factor became evident, and the good safety profile of hormone therapy in healthy women initiating treatment near menopause and using it for up to 10 years eased the previous concerns...
October 23, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049937/risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-among-women-with-endometrial-cancer-compared-to-cancer-free-women-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#13
Ashley S Felix, Amy Lehman, Randi E Foraker, Michelle J Naughton, Julie K Bower, Lewis Kuller, Gloria E Sarto, Marcia L Stefanick, Linda Van Horn, Rebecca D Jackson, Electra D Paskett
BACKGROUND: The majority of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer (EC) have low cancer-specific mortality; however, a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors places EC patients at high risk of developing CVD. In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), we assessed the hypothesis that CVD risk was higher among women who developed EC compared with women who did not develop EC. METHODS: We compared the incidence of fatal and non-fatal CVD events among 1,179 women who developed Type I EC, 211 women who developed Type II EC, and 92,217 women who did not develop EC...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028233/ethics-in-public-health-call-for-shared-moral-public-health-literacy
#14
Els L M Maeckelberghe, Peter Schröder-Bäck
Public Health (PH) in Europe has become much more vocal about its moral understandings since 1992. The rising awareness that PH issues were inseparable from issues of human rights and social justice almost self-evidently directed the agenda of EUPHA and the European Public Health (EPH)-conferences. Problems of cultural and behavioural change, and environmental issues on a global scale were also added. The Section Ethics in PH invited the EPH community to join in 'arm chair thinking': coming together at conferences not only to share the 'how' and 'what' of PH research, practices and policies but also the 'why'...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026328/phosphorylation-of-stat-proteins-by-recombinant-human-il-6-in-immortalized-human-chondrocyte-cell-lines-t-c28a2-and-c28-i2
#15
Evan C Meszaros, Charles J Malemud
Two immortalized human juvenile chondrocyte cell lines, T/C28a2 and C28/I2, were employed to determine the extent to which recombinant human (rh) IL-6, a known cytokine activator of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in many cell types, caused STAT proteins to be phosphorylated. The results showed that STAT3 was constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of rhIL-6 in T/C28a2 chondrocytes. However, C28/I2 chondrocytes treated with rhIL-6 caused STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 to be phosphorylated without altering total unphosphorylated STAT proteins...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968302/nams-3rd-utian-translational-science-symposium-october-2016-orlando-florida-a-conversation-about-hormone-therapy-is-there-an-appropriate-dose-route-and-duration-of-use
#16
(no author information available yet)
The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) held the 3rd Utian Translational Symposium on October 4, 2016, in Orlando, Florida, to answer questions about the benefits and risks of hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women. This report is a record of the proceedings of that symposium.The maxim about HT for the past 15 years since the publication of the initial results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) has been to prescribe the "lowest dose for the shortest period of time." With new clinical trials, observational data, and further analysis of the WHI and the cumulative 13 years' follow-up, it was time to hold a conversation about the state of the evidence and recommendations for HT dose, route, and duration of use...
November 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960244/case-only-approach-to-identifying-markers-predicting-treatment-effects-on-the-relative-risk-scale
#17
James Y Dai, C Jason Liang, Michael LeBlanc, Ross L Prentice, Holly Janes
Retrospectively measuring markers on stored baseline samples from participants in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may provide high quality evidence as to the value of the markers for treatment selection. Originally developed for approximating gene-environment interactions in the odds ratio scale, the case-only method has recently been advocated for assessing gene-treatment interactions on rare disease endpoints in randomized clinical trials. In this article, the case-only approach is shown to provide a consistent and efficient estimator of marker by treatment interactions and marker-specific treatment effects on the relative risk scale...
September 28, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960230/risk-of-fracture-in-women-with-sarcopenia-low-bone-mass-or-both
#18
Rebekah Harris, Yuefang Chang, Kristen Beavers, Deepika Laddu-Patel, Jennifer Bea, Karen Johnson, Meryl LeBoff, Catherine Womack, Robert Wallace, Wenjun Li, Carolyn Crandall, Jane Cauley
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether women with sarcopenia and low bone mineral density (BMD) are at greater risk of clinical fractures than those with sarcopenia or low BMD alone. DESIGN: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational and Clinical trials. SETTING: Three U.S. clinical centers (Pittsburgh, PA; Birmingham, AL; Phoenix/Tucson, AZ). PARTICIPANTS: Women (mean age 63.3 ± 0.07) with BMD measurements (N = 10,937)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960044/an-outbreak-of-measles-in-a-university-in-korea-2014
#19
Young June Choe, Young Joon Park, Ju Whi Kim, Hye Eun Eom, Ok Park, Myoung Don Oh, Jong Koo Lee
Measles has been declared eliminated from the Korea since 2006. In April 2014, a measles outbreak occurred at a University in Seoul. A total of 85 measles cases were identified. In order to estimate vaccine effectiveness of measles vaccine, we reviewed the vaccination records of the university students. The vaccine effectiveness of two doses of measles containing vaccine was 60.0% (95% CI, 38.2-74.1; P < 0.05). Transmission was interrupted after the introduction of outbreak-response immunization. The outbreak shows that pockets of under-immunity among college students may have facilitated the disease transmission despite the high 2-dose vaccination coverage in the community...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938710/hormone-therapy-use-and-risk-of-chronic-disease-in-the-nurses-health-study-a-comparative-analysis-with-the-women-s-health-initiative
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Francine Grodstein, Bernard A Rosner, Meir J Stampfer, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson
Observational studies and randomized controlled trials of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and chronic disease risk appear to have divergent results for cardiovascular disease. However, differences may be related to a modifying effect of age, time since menopause, and HT formulation. In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (enrolling during 1980-1994 and following participants until 2002), we investigated associations between the use of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg/day) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (<10 mg/day) or oral CEE alone and cardiovascular disease, cancer, all-cause mortality, and other major endpoints among postmenopausal women, aged 50-79 years at HT initiation...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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