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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054961/cytoplasmic-transport-and-nuclear-import-of-plasmid-dna
#1
Haiqing Bai, Gillian M Schiralli Lester, Laura C Petishnok, David A Dean
Productive transfection and gene transfer requires not simply entry of DNA into cells and subsequent transcription from an appropriate promoter, but also a number of intracellular events that allow the DNA to move from the extracellular surface of the cell into and through the cytoplasm, and ultimately across the nuclear envelope and into the nucleus before any transcription can initiate. Immediately upon entry into the cytoplasm, naked DNA, either delivered through physical techniques or after disassembly of DNA-carrier complexes, associates with a large number of cellular proteins that mediate subsequent interactions with the microtubule network for movement towards the microtubule organizing center and the nuclear envelope...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040431/prevention-of-breast-cancer-induced-osteolytic-bone-resorption-by-benzyl-isothiocyanate
#2
Subrata K Pore, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Joseph D Latoche, Carolyn J Anderson, Yongli Shuai, Shivendra V Singh
Osteolytic bone resorption is the primary cause of pain and suffering (e.g., pathological bone fracture) in women with metastatic breast cancer. The current standard of care for patients with bone metastasis for reducing the incidence of skeletal complications includes bisphosphonates and a humanized antibody (denosumab). However, a subset of patients on these therapies still develops new bone metastasis or experience adverse effects. Moreover, some bisphosphonates have poor oral bioavailability. Therefore, orally-bioavailable and non-toxic inhibitors of breast cancer-induced osteolytic bone resorption are still clinically desirable...
October 11, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035313/microstructural-modification-and-characterization-of-sericite
#3
Yu Liang, Hao Ding, Sijia Sun, Ying Chen
Activated sericite was prepared by thermal modification, acid activation and sodium modification, and it was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), N₂ adsorption test, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the crystallinity of raw sericite decreased after thermal modification; the pores with sizes between 5 nm to 10 nm of thermal-modified sericite have collapsed and the surface area increased after thermal modification...
October 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033912/the-infectious-basis-of-acpa-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
REVIEW
Lazaros I Sakkas, Dimitrios Daoussis, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Dimitrios P Bogdanos
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (HLA-DRB1SE) and anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies (ACPAs). ACPAs precedes the onset of clinical and subclinical RA. There are strong data for three infectious agents as autoimmunity triggers in RA, namely Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans causes of periodontal disease (PD), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). P. gingivalis expresses arginine gingipains, that cleave proteins at the arginine residues, and peptidyl arginine deiminase (PPAD), which citrullinates arginine residues of proteins, thus forming neoantigens that lead to ACPA production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033133/natively-unfolded-fg-repeats-stabilize-the-structure-of-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#5
Evgeny Onischenko, Jeffrey H Tang, Kasper R Andersen, Kevin E Knockenhauer, Pascal Vallotton, Carina P Derrer, Annemarie Kralt, Christopher F Mugler, Leon Y Chan, Thomas U Schwartz, Karsten Weis
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are ∼100 MDa transport channels assembled from multiple copies of ∼30 nucleoporins (Nups). One-third of these Nups contain phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-rich repeats, forming a diffusion barrier, which is selectively permeable for nuclear transport receptors that interact with these repeats. Here, we identify an additional function of FG repeats in the structure and biogenesis of the yeast NPC. We demonstrate that GLFG-containing FG repeats directly bind to multiple scaffold Nups in vitro and act as NPC-targeting determinants in vivo...
October 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024920/chitosan-hydroxyapatite-ha-hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-hpmc-spongy-scaffolds-synthesis-and-evaluation-as-potential-alveolar-bone-substitutes
#6
Haffsah Iqbal, Moazzam Ali, Rabia Zeeshan, Zeeshan Mutahir, Farasat Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar Hayat Nawaz, Lubna Shahzadi, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Muhammad Yar, Shifang Luan, Ather Farooq Khan, Ihtesham-Ur Rehman
Alveolar bone loss is associated with infections and its augmentation is a pre-requisite for the success of dental implants. In present study, we aim to develop and evaluate novel freeze dried doxycycline loaded chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) spongy scaffolds where hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) was added as a crosslinker. Scaffolds displayed compressive strength of 14MPa/cm(3) and 0.34 as elastic response. The interconnected pore diameter was 41-273μm, favorably provided the template supporting cells and transport...
October 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024655/lost-in-transportation-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-defects-in-als-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Hong Joo Kim, J Paul Taylor
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The hallmark pathological feature in most cases of ALS is nuclear depletion and cytoplasmic accumulation of the protein TDP-43 in degenerating neurons. Consistent with this pattern of intracellular protein redistribution, impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking has emerged as a mechanism contributing to ALS pathology. Dysfunction in nucleocytoplasmic transport is also an emerging theme in physiological aging and other related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024652/nuclear-pore-protein-meets-transcription-factor-in-neural-fate
#8
REVIEW
Taro Kitazawa, Filippo M Rijli
How nuclear architecture contributes to transcriptional regulation in neural progenitor cells (NeuPCs) is poorly understood. A study by Toda et al. (2017) now shows that the nuclear pore protein Nup153 associates with the Sox2 transcription factor in the regulation of NeuPC maintenance and neural fate.
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022974/the-mechanism-of-cesium-ions-immobilization-in-the-nanometer-channel-of-calcium-silicate-hydrate-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#9
Jinyang Jiang, Pan Wang, Dongshuai Hou
The cement-based matrices are preferred candidates in disposing nuclear waste due to the immobilization role of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel. To better understand the immobilization mechanism of cementitious materials, molecular dynamics was utilized to investigate the intensity distribution, local structure and dynamics properties of Cs(+) ions in the vicinity of the calcium silicate surface. The strong inner-sphere adsorbed cesium ions were restricted by coordinated oxygen atoms in bridging and pair silicate tetrahedron and water molecules were fixed in the silicate channel by H-bonds network...
October 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991466/enantioselective-recognition-of-ammonium-carbamates-in-a-chiral-metal-organic-framework
#10
Jeffrey D Martell, Leo B Porter-Zasada, Alexander C Forse, Rebecca L Siegelman, Miguel I Gonzalez, Julia Oktawiec, Tomce Runcevski, Jiawei Xu, Monika Srebro-Hooper, Phillip J Milner, Kristen A Colwell, Jochen Autschbach, Jeffrey A Reimer, Jeffrey R Long
Chiral metal-organic frameworks have attracted interest for enantioselective separations and catalysis because of their high crystallinity and pores with tunable shapes, sizes, and chemical environments. Chiral frameworks of the type M2(dobpdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; dobpdc4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) seem particularly promising for potential applications, owing to their excellent stability, high internal surface areas, and the strongly polarizing open metal coordination sites within the channels, but to date these materials have only been isolated in racemic form...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979098/metal-organic-frameworks-as-a-drug-delivery-system-for-flurbiprofen
#11
Muder Al Haydar, Hussein Rasool Abid, Bruce Sunderland, Shaobin Wang
BACKGROUND: Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted more attention in the last decade because of a suitable pore size, large surface area, and high pore volume. Developing biocompatible MOFs such as the MIL family as a drug delivery system is possible. PURPOSE: Flurbiprofen (FBP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, is practically insoluble in aqueous solution, and, therefore, needs suitable drug delivery systems. Different biocompatible MOFs such as Ca-MOF and Fe-MILs (53, 100, and 101) were synthesized and employed for FBP delivery...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974540/the-fission-yeast-nucleoporin-alm1-is-required-for-proteasomal-degradation-of-kinetochore-components
#12
Silvia Salas-Pino, Paola Gallardo, Ramón R Barrales, Sigurd Braun, Rafael R Daga
Kinetochores (KTs) are large multiprotein complexes that constitute the interface between centromeric chromatin and the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation. In spite of their essential role, little is known about how centromeres and KTs are assembled and how their precise stoichiometry is regulated. In this study, we show that the nuclear pore basket component Alm1 is required to maintain both the proteasome and its anchor, Cut8, at the nuclear envelope, which in turn regulates proteostasis of certain inner KT components...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974036/protoparvovirus-knocking-at-the-nuclear-door
#13
REVIEW
Elina Mäntylä, Michael Kann, Maija Vihinen-Ranta
Protoparvoviruses target the nucleus due to their dependence on the cellular reproduction machinery during the replication and expression of their single-stranded DNA genome. In recent years, our understanding of the multistep process of the capsid nuclear import has improved, and led to the discovery of unique viral nuclear entry strategies. Preceded by endosomal transport, endosomal escape and microtubule-mediated movement to the vicinity of the nuclear envelope, the protoparvoviruses interact with the nuclear pore complexes...
October 2, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973905/physical-proximity-of-chromatin-to-nuclear-pores-prevents-harmful-r-loop-accumulation-contributing-to-maintain-genome-stability
#14
Francisco García-Benítez, Hélène Gaillard, Andrés Aguilera
During transcription, the mRNA may hybridize with DNA, forming an R loop, which can be physiological or pathological, constituting in this case a source of genomic instability. To understand the mechanism by which eukaryotic cells prevent harmful R loops, we used human activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to identify genes preventing R loops. A screening of 400 Saccharomyces cerevisiae selected strains deleted in nuclear genes revealed that cells lacking the Mlp1/2 nuclear basket proteins show AID-dependent genomic instability and replication defects that were suppressed by RNase H1 overexpression...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967455/modelling-and-upscaling-of-transport-in-carbonates-during-dissolution-validation-and-calibration-with-nmr-experiments
#15
Bagus P Muljadi, Branko Bijeljic, Martin J Blunt, Adam Colbourne, Andy J Sederman, Mick D Mantle, Lynn F Gladden
We present an experimental and numerical study of transport in carbonates during dissolution and its upscaling from the pore (∼μm) to core (∼cm) scale. For the experimental part, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to probe molecular displacements (propagators) of an aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution through a Ketton limestone core. A series of propagator profiles are obtained at a large number of spatial points along the core at multiple time-steps during dissolution. For the numerical part, first, the transport model-a particle-tracking method based on Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) by Rhodes et al...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957131/3d-point-scanning-super-resolution-microscopy-via-polarization-modulation
#16
Cheng Zheng, Guangyuan Zhao, Cuifang Kuang, Xu Liu
We report a new approach to achieving super-resolution in point-scanning microscopy through polarization modulation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By modulating linearly polarized incident light, the emission extent of fluorescent dyes changes periodically, adding sparsity in each recording, which contributes to the super-resolution reconstruction. To recover the super-resolution result, a sparse penalty-based deconvolution method is implemented onto the polarization-modulated dataset subsequently...
October 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954740/release-of-condensin-from-mitotic-chromosomes-requires-the-ran-gtp-gradient-in-the-reorganized-nucleus
#17
Keita Aoki, Hironori Niki
After mitosis, nuclear reorganization occurs together with decondensation of mitotic chromosomes and reformation of the nuclear envelope, thereby restoring the Ran-GTP gradient between nucleus and cytoplasm. The Ran-GTP gradient is dependent on Pim1/RCC1. Interestingly, a defect in Pim1/RCC1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe causes post-mitotic condensation of chromatin, namely hyper-condensation, suggesting a relationship between the Ran-GTP gradient and chromosome decondensation. However, how Ran-GTP interacts with chromosome decondensation is unresolved...
September 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949296/investigating-molecular-crowding-within-nuclear-pores-using-polarization-palm
#18
Guo Fu, Li-Chun Tu, Anton Zilman, Siegfried M Musser
The key component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) controlling permeability, selectivity, and the speed of nucleocytoplasmic transport is an assembly of natively unfolded polypeptides, which contain phenylalanine-glycine (FG) binding sites for nuclear transport receptors. The architecture and dynamics of the FG-network have been refractory to characterization due to the paucity of experimental methods able to probe the mobility and density of the FG-polypeptides and embedded macromolecules within intact NPCs...
September 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937637/adsorption-mechanisms-of-dodecylbenzene-sulfonic-acid-by-corn-straw-and-poplar-leaf-biochars
#19
Nan Zhao, Xixiang Yang, Jing Zhang, Ling Zhu, Yizhong Lv
Biochar is an eco-friendly, renewable, and cost-effective material that can be used as an adsorbent for the remediation of contaminated environments. In this paper, two types of biochar were prepared through corn straw and poplar leaf pyrolysis at 300 °C and 700 °C (C300, C700, P300, P700). Brunaer-Emmett-Teller N₂ surface area, scanning electron microscope, elemental analysis, and infrared spectra were used to characterize their structures. These biochars were then used as adsorbents for the adsorption of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA)...
September 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934593/big-lessons-from-little-yeast-budding-and-fission-yeast-centrosome-structure-duplication-and-function
#20
Ann M Cavanaugh, Sue L Jaspersen
Centrosomes are a functionally conserved feature of eukaryotic cells that play an important role in cell division. The conserved γ-tubulin complex organizes spindle and astral microtubules, which, in turn, separate replicated chromosomes accurately into daughter cells. Like DNA, centrosomes are duplicated once each cell cycle. Although in some cell types it is possible for cell division to occur in the absence of centrosomes, these divisions typically result in defects in chromosome number and stability. In singlecelled organisms such as fungi, centrosomes [known as spindle pole bodies (SPBs)] are essential for cell division...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
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