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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088069/nuclear-pore-complexes-and-regulation-of-gene-expression
#1
REVIEW
Marcela Raices, Maximiliano A D'Angelo
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), are large multiprotein channels that penetrate the nuclear envelope connecting the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Accumulating evidence shows that besides their main role in regulating the exchange of molecules between these two compartments, NPCs and their components also play important transport-independent roles, including gene expression regulation, chromatin organization, DNA repair, RNA processing and quality control, and cell cycle control. Here, we will describe the recent findings about the role of these structures in the regulation of gene expression...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074026/promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-pml-controls-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#2
David Ribet, Valérie Lallemand-Breitenbach, Omar Ferhi, Marie-Anne Nahori, Hugo Varet, Hugues de Thé, Pascale Cossart
: The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is the main organizer of stress-responsive subnuclear structures called PML nuclear bodies. These structures recruit multiple interactors and modulate their abundance or their posttranslational modifications, notably by the SUMO ubiquitin-like modifiers. The involvement of PML in antiviral responses is well established. In contrast, the role of PML in bacterial infection remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that PML restricts infection by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes but not by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071978/nup82-functions-redundantly-with-nup136-in-a-salicylic-acid-dependent-defense-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Kentaro Tamura, Yoichiro Fukao, Noriyuki Hatsugai, Fumiaki Katagiri, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) comprises more than 30 nucleoporins (Nups). NPC mediates macromolecular trafficking between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, but specific roles of individual Nups are poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that the novel nucleoporin unique to angiosperm plants (designated as Nup82) functions in a salicylic acid-dependent defense in a redundant manner with Nup136, which is a component of the nuclear basket in the NPC. Arabidopsis thaliana Nup82 had a similar amino acid sequence to the N-terminal half of Nup136 and a Nup82-GFP fusion was localized on the nuclear envelope...
January 10, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069952/toxic-prn-poly-dipeptides-encoded-by-the-c9orf72-repeat-expansion-block-nuclear-import-and-export
#4
Kevin Y Shi, Eiichiro Mori, Zehra F Nizami, Yi Lin, Masato Kato, Siheng Xiang, Leeju C Wu, Ming Ding, Yonghao Yu, Joseph G Gall, Steven L McKnight
The toxic proline:arginine (PRn) poly-dipeptide encoded by the (GGGGCC)n repeat expansion in the C9orf72 form of heritable amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) binds to the central channel of the nuclear pore and inhibits the movement of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. The PRn poly-dipeptide binds to polymeric forms of the phenylalanine:glycine (FG) repeat domain, which is shared by several proteins of the nuclear pore complex, including those in the central channel. A method of chemical footprinting was used to characterize labile, cross-β polymers formed from the FG domain of the Nup54 protein...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069555/self-assembled-protein-nanocarrier-for-intracellular-delivery-of-antibody
#5
Sung In Lim, Cyril I Lukianov, Julie A Champion
Despite the great potential of antibodies as intracellular therapeutics, there is a significant, unmet challenge in delivering sufficient amounts of folded antibodies inside cells. We describe an all-protein self-assembled nanocarrier capable of delivering functional antibodies to the cytosol. By combining an α-helical peptide that self-assembles into a hexameric coiled-coil bundle and an Fc-binding Protein A fragment, we generated the Hex nanocarrier that is efficiently internalized by cells without cytotoxicity...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068389/cooperative-interactions-between-different-classes-of-disordered-proteins-play-a-functional-role-in-the-nuclear-pore-complex-of-baker-s-yeast
#6
David Ando, Ajay Gopinathan
Nucleocytoplasmic transport is highly selective, efficient, and is regulated by a poorly understood mechanism involving hundreds of disordered FG nucleoporin proteins (FG nups) lining the inside wall of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Previous research has concluded that FG nups in Baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) are present in a bimodal distribution, with the "Forest Model" classifying FG nups as either di-block polymer like "trees" or single-block polymer like "shrubs". Using a combination of coarse-grained modeling and polymer brush modeling, the function of the di-block FG nups has previously been hypothesized in the Di-block Copolymer Brush Gate (DCBG) model to form a higher-order polymer brush architecture which can open and close to regulate transport across the NPC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063950/dietary-alpha-linolenic-acid-linoleic-acid-ratios-modulate-immune-response-physical-barrier-and-related-signaling-molecules-mrna-expression-in-the-gills-of-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#7
Yun-Yun Zeng, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to explore the possible effects of dietary ALA/LNA ratios on the gill immunity, tight junction and antioxidant capacity, and the related signaling factor mRNA levels of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets with different ALA/LNA ratios (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days. The present results showed that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly enhanced lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 contents, promoted mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin and liver expression antimicrobial peptide-2), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and inhibitor protein κBα, whereas suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor a and interferon γ2), and signal molecules (IκB kinase β, IκB kines γ and nuclear factor κB p65) mRNA levels in the gill, indicating that optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio improve gill immunity of juvenile fish...
January 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062321/tom9-2-is-a-calmodulin-binding-protein-critical-for-tom-complex-assembly-but-not-for-mitochondrial-protein-import-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Nargis Parvin, Chris Carrie, Isabelle Pabst, Antonia Läßer, Debabrata Laha, Melanie Paul, Peter Geigenberger, Ralf Heermann, Kirsten Jung, Ute C Vothknecht, Fatima Chigri
The translocon on the outer membrane of mitochondria (TOM) facilitates import of nuclear encoded proteins. The principal machinery seems conserved in eukaryotes, however, divergence in composition and structure of TOM components has been observed between mammals, yeast and plants. TOM9, the plant homologue of yeast Tom22, is significantly smaller due to a truncation in the cytosolic receptor domain and its precise function is not understood. Here we provide evidences that TOM9.2 from Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the formation of the mature TOM complex, most likely by influencing the assembly of the pore-forming subunit TOM40...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059701/structural-and-biochemical-analyses-of-the-dead-box-atpase-sub2-in-association-with-tho-or-yra1
#9
Yi Ren, Philip Schmiege, Günter Blobel
mRNA is cotranscrptionally processed and packaged into messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in the nucleus. Prior to export through the nuclear pore, mRNPs undergo several obligatory remodeling reactions. In yeast, one of these reactions involves loading of the mRNA-binding protein Yra1 by the DEAD-box ATPase Sub2 as assisted by the hetero-pentameric THO complex. To obtain molecular insights into reaction mechanisms, we determined crystal structures of two relevant complexes: a THO hetero-pentamer bound to Sub2 at 6...
January 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057575/the-preparation-of-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-nhs-ester-as-a-natural-cross-linking-agent-of-collagen
#10
Junhui Yang, Cuicui Ding, Liulian Huang, Min Zhang, Lihui Chen
γ-PGA-NHS ester, which was prepared using poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as the raw materials, was synthesized to be a novel cross-linker of collagen. Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis suggested that the products displayed the characteristic absorption peak of ester. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that the esterification degree of γ-PGA-NHS ester was increased with the increase of NHS. Modified collagen was prepared and characterized. The results of circular dichroism analysis indicated modified collagen retained the triple helix structure of natural collagen...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057257/have-nec-coat-will-travel-structural-basis-of-membrane-budding-during-nuclear-egress-in-herpesviruses
#11
J M Bigalke, E E Heldwein
Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054750/somatic-med12-nonsense-mutation-escapes-mrna-decay-and-reveals-a-motif-required-for-nuclear-entry
#12
Tuomas Heikkinen, Kati Kämpjärvi, Salla Keskitalo, Pernilla von Nandelstadh, Xiaonan Liu, Ville Rantanen, Esa Pitkänen, Matias Kinnunen, Heikki Kuusanmäki, Mika Kontro, Mikko Turunen, Netta Mäkinen, Jussi Taipale, Caroline Heckman, Kaisa Lehti, Satu Mustjoki, Markku Varjosalo, Pia Vahteristo
MED12 is a key component of the transcription-regulating Mediator complex. Specific missense and in-frame insertion/deletion mutations in exons 1 and 2 have been identified in uterine leiomyomas, breast tumors, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here, we characterize the first MED12 5' end nonsense mutation (c.97G>T, p.E33X) identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and show that it escapes nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) by using an alternative translation initiation site. The resulting N-terminally truncated protein is unable to enter the nucleus due to the lack of identified nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
January 5, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049772/placing-the-nuclear-pore-in-the-metformin-mechanism-of-action
#13
Nancy R Gough
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045133/calpain-dependent-disruption-of-nucleo-cytoplasmic-transport-in-als-motor-neurons
#14
Takenari Yamashita, Hitoshi Aizawa, Sayaka Teramoto, Megumi Akamatsu, Shin Kwak
Nuclear dysfunction in motor neurons has been hypothesized to be a principal cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is disrupted in dying motor neurons in a mechanistic ALS mouse model (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) conditional knockout (AR2) mice) and in ALS patients. We showed that nucleoporins (Nups) that constituted the NPC were cleaved by activated calpain via a Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated mechanism in dying motor neurons lacking ADAR2 expression in AR2 mice...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045044/in-situ-heavy-ion-irradiation-studies-of-nanopore-shrinkage-and-enhanced-radiation-tolerance-of-nanoporous-au
#15
Jin Li, C Fan, J Ding, S Xue, Y Chen, Q Li, H Wang, X Zhang
High energy particle radiations induce severe microstructural damage in metallic materials. Nanoporous materials with a giant surface-to-volume ratio may alleviate radiation damage in irradiated metallic materials as free surface are defect sinks. Here we show, by using in situ Kr ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope at room temperature, that nanoporous Au indeed has significantly improved radiation tolerance comparing with coarse-grained, fully dense Au. In situ studies show that nanopores can absorb and eliminate a large number of radiation-induced defect clusters...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043007/molecular-and-morphological-investigations-of-the-stauros-bearing-raphid-pennate-diatoms-bacillariophyceae-craspedostauros-e-j-cox-and-staurotropis-t-b-b-paddock-and-their-relationship-to-the-rest-of-the-mastogloiales
#16
Matt P Ashworth, Christopher S Lobban, Andrzej Witkowski, Edward C Theriot, Meeshal J Sabir, Mohammad N Baeshen, Nahid H Hajarah, Nabih A Baeshen, Jamal S Sabir, Robert K Jansen
Several lineages of raphe-bearing diatoms possess a "stauros," which is a transverse, usually thickened area free of pores across the center of the valve. It has been suggested that this structure has evolved several times across the raphid diatoms, but we have noticed similarities beyond the stauros between two marine genera-Craspedostauros and Staurotropis-in the structure of their pore occlusions. We have isolated, cultured and extracted DNA from several strains of both genera to infer the phylogenetic relationship between these taxa, as well as test the suggested relationship of Craspedostauros to Achnanthes and Mastogloia based on plastid morphology...
November 17, 2016: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039207/nup358-binds-to-ago-proteins-through-its-sumo-interacting-motifs-and-promotes-the-association-of-target-mrna-with-mirisc
#17
Manas Ranjan Sahoo, Swati Gaikwad, Deepak Khuperkar, Maitreyi Ashok, Mary Helen, Santosh Kumar Yadav, Aditi Singh, Indrasen Magre, Prachi Deshmukh, Supriya Dhanvijay, Pabitra Kumar Sahoo, Yogendra Ramtirtha, Mallur Srivatsan Madhusudhan, Pananghat Gayathri, Vasudevan Seshadri, Jomon Joseph
MicroRNA (miRNA)-guided mRNA repression, mediated by the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), is an important component of post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, how miRISC identifies the target mRNA in vivo is not well understood. Here, we show that the nucleoporin Nup358 plays an important role in this process. Nup358 localizes to the nuclear pore complex and to the cytoplasmic annulate lamellae (AL), and these structures dynamically associate with two mRNP granules: processing bodies (P bodies) and stress granules (SGs)...
December 30, 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035044/a-role-for-gle1-a-regulator-of-dead-box-rna-helicases-at-centrosomes-and-basal-bodies
#18
Li-En Jao, Abdalla Akef, Susan R Wente
Control of organellar assembly and function is critical to eukaryotic homeostasis and survival. Gle1 is a highly conserved regulator of RNA-dependent DEAD-box ATPase proteins, with critical roles in both mRNA export and translation. In addition to its well-defined interaction with nuclear pore complexes, here we find that Gle1 is enriched at the centrosome and basal body. Gle1 assembles into the toroid-shaped pericentriolar material around the mother centriole. Reduced Gle1 levels are correlated with decreased pericentrin localization at the centrosome and microtubule organization defects...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033038/mgo3-and-gip1-act-synergistically-for-the-maintenance-of-centromeric-cohesion
#19
Morgane Batzenschlager, Anne-Catherine Schmit, Etienne Herzog, Joerg Fuchs, Veit Schubert, Guy Houlné, Marie-Edith Chabouté
The control of genomic maintenance during S phase is crucial in eukaryotes. It involves the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion, ensuring faithful chromosome segregation, as well as proper DNA replication and repair to preserve genetic information. In animals, nuclear periphery proteins - including inner nuclear membrane proteins and nuclear pore-associated components - are key factors which regulate DNA integrity. Corresponding functional homologues are not so well known in plants which may have developed specific mechanisms due to their sessile life...
December 29, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029704/dynamic-mislocalizations-of-nuclear-pore-complex-proteins-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rat
#20
Qian Li, Yasuyuki Ohta, Toru Yamashita, Jingwei Shang, Kentaro Deguchi, Tian Feng, Kota Sato, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yumiko Nakano, Koji Abe
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) play an important role in coordinating the transport of proteins and nucleic acids between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and are therefore essential for maintaining normal cellular function and liability. In the present study, we investigated the temporal immunohistochemical distribution of five representative components of NPCs-Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGap1), glycoprotein-210 (Gp210), nucleoporin 205 (Nup205), nucleoporin 107 (Nup107), and nucleoporin 50 (Nup50)-after 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) up to 28 days after the reperfusion in rat brains...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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