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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431338/the-design-and-fabrication-of-beta-sensor-system-for-in-situ-diffusion-tests-in-mudstone-in-france
#1
Zhenhua Lin, Olivier Tillement, Marie-Genevieve Blanchin, Vivek Jindal, Agnès Vinsot, Romain V H Dagnelie, Virginie Blin, Yanick Lettry, Benoit Hautefeuille
Long term in situ diffusion experiments in the Callovian-Oxfordian mudstone (France) are designed in the context of nuclear waste management. β-emitters HTO and (36)Cl radiotracers are representative of neutral and anionic species in these experiments. Studies have been carried out to design an in situ beta monitoring system in order to quantify tracer migration in the rock pore water over time. The development, design and calibration of β-emitter radiation sensors were performed. An optimised geometry was calculated for the detection chamber of (36)Cl in solution (Ø×L=30×2mm(2)) via Monte-Carlo N-Particle transport simulation tools...
April 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428827/fundamental-research-on-the-action-mechanism-of-the-800-nm-semiconductor-laser-on-skin-blackheads-and-coarse-pores
#2
Jie Lin, Li Jing, Hao Zhu, Fu-Sheng Dong
The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of action of the 800 nm semiconductor laser on skin blackheads and coarse pores. A total of 24 healthy purebred short-haired male guinea pigs, weighing 350-400 g, were selected and smeared with 0.5 ml coal tar suspension evenly by injector once daily. Treatment was continued for 14 days to form an experimental area of 8×3 cm on the back of the guinea pigs. The animals were divided into the following groups: Normal control group (NC), low-dose laser treatment group (L-LS), high-dose laser treatment group (H-LS), and Q-switched Nd:YAG treatment group (QC)...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421749/design-of-multi-functional-nanogate-in-response-to-multiple-external-stimuli-using-amphiphilic-diblock-copolymer
#3
Kai Huang, Igal Szleifer
Nature uses the interplay between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions of disordered proteins to orchestrate complicated molecular gate such as the nuclear pore complex to control the transport of biological masses. Inspired by nature, we here theoretically show that well-defined gate shape, sensitive response to pH and salt concentration, and selectivity in cargo transport can be simultaneously achieved by grafting amphiphilic diblock copolymers made of sequence-controlled hydrophobic and ionizable monomers on the inner surface of solid-state nanopore...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415374/explicit-calculation-of-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-relaxation-rates-in-small-pores-to-elucidate-molecular-scale-fluid-dynamics
#4
D A Faux, P J McDonald
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spin-lattice (T_{1}^{-1}) and spin-spin (T_{2}^{-1}) relaxation rate measurements can act as effective nondestructive probes of the nanoscale dynamics of ^{1}H spins in porous media. In particular, fast-field-cycling T_{1}^{-1} dispersion measurements contain information on the dynamics of diffusing spins over time scales spanning many orders of magnitude. Previously published experimental T_{1}^{-1} dispersions from a plaster paste, synthetic saponite, mortar, and oil-bearing shale are reanalyzed using a model and associated theory which describe the relaxation rate contributions due to the interaction between spin ensembles in quasi-two-dimensional pores...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415296/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-relaxation-due-to-the-translational-diffusion-of-fluid-confined-to-quasi-two-dimensional-pores
#5
D A Faux, P J McDonald, N C Howlett
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) relaxation experimentation is an effective technique for nondestructively probing the dynamics of proton-bearing fluids in porous media. The frequency-dependent relaxation rate T_{1}^{-1} can yield a wealth of information on the fluid dynamics within the pore provided data can be fit to a suitable spin diffusion model. A spin diffusion model yields the dipolar correlation function G(t) describing the relative translational motion of pairs of ^{1}H spins which then can be Fourier transformed to yield T_{1}^{-1}...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410597/the-role-of-nuclear-localization-signal-in-parvovirus-life-cycle
#6
REVIEW
Peng Liu, Shun Chen, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an approximately 5.0 kb, single-stranded DNA genome. Usually, the parvovirus capsid gene contains one or more nuclear localization signals (NLSs), which are required for guiding the virus particle into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. However, several classical NLSs (cNLSs) and non-classical NLSs (ncNLSs) have been identified in non-structural genes, and the ncNLSs can also target non-structural proteins into the nucleus. In this review, we have summarized recent research findings on parvovirus NLSs...
April 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409417/how-nucleus-mechanics-and-ecm-microstructure-influence-the-invasion-of-single-cells-and-multicellular-aggregates
#7
Chiara Giverso, Alessandro Arduino, Luigi Preziosi
In order to move in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix, the nucleus of a cell must squeeze through the narrow spacing among the fibers and, by adhering to them, the cell needs to exert sufficiently strong traction forces. If the nucleus is too stiff, the spacing too narrow, or traction forces too weak, the cell is not able to penetrate the network. In this article, we formulate a mathematical model based on an energetic approach, for cells entering cylindrical channels composed of extracellular matrix fibers...
April 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408483/o-glcnac-cycling-and-the-regulation-of-nucleocytoplasmic-dynamics
#8
REVIEW
Moriah Eustice, Michelle R Bond, John A Hanover
The dynamic carbohydrate post-translational modification (PTM) O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is found on thousands of proteins throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm, and rivals phosphorylation in terms of the number of substrates and pathways influenced. O-GlcNAc is highly conserved and essential in most organisms, with disruption of O-GlcNAc cycling linked to diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration. Nuclear pore proteins were the first identified O-GlcNAc-modified substrates, generating intense and ongoing interest in understanding the role of O-GlcNAc cycling in nuclear pore complex structure and function...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406021/nup62-coiled-coil-motif-provides-plasticity-for-triple-helix-bundle-formation
#9
Pravin S Dewangan, Parshuram J Sonawane, Ankita Rai Chouksey, Radha Chauhan
The central transport channel of vertebrate nuclear pore complex (NPCs) is made up of nucleoporins: Nup62, Nup54 and Nup58. The coiled-coil domains in α-helical regions of these nucleoporins are thought to be crucial for several protein-protein interactions in the NPC sub-complexes. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the coiled-coil domain of rat Nup62 fragment (362-425) to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal structure shows conserved coiled-coil domain as a parallel three helix bundle for the Nup62(362-425) fragment...
April 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402787/structural-character-evolution-in-pucciniomycotina-mitosis-septa-and-hyphal-branch-initiation-in-two-helicogloea-species
#10
David J McLaughlin, T K Arun Kumar, Mahajabeen Padamsee, Merje Toome-Heller, Elizabeth M Frieders, M Catherine Aime
Early diverging taxa of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota share similarities in subcellular characters of the spindle pole body (SPB), nuclear division, and septal pore apparatus, but our understanding of character evolution is incomplete because of the limited number of structural studies within the earliest diverging subphyla of Dikarya, Taphrinomycotina and Pucciniomycotina. Two species of Helicogloea (Atractiellomycetes) were analyzed for these characters and provide data on SPB and nuclear division for an additional class of Pucciniomycotina...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402725/visualization-of-pml-nuclear-import-complexes-reveals-fg-repeat-nucleoporins-at-cargo-retrieval-sites
#11
Anna Lång, Jens Eriksson, Kay Oliver Schink, Emma Lång, Pernille Blicher, Anna Połeć, Andreas Brech, Bjørn Dalhus, Stig Ove Bøe
Selective nuclear import in eukaryotic cells involves sequential interactions between nuclear import receptors and phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat nucleoporins. Traditionally, binding of cargoes to import receptors is perceived as a nuclear pore complex independent event, while interactions between import complexes and nucleoporins are thought to take place at the nuclear pores. However, studies have shown that nucleoporins are mobile and not static within the nuclear pores, suggesting that they may become engaged in nuclear import prior to nuclear pore entry...
April 12, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400601/gene-regulation-the-nuclear-pore-a-scaffold-for-inducible-genes
#12
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398483/function-of-nuclear-membrane-proteins-in-shaping-the-nuclear-envelope-integrity-during-closed-mitosis
#13
Hui-Ju Yang, Masaaki Iwamoto, Yasushi Hiraoka, Tokuko Haraguchi
The nuclear envelope (NE) not only protects the genome from being directly accessed by detrimental agents but also regulates genome organization. Breaches in NE integrity threaten genome stability and impede cellular function. Nonetheless, the NE constantly remodels, and NE integrity is endangered in dividing or differentiating cells. Specifically, in unicellular eukaryotes undergoing closed mitosis, the NE expands instead of breaking down during chromosome segregation. The newly assembling nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) penetrate the existing NE in interphase...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392395/function-of-nup98-subtypes-and-their-fusion-proteins-nup98-topii%C3%AE-and-nup98-setbp1-in-nuclear-cytoplasmic-transport
#14
Shoko Saito, Takafumi Yokokawa, Gemmei Iizuka, Sadik Cigdem, Mitsuru Okuwaki, Kyosuke Nagata
Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex. The nup98-fusion genes derived by chromosome translocations are involved in hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we investigated the functions of Nup98 isoforms and two unexamined Nup98-fusion proteins, Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1. We first demonstrated that two Nup98 isoforms are expressed in various mouse tissues and similarly localized in the nucleus and the nuclear envelope. We also showed that Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 are localized in the nucleus and partially co-localized with full-length Nup98 and a nuclear export receptor XPO1...
April 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388441/memory-is-the-treasury-and-guardian-of-all-things
#15
Agustina D'Urso, Jason H Brickner
Transcriptional memory often relies on interactions with nuclear pore proteins. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Pascual-Garcia et al. (2017) describe hormone-induced developmental transcriptional memory in cells that have previously experienced ecdysone, mediated by Nup98-dependent enhancer-promoter looping.
April 6, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388135/dynamics-of-local-magnetization-in-the-eigenbasis-of-the-bloch-torrey-operator
#16
Magnus Herberthson, Evren Özarslan, Hans Knutsson, Carl-Fredrik Westin
We consider diffusion within pores with general shapes in the presence of spatially linear magnetic field profiles. The evolution of local magnetization of the spin bearing particles can be described by the Bloch-Torrey equation. We study the diffusive process in the eigenbasis of the non-Hermitian Bloch-Torrey operator. It is possible to find expressions for some special temporal gradient waveforms employed to sensitize the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal to diffusion. For more general gradient waveforms, we derive an efficient numerical solution by introducing a novel matrix formalism...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386019/compositionally-distinct-nuclear-pore-complexes-of-functionally-distinct-dimorphic-nuclei-in-ciliate-tetrahymena
#17
Masaaki Iwamoto, Hiroko Osakada, Chie Mori, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Koji Nagao, Chikashi Obuse, Yasushi Hiraoka, Tokuko Haraguchi
The nuclear pore complex (NPC), a gateway for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, is composed of about 30 different proteins called nucleoporins. It remains unknown whether the NPCs within a species are homogeneous or vary depending on the cell type, or physiological condition. Here, we present evidence for compositionally distinct NPCs that form within a single cell in a binucleated ciliate. In Tetrahymena thermophila, each cell contains both a transcriptionally-active macronucleus (MAC) and a germline micronucleus (MIC)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384479/mutant-huntingtin-disrupts-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#18
Jonathan C Grima, J Gavin Daigle, Nicolas Arbez, Kathleen C Cunningham, Ke Zhang, Joseph Ochaba, Charlene Geater, Eva Morozko, Jennifer Stocksdale, Jenna C Glatzer, Jacqueline T Pham, Ishrat Ahmed, Qi Peng, Harsh Wadhwa, Olga Pletnikova, Juan C Troncoso, Wenzhen Duan, Solomon H Snyder, Laura P W Ranum, Leslie M Thompson, Thomas E Lloyd, Christopher A Ross, Jeffrey D Rothstein
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. The mechanism(s) by which mutant HTT (mHTT) causes disease is unclear. Nucleocytoplasmic transport, the trafficking of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, is tightly regulated by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) made up of nucleoporins (NUPs). Previous studies offered clues that mHTT may disrupt nucleocytoplasmic transport and a mutation of an NUP can cause HD-like pathology. Therefore, we evaluated the NPC and nucleocytoplasmic transport in multiple models of HD, including mouse and fly models, neurons transfected with mHTT, HD iPSC-derived neurons, and human HD brain regions...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384467/huntington-s-disease-nuclear-gatekeepers-under-attack
#19
Matthew B Veldman, X William Yang
In this issue of Neuron, Gasset-Rosa et al. (2017) and Grima et al. (2017) describe defects in the nuclear pore complex and impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport in Huntington's disease (HD). The findings suggest that erosion of nuclear gatekeeping function, which is found in normal brain aging, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including HD.
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379780/akap95-interacts-with-nucleoporin-tpr-in-mitosis-and-is-important-for-the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint
#20
Graciela López-Soop, Torunn Rønningen, Agnieszka Rogala, Nina Richartz, Heidi Kiil Blomhoff, Bernd Thiede, Philippe Collas, Thomas Küntziger
Faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on a proofreading mechanism that monitors proper kinetochore-microtubule attachments. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is based on the concerted action of numerous components that maintain a repressive signal inhibiting transition into anaphase until all chromosomes are attached. Here we show that A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 95 (AKAP95) is necessary for proper SAC function. AKAP95-depleted HeLa cells show micronuclei formed from lagging chromosomes at mitosis...
April 5, 2017: Cell Cycle
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