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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821644/calpain-dependent-degradation-of-nucleoporins-contributes-to-motor-neuron-death-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-excitotoxicity
#1
Kaori Sugiyama, Tomomi Aida, Masatoshi Nomura, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Hanns U Zeilhofer, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity induces neuronal death by altering various intracellular signaling pathways and is implicated as a common pathogenic pathway in many neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of motor neuron disease, there is significant evidence to suggest that overactivation of AMPA receptors due to deficiencies in the expression and function of glial glutamate transporter GLT1 and GLAST plays an important role in the mechanisms of neuronal death. However, a causal role for glial glutamate transporter dysfunction in motor neuron death remains unknown...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819128/porous-polystyrene-monoliths-and-microparticles-prepared-from-core-cross-linked-star-ccs-polymers-stabilized-emulsions
#2
Qijing Chen, Ting Shi, Fei Han, Zihan Li, Chao Lin, Peng Zhao
A hydrophobic CCS polymer of poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) was prepared in toluene by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated dispersion polymerization. The CCS polymer, with poly(benzyl methacrylate) as the arm and crosslinked N, N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BAC) as the core, was confirmed by characterization with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Three kinds of oils (toluene, anisole and styrene) were chosen to study the emulsification properties of PBzMA CCS polymer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811369/obesity-associated-gene-tmem18-has-a-role-in-the-central-control-of-appetite-and-body-weight-regulation
#3
Rachel Larder, M F Michelle Sim, Pawan Gulati, Robin Antrobus, Y C Loraine Tung, Debra Rimmington, Eduard Ayuso, Joseph Polex-Wolf, Brian Y H Lam, Cristina Dias, Darren W Logan, Sam Virtue, Fatima Bosch, Giles S H Yeo, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen O'Rahilly, Anthony P Coll
An intergenic region of human chromosome 2 (2p25.3) harbors genetic variants which are among those most strongly and reproducibly associated with obesity. The gene closest to these variants is TMEM18, although the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects remain entirely unknown. Tmem18 expression in the murine hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was altered by changes in nutritional state. Germline loss of Tmem18 in mice resulted in increased body weight, which was exacerbated by high fat diet and driven by increased food intake...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807451/the-137-cs-activity-concentration-of-suspended-and-dissolved-fractions-in-irrigation-waters-collected-from-the-80%C3%A2-km-zone-around-tepco-s-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-station
#4
Hirofumi Tsukada, Satoshi Nihira, Takashi Watanabe, Satoru Takeda
Fifty-four samples of irrigation water were collected in 2014 from agricultural ponds, rivers, and dams within the 80 km zone around TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The samples were filtered with a 0.45 μm pore-size membrane filter to produce suspended and dissolved fractions. The (137)Cs activity concentration of the suspended fraction varied from 1.5 to 300 Bq g(-1) dry weight and was significantly higher than that in the soil around each sampling site. The range of (137)Cs activity concentrations in the dissolved fraction varied over three orders of magnitude at 0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805700/bilp-19-an-ultramicroporous-organic-network-with-exceptional-carbon-dioxide-uptake
#5
Christoph Klumpen, Florian Radakovitsch, Andreas Jess, Jürgen Senker
Porous benzimidazole-based polymers (BILPs) have proven to be promising for carbon dioxide capture and storage. The polarity of their chemical structure in combination with an inherent porosity allows for adsorbing large amounts of carbon dioxide in combination with high selectivities over unpolar guest molecules such as methane and nitrogen. For this reason, among purely organic polymers, BILPs contain some of the most effective networks to date. Nevertheless, they are still outperformed by competitive materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or metal doped porous polymers...
August 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803731/purification-and-characterization-of-the-colicin-a-immunity-protein-in-detergent-micelles
#6
Ane Metola, Ana M Bouchet, Marian Alonso-Mariño, Tammo Diercks, Lena Mäler, Félix M Goñi, Ana R Viguera
The immunity proteins against pore-forming colicins represent a family of integral membrane proteins that reside in the inner membrane of producing cells. Cai, the colicin A immunity protein, was characterized here in detergent micelles by circular dichroism (CD), size exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, cysteine accessibility, and colicin A binding in detergent micelles. Bile-salt derivatives induced extensive protein polymerization that precluded further investigation...
August 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791779/crystal-structure-of-the-xpo1p-nuclear-export-complex-bound-to-the-sxfg-pxfg-repeats-of-the-nucleoporin-nup42p
#7
Masako Koyama, Hidemi Hirano, Natsuki Shirai, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
Xpo1p (yeast CRM1) is the major nuclear export receptor that carries a plethora of proteins and ribonucleoproteins from the nucleus to cytoplasm. The passage of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is facilitated by interactions with nucleoporins (Nups) containing extensive repeats of phenylalanine-glycine (so-called FG repeats), although the precise role of each Nup in the nuclear export reaction remains incompletely understood. Here we report structural and biochemical characterization of the interactions between the Xpo1p nuclear export complex and the FG repeats of Nup42p, a nucleoporin localized at the cytoplasmic face of yeast NPCs and has characteristic SxFG/PxFG sequence repeat motif...
August 8, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783328/single-crystal-time-of-flight-neutron-diffraction-and-magic-angle-spinning-nmr-spectroscopy-resolve-the-structure-and-1-h-and-7-li-dynamics-of-the-uranyl-peroxide-nanocluster-u60
#8
Travis A Olds, Mateusz Dembowski, Xiaoping Wang, Christina Hoffman, Todd M Alam, Sarah Hickam, Kristi L Pellegrini, Junhong He, Peter C Burns
Single-crystal time-of-flight neutron diffraction has provided atomic resolution of H atoms of H2O molecules and hydroxyl groups, as well as Li cations in the uranyl peroxide nanocluster U60. Solid-state magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the dynamics of these constituents, revealing the transportation of Li atoms and H2O through cluster walls. H atoms of hydroxyl units that are located on the cluster surface are involved in the transfer of H2O and Li cations from inside to outside and vice versa...
August 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772667/hybrid-coatings-enriched-with-tetraethoxysilane-for-corrosion-mitigation-of-hot-dip-galvanized-steel-in-chloride-contaminated-simulated-concrete-pore-solutions
#9
Rita B Figueira, Emanuela Callone, Carlos J R Silva, Elsa V Pereira, Sandra Dirè
Hybrid sol-gel coatings, named U(X):TEOS, based on ureasilicate matrices (U(X)) enriched with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), were synthesized. The influence of TEOS addition was studied on both the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films as well as on the electrochemical properties. The effect of TEOS on the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films was investigated by solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The dielectric properties of the different materials were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
March 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758328/the-path-from-mitochondrial-ros-to-aging-runs-through-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore
#10
REVIEW
Hagai Rottenberg, Jan B Hoek
Excessive production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) is strongly associated with mitochondrial and cellular oxidative damage, aging, and degenerative diseases. However, mROS also induces pathways of protection of mitochondria that slow aging, inhibit cell death, and increase lifespan. Recent studies show that the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which is triggered by mROS and mitochondrial calcium overloading, is enhanced in aged animals and humans and in aging-related degenerative diseases...
July 31, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755517/morphological-features-of-congenital-dyserythropoietic-anemia-type-i-the-role-of-electron-microscopy-in-diagnosis
#11
Peretz Resnitzky, Dina Shaft, Hanna Shalev, Joseph Kapelushnik, Orly Dgany, Tanya Krasnov, Hannah Tamary
INTRODUCTION: Congenital dyserythropoietic anemias are rare blood disorders characterized by congenital anemia and a wide range of morphological and functional abnormalities of erythroid precursors. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relative frequency of both light microscopic (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) morphological features of erythroblasts in a large group of patients with molecular proven congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I (CDAI). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the LM and EM of bone marrow (BM) erythroblasts in 35 patients with CDAI...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747499/effects-of-the-inner-nuclear-membrane-proteins-sun1-unc-84a-and-sun2-unc-84b-on-the-early-steps-of-hiv-1-infection
#12
Torsten Schaller, Lorenzo Bulli, Darja Pollpeter, Gilberto Betancor, Juliane Kutzner, Luis Apolonia, Nikolas Herold, Robin Burk, Michael H Malim
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dividing and non-dividing cells involves regulatory interactions with the nuclear pore complex (NPC), followed by translocation to the nucleus and preferential integration into genomic areas in proximity to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). To identify host proteins that may contribute to these processes, we performed an overexpression screen of known membrane-associated NE proteins. We found that the integral transmembrane proteins SUN1/UNC84A and SUN2/UNC84B are potent or modest inhibitors of HIV-1 infection, respectively, and that suppression corresponds to defects in the accumulation of viral cDNA in the nucleus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747316/mitotic-nuclear-pore-complex-segregation-involves-nup2-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#13
Subbulakshmi Suresh, Sarine Markossian, Aysha H Osmani, Stephen A Osmani
Transport through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) during interphase is facilitated by the nucleoporin Nup2 via its importin α- and Ran-binding domains. However, Aspergillus nidulans and vertebrate Nup2 also locate to chromatin during mitosis, suggestive of mitotic functions. In this study, we report that Nup2 is required for mitotic NPC inheritance in A. nidulans Interestingly, the role of Nup2 during mitotic NPC segregation is independent of its importin α- and Ran-binding domains but relies on a central targeting domain that is necessary for localization and viability...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734734/nuclear-pore-complexes-a-scaffold-regulating-developmental-transcription
#14
Atsushi Satomura, Jason H Brickner
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) have a conserved, but poorly understood, role in transcriptional regulation. Recently, in Developmental Cell, Raices et al. argued that tissue-specific nuclear pore proteins (Nups) act as scaffolds that recruit the transcription factor Mef2C to the NPC, promoting transcription of NPC-associated genes during muscle development.
September 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734076/ensemble-characterization-of-an-intrinsically-disordered-fg-nup-peptide-and-its-f-a-mutant-in-dmso-d6
#15
Korey M Reid, Punnepalli Sunanda, S Raghothama, V V Krishnan
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) lack a well-defined 3D-structure under physiological conditions, yet, the inherent disorder represented by an ensemble of conformation plays a critical role in many cellular and regulatory processes. Nucleoporins, or Nups, are the proteins found in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The central pore of the NPC is occupied by Nups, which have phenylalanine-glycine domain repeats and are intrinsically disordered, and therefore are termed FG-Nups. These FG-domain repeats exhibit differing cohesiveness character and differ from least (FG) to most (GLFG) cohesive...
July 22, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731850/the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis-pbc-in-anti-mitochondrial-antibody-ama-negative-pbc-patients-a-review-of-literature
#16
Federica de Liso, Caterina Matinato, Mariangela Ronchi, Rita Maiavacca
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), also known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver characterized by anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in 90%-95% of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of several serum biomarkers in patients with PBC but negative for AMA. Some antinuclear antibodies (ANA) pattern, detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), such as multiple nuclear dot (MND) and rim-like patterns are well-known to be specific for PBC. The corresponding nuclear antigens are the components of the nuclear pore complex (Gp210 for rim-like pattern) and Sp100, PML proteins (for MND pattern) detectable by immunoblotting and ELISA methods...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720791/in-vivo-analysis-of-protein-crowding-within-the-nuclear-pore-complex-in-interphase-and-mitosis
#17
Hide A Konishi, Suguru Asai, Tomonobu M Watanabe, Shige H Yoshimura
The central channel of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is occupied by non-structured polypeptides with a high content of Phe-Gly (FG) motifs. This protein-rich environment functions as an entropic barrier that prevents the passage of molecules, as well as the binding sites for karyopherins, to regulate macromolecular traffic between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. In this study, we expressed individual Nups fused with a crowding-sensitive probe (GimRET) to determine the spatial distribution of protein-rich domains within the central channel in vivo, and characterize the properties of the entropic barrier...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713609/the-molecular-mechanism-for-nuclear-transport-and-its-application
#18
REVIEW
Yun Hak Kim, Myoung-Eun Han, Sae-Ock Oh
Transportation between the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm is critical for many physiological and pathophysiological processes including gene expression, signal transduction, and oncogenesis. So, the molecular mechanism for the transportation needs to be studied not only to understand cell physiological processes but also to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Recent progress in the research of the nuclear transportation (import and export) via nuclear pore complex and four important factors affecting nuclear transport (nucleoporins, Ran, karyopherins, and nuclear localization signals/nuclear export signals) will be discussed...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712764/nucleocytoplasmic-transport-in-cells-with-progerin-induced-defective-nuclear-lamina
#19
Gianmarco Ferri, Barbara Storti, Ranieri Bizzarri
Recent data indicate that nuclear lamina (NL) plays a relevant role in many fundamental cellular functions. The peculiar role of NL in cells is dramatically demonstrated by the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an inherited laminopathy that causes premature, rapid aging shortly after birth. In HGPS, a mutant form of Lamin A (progeria) leads to a dysmorphic NL structure, but how this perturbation is transduced into cellular changes is still largely unknown. Owing to the close structural relationship between NL and the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC), in this work we test whether HGPS affects passive and active nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of cargoes by means of an established model based of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching...
June 28, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711524/strategic-disruption-of-nuclear-pores-structure-integrity-and-barrier-for-nuclear-apoptosis
#20
REVIEW
Victor Shahin
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death playing key roles in physiology and pathophysiology of multi cellular organisms. Its nuclear manifestation requires transmission of the death signals across the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). In strategic sequential steps apoptotic factors disrupt NPCs structure, integrity and barrier ultimately leading to nuclear breakdown. The present review reflects on these steps.
July 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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