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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213497/mitochondrial-damage-elicits-a-tcdd-inducible-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-mediated-antiviral-response
#1
Tatsuya Kozaki, Jun Komano, Daiki Kanbayashi, Michihiro Takahama, Takuma Misawa, Takashi Satoh, Osamu Takeuchi, Taro Kawai, Shigeomi Shimizu, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Shizuo Akira, Tatsuya Saitoh
The innate immune system senses RNA viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and protects the host from virus infection. PRRs mediate the production of immune modulatory factors and direct the elimination of RNA viruses. Here, we show a unique PRR that mediates antiviral response. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (TIPARP), a Cysteine3 Histidine (CCCH)-type zinc finger-containing protein, binds to Sindbis virus (SINV) RNA via its zinc finger domain and recruits an exosome to induce viral RNA degradation...
February 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202688/super-resolution-mapping-of-scaffold-nucleoporins-in-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#2
Jiong Ma, Joseph M Kelich, Samuel L Junod, Weidong Yang
The nuclear pore complex (NPC), composed of ∼30 different nucleoporins (Nups), is one of the largest supramolecular structures in eukaryotic cells. Its octagonal ring-scaffold perforates the nuclear envelope and features a unique molecular machinery that regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport. However, the precise copy number and the spatial location of each Nup in the native NPC remain obscure due to the inherent difficulty of counting and localizing proteins inside the sub-micrometer supramolecular complex...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197909/sumo-and-nucleocytoplasmic-transport
#3
Christopher Ptak, Richard W Wozniak
The transport of proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm occurs through nuclear pore complexes and is facilitated by numerous transport factors. These transport processes are often regulated by post-translational modification or, reciprocally, transport can function to control post-translational modifications through regulated transport of key modifying enzymes. This interplay extends to relationships between nucleocytoplasmic transport and SUMO-dependent pathways. Examples of protein sumoylation inhibiting or stimulating nucleocytoplasmic transport have been documented, both through its effects on the physical properties of cargo molecules and by directly regulating the functions of components of the nuclear transport machinery...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195488/surface-sensitive-nmr-detection-of-the-sei-layer-on-reduced-graphene-oxide
#4
Michal Leskes, Gunwoo Kim, Tao Liu, Alison L Michan, Fabien Aussenac, Patrick Dorffer, Subhradip Paul, Clare P Grey
The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is detrimental for rechargeable batteries' performance and lifetime. Understanding its formation requires analytical techniques that provide molecular level insight. Here dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is utilized for the first time for enhancing the sensitivity of solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy to the SEI. The approach is demonstrated on reduced-graphene oxide (rGO) cycled in Li-ion cells in natural abundance and 13C-enriched electrolyte solvents. Our results indicate that DNP enhances the signal of outer SEI layers, enabling detection of natural abundance 13C spectra from this component of the SEI at reasonable timeframes...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193881/strong-signal-increase-in-sted-fluorescence-microscopy-by-imaging-regions-of-subdiffraction-extent
#5
Fabian Göttfert, Tino Pleiner, Jörn Heine, Volker Westphal, Dirk Görlich, Steffen J Sahl, Stefan W Hell
Photobleaching remains a limiting factor in superresolution fluorescence microscopy. This is particularly true for stimulated emission depletion (STED) and reversible saturable/switchable optical fluorescence transitions (RESOLFT) microscopy, where adjacent fluorescent molecules are distinguished by sequentially turning them off (or on) using a pattern of light formed as a doughnut or a standing wave. In sample regions where the pattern intensity reaches or exceeds a certain threshold, the molecules are essentially off (or on), whereas in areas where the intensity is lower, that is, around the intensity minima, the molecules remain in the initial state...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189102/coordinated-events-of-nuclear-assembly
#6
REVIEW
Dollie LaJoie, Katharine S Ullman
Each time a metazoan cell undergoes open mitosis, the nucleus is dismantled in order to partition DNA content to the daughter cells. After chromosomes separate, changes at the chromatin surface usher in reestablishment of nuclear architecture. Proteins destined for the nuclear envelope are attracted to chromatin and concomitantly recruit membrane. As nuclear envelope and protein constituents spread to coat chromatin, distinct regions emerge-some rich in rapid pore formation, others occupied by microtubules that remain attached to kinetochores...
February 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188228/time-resolved-phosphoproteome-analysis-of-paradoxical-raf-activation-reveals-novel-targets-of-erk
#7
Peter Kubiniok, Hugo Lavoie, Marc Therrien, Pierre Thibault
Small molecules targeting aberrant RAF activity, like Vemurafenib (PLX4032), are highly effective against cancers harboring the V600E BRAF mutation, and are now approved for clinical use against metastatic melanoma. However, in tissues showing elevated RAS activity and in RAS-mutant tumors, these inhibitors stimulate RAF dimerization, resulting in inhibitor resistance and downstream paradoxical ERK activation. To understand the global signaling response of cancer cells to RAF inhibitors, we profiled the temporal changes of the phosphoproteome of two colon cancer cell lines (Colo205 and HCT116) that respond differently to Vemurafenib...
February 10, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187419/dynamics-of-mirna-biogenesis-and-nuclear-transport
#8
Aneesh Kotipalli, Ravikumar Gutti, Chanchal K Mitra
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA sequences ~22 nucleotides in length that play an important role in gene regulation-transcription and translation. The processing of these miRNAs takes place in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm while the final maturation occurs in the cytoplasm. Some mature miRNAs with nuclear localisation signals (NLS) are transported back to the nucleus and some remain in the cytoplasm. The functional roles of these miRNAs are seen in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, miRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the targeted promoter sequences and affect either the transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) or transcriptional gene activation (TGA)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179529/differential-disruption-of-nucleocytoplasmic-trafficking-pathways-by-rhinovirus-2a-proteases
#9
Kelly Watters, Bahar Inankur, Jaye C Gardiner, Jay Warrick, Nathan M Sherer, John Yin, Ann C Palmenberg
The RNA rhinoviruses (RV) encode 2A proteases (2A(pro)) that contribute essential polyprotein processing and host-cell shutoff functions during infection, including the cleavage of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporin proteins (Nups) within nuclear pore complexes (NPC). Within the 3 RV species, multiple divergent genotypes encode diverse 2A(pro) sequences which act differentially on specific Nups. Since only subsets of Phe/Gly motifs, particularly those within Nup62, Nup98 and Nup153, are recognized by transport receptors (karyopherins) when trafficking large molecular cargos through the NPC, the processing preferences of individual 2A(pro) predict RV genotype-specific targeting of NPC pathways and cargos...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179150/transporter-mediated-nuclear-entry-of-jasmonoyl-isoleucine-is-essential-for-jasmonate-signaling
#10
Qingqing Li, Jian Zheng, Shuaizhang Li, Guanrong Huang, Stephen J Skilling, Lijian Wang, Ling Li, Mengya Li, Lixing Yuan, Pei Liu
To control gene expression directly by hormone concentrations, both animal and plant cells have exploited comparable mechanisms to sense small molecular hormones in nucleus. Whether nuclear entry of these hormones is actively transported or passively diffused, as conventionally postulated, through nuclear pore complex remains enigmatic. Here, we identified and characterized a jasmonate transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtJAT1/ AtABCG16, which exhibits an unexpected dual localization in the nuclear envelope and plasma membrane...
February 4, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167533/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-aggregation-causes-mitochondrial-dysfunction-during-oxidative-stress-induced-cell-death
#11
Hidemitsu Nakajima, Masanori Itakura, Takeya Kubo, Akihiro Kaneshige, Naoki Harada, Takeshi Izawa, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Ryouichi Yamaji, Tadayoshi Takeuchi
Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein that also mediates cell death under oxidative stress. We previously reported that the active-site cysteine (Cys-152) of GAPDH plays an essential role in oxidative stress-induced aggregation of GAPDH associated with cell death, and a C152A-GAPDH mutant rescues nitric oxide (NO)-induced cell death by interfering with aggregation of wild type (WT)-GAPDH. However, the detailed mechanism underlying GAPDH-aggregate-induced cell death remains elusive...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163061/importins-in-the-maintenance-and-lineage-commitment-of-es-cells
#12
REVIEW
Noriko Yasuhara, Yoshihiro Yoneda
The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope, and nuclear pores within the envelope facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport and the exchange of information. Gene regulation is a key component of biological activity regulation in the cell. Transcription factors control the expression levels of various genes that are necessary for the maintenance or conversion of cellular states during animal development. Because transcription factor activities determine the extent of transcription of target genes, the number of active transcription factors must be tightly regulated...
February 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162953/molecular-architecture-of-the-major-membrane-ring-component-of-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#13
Paula Upla, Seung Joong Kim, Parthasarathy Sampathkumar, Kaushik Dutta, Sean M Cahill, Ilan E Chemmama, Rosemary Williams, Jeffrey B Bonanno, William J Rice, David L Stokes, David Cowburn, Steven C Almo, Andrej Sali, Michael P Rout, Javier Fernandez-Martinez
The membrane ring that equatorially circumscribes the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in the perinuclear lumen of the nuclear envelope is composed largely of Pom152 in yeast and its ortholog Nup210 (or Gp210) in vertebrates. Here, we have used a combination of negative-stain electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and small-angle X-ray scattering methods to determine an integrative structure of the ∼120 kDa luminal domain of Pom152. Our structural analysis reveals that the luminal domain is formed by a flexible string-of-pearls arrangement of nine repetitive cadherin-like Ig-like domains, indicating an evolutionary connection between NPCs and the cell adhesion machinery...
February 2, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159889/a-pr-plug-for-the-nuclear-pore-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
J Paul Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146565/nuclear-pore-like-structures-in-a-compartmentalized-bacterium
#15
Evgeny Sagulenko, Amanda Nouwens, Richard I Webb, Kathryn Green, Benjamin Yee, Garry Morgan, Andrew Leis, Kuo-Chang Lee, Margaret K Butler, Nicholas Chia, Uyen Thi Phuong Pham, Stinus Lindgreen, Ryan Catchpole, Anthony M Poole, John A Fuerst
Planctomycetes are distinguished from other Bacteria by compartmentalization of cells via internal membranes, interpretation of which has been subject to recent debate regarding potential relations to Gram-negative cell structure. In our interpretation of the available data, the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus contains a nuclear body compartment, and thus possesses a type of cell organization with parallels to the eukaryote nucleus. Here we show that pore-like structures occur in internal membranes of G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138739/characterization-of-a-nuclear-pore-protein-sheds-light-on-the-roles-and-composition-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-nuclear-pore-complex
#16
Flavie Courjol, Thomas Mouveaux, Kevin Lesage, Jean-Michel Saliou, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Maurine Bonabaud, Marine Rohmer, Christian Slomianny, Franck Lafont, Mathieu Gissot
The nuclear pore is a key structure in eukaryotes regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic transport as well as a wide range of cellular processes. Here, we report the characterization of the first Toxoplasma gondii nuclear pore protein, named TgNup302, which appears to be the orthologue of the mammalian Nup98-96 protein. We produced a conditional knock-down mutant that expresses TgNup302 under the control of an inducible tetracycline-regulated promoter. Under ATc treatment, a substantial decrease of TgNup302 protein in inducible knock-down (iKD) parasites was observed, causing a delay in parasite proliferation...
January 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129640/nuclear-transport-of-cancer-extracellular-vesicle-derived-biomaterials-through-nuclear-envelope-invagination-associated-late-endosomes
#17
Germana Rappa, Mark F Santos, Toni M Green, Jana Karbanová, Justin Hassler, Yongsheng Bai, Sanford H Barsky, Denis Corbeil, Aurelio Lorico
Extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) function as vehicles of intercellular communication, but how the biomaterials they carry reach the target site in recipient cells is an open question. We report that subdomains of Rab7+ late endosomes and nuclear envelope invaginations come together to create a sub-nuclear compartment, where biomaterials associated with CD9+ EVs are delivered. EV-derived biomaterials were also found in the nuclei of host cells. The inhibition of nuclear import and export pathways abrogated the nuclear localization of EV-derived biomaterials or led to their accumulation therein, respectively, suggesting that their translocation is dependent on nuclear pores...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122334/metformin-a-metabolic-modulator
#18
Federico Pietrocola, Guido Kroemer
Recent findings have shed new light on the mechanisms of action through which biguanides exert their anti-aging and cytostatic effects in Caenorhabditis elegans and human cell lines. The drop in energy charge resulting from the metformin mediated inhibition of mitochondrial activity affects the function of the nuclear pore complex, blocks mTOR signaling and enhances the expression of ACAD10. Whether the inhibition of this pathway is truly responsible for the anti-diabetic and cancer effects of the drug in mammals remains to be established...
22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122141/large-pore-functionalized-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-drug-delivery-vector-for-a-highly-cytotoxic-hybrid-platinum-acridine-anticancer-agent
#19
Ye Zheng, Cale Fahrenholtz, Christopher Hackett, Song Ding, Cynthia Day, Rohan Dhall, Glen Marrs, Michael Gross, Ravi Singh, Ulrich Bierbach
Large-pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) were prepared and functionalized to serve as a highly robust and biocompatible delivery platform for platinum-acridine (PA) anticancer agents. The material showed a high loading capacity for the dicationic, hydrophilic hybrid agent [PtCl(en)(N-[acridin-9-ylaminoethyl]-N-methylpropionamidine)] dinitrate salt (P1A1) and virtually complete retention of payload at neutral pH in a high-chloride buffer. In acidic media mimicking the pH inside the cells' lysosomes, rapid, burst-like release of P1A1 from the nanoparticles is observed...
January 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119215/novel-methodology-for-accurate-resolution-of-fluid-signatures-from-multi-dimensional-nmr-well-logging-measurements
#20
Vivek Anand
A novel methodology for accurate fluid characterization from multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements is introduced. This methodology overcomes a fundamental challenge of poor resolution of features in multi-dimensional NMR distributions due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of well-logging measurements. Based on an unsupervised machine-learning concept of blind source separation, the methodology resolves fluid responses from simultaneous analysis of large quantities of well-logging data...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
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