Read by QxMD icon Read

nuclear pore

Paul A Rowley, Kurt Patterson, Suzanne B Sandmeyer, Sara L Sawyer
Yeasts serve as hosts to several types of genetic parasites. Few studies have addressed the evolutionary trajectory of yeast genes that control the stable co-existence of these parasites with their host cell. In Saccharomyces yeasts, the retrovirus-like Ty retrotransposons must access the nucleus. We show that several genes encoding components of the yeast nuclear pore complex have experienced natural selection for substitutions that change the encoded protein sequence. By replacing these S. cerevisiae genes with orthologs from other Saccharomyces species, we discovered that natural sequence changes have affected the mobility of Ty retrotransposons...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
Pier Cacciali, Gunther KÖhler
Tropidurus is a Neotropical genus of iguanoid lizards characterized by a conspicuously enlarged interparietal plate, the presence of gular folds, presence of infradigital keels, and the absence of femoral pores. Currently, 29 species are recognized within the genus, seven of which are present in Paraguay: T. etheridgei, T. torquatus, T. guarani, T. lagunablanca, T. spinulosus, T. tarara, and T. teyumirim. We generated genetic data based on two DNA mitochondrial markers (16S and COI) and one nuclear (PRLR) marker for all the seven Paraguayan species with the goal to identify the taxonomic relationships among taxa based on the intra- and interspecific genetic variation and the construction of molecular clusters...
January 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Naİme Arslan, Tarmo Timm, VerÓnica Rojo, AntÓn VizcaÍno, RÜdiger M Schmelz
Enchytraeus polatdemiri sp. nov. (Enchytaeidae, Oligochaeta) was discovered in the framework of a sampling campaign of the benthic invertebrate fauna of the hyperalkaline Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, the third-largest closed lake and the largest soda lake on Earth. It was the only oligochaete species found in all samples. DNA sequencing included a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and a fragment of the nuclear histone 3 (H3) gene. For comparison, specimens from laboratory cultures of E...
February 21, 2018: Zootaxa
Paola De Magistris, Wolfram Antonin
Eukaryotes characteristically organize their genome in a separate compartment, the nucleus, which is surrounded by the nuclear envelope as a barrier. Ruptures of the nuclear envelope and exposure of chromatin threaten cell viability and cause genome instability. Despite its essential boundary function, the nuclear envelope undergoes remarkable morphological changes, most noticeable during mitosis. Here we summarize our current understanding of nuclear envelope dynamics and its mutable relationship to the endoplasmic reticulum...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Sholeem Griffin, Gareth D Healey, I Martin Sheldon
Preventing postpartum uterine disease depends on the ability of endometrial cells to tolerate the presence of the bacteria that invade the uterus after parturition. Postpartum uterine disease and endometrial pathology in cattle is most associated with the pathogen Trueperella pyogenes. Trueperella pyogenes secretes a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which causes cytolysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of endometrial stromal cells. The aim of the present study was to identify cell-intrinsic pathways that increase bovine endometrial stromal cell tolerance to pyolysin...
April 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Hartmut Jaeschke, Anup Ramachandran
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of liver injury and acute liver failure in many western countries. The mechanism of APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis has been investigated extensively. The formation of a reactive metabolite and its binding to cellular proteins was initially thought to be responsible for cell death. A competing hypothesis was introduced that questioned the relevance of protein binding and instead suggested that P450-derived oxidant stress and lipid peroxidation causes APAP-induced liver injury...
May 2018: Reactive Oxygen Species (Apex, N.C.)
Xiao-Hong Ji, Josef Vlasák, Xue-Mei Tian, Yu-Cheng Dai
Fomitiporella austroasiana , F. mangrovei and F. vietnamensis are described and illustrated as new species based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. They have annual to perennial, mostly resupinate basidiomata with grayish fresh pores, an indistinct subiculum, lack any kind of setae, have brownish, thick-walled basidiospores, and cause a white rot. The distinctive morphological characters of the new species and their related species are discussed. Phylogenies based on the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (28S) and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region show that these three new species form three distinct lineages in the Fomitiporella clade...
2018: MycoKeys
Greeshma Gadikota, Fan Zhang, Andrew J Allen
Understanding the changes in the microstructures and structures of clays with varying intercalated metal ions at elevated temperatures is of importance for many applications ranging from the recovery of shale gas from unconventional formations to developing effective nuclear waste containment technologies, and engineering materials such as ceramics for fuel cell applications. In this study, synchrotron-based in-operando multi-scale X-ray scattering analyses are used to determine dynamic microstructural and crystal structural changes in Na- and Ca-montmorillonite on heating from 30 °C to 1150 °C...
May 2017: Fuel
Jin-Ting Yang, Jue Wang, Xin-Ru Zhou, Chi Xiao, Yang-Yun Lou, Li-Hui Tang, Feng-Jiang Zhang, Ling-Bo Qian
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in hypercholesterolemia is associated with oxidative stress, while luteolin is known to reduce oxidative stress by activating Akt/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and alleviate cardiac I/R injury. Here, we investigated whether luteolin pretreatment diminishes myocardial I/R injury in hypercholesterolemic rats by activating Akt/Nrf2 signaling. Hypercholesterolemic rats were produced by 2% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Luteolin (100 mg/kg/day, i...
April 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Shoshiro Hirayama, Munechika Sugihara, Daisuke Morito, Shun-Ichiro Iemura, Tohru Natsume, Shigeo Murata, Kazuhiro Nagata
Although mechanisms for protein homeostasis in the cytosol have been studied extensively, those in the nucleus remain largely unknown. Here, we identified that a protein complex mediates export of polyubiquitinated proteins from the nucleus to the cytosol. UBIN, a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain-containing protein, shuttled between the nucleus and the cytosol in a CRM1-dependent manner, despite the lack of intrinsic nuclear export signal (NES). Instead, the UBIN binding protein polyubiquitinated substrate transporter (POST) harboring an NES shuttled UBIN through nuclear pores...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wei Ouyang, Andrey Aristov, Mickaël Lelek, Xian Hao, Christophe Zimmer
The speed of super-resolution microscopy methods based on single-molecule localization, for example, PALM and STORM, is limited by the need to record many thousands of frames with a small number of observed molecules in each. Here, we present ANNA-PALM, a computational strategy that uses artificial neural networks to reconstruct super-resolution views from sparse, rapidly acquired localization images and/or widefield images. Simulations and experimental imaging of microtubules, nuclear pores, and mitochondria show that high-quality, super-resolution images can be reconstructed from up to two orders of magnitude fewer frames than usually needed, without compromising spatial resolution...
April 16, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Zeng Zhen, Mingfen Wen, Boxuan Yu, Gang Ye, Xiaomei Huo, Yuexiang Lu, Jing Chen
Oxidant-regulated polymerization of dopamine was exploited, for the first time, for effective surface engineering of the well-defined cylindrical pores of nuclear track-etched membranes (NTEMs) to develop novel catalytic membrane reactor. Firstly, in the presence of strong oxidant, controlled synthesis of polydopamine (PDA) with tunable particle size was achieved, allowing a homogeneous deposition to the confined pore channels of NTEMs. The PDA interfaces rich in catechol and amine groups provided enhanced hydrophilicity to promote mass transport across the membrane and abundant nucleation sites for formation and stabilization of metallic nanoparticles (NPs)...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ashwanth C Francis, Gregory B Melikyan
The HIV-1 core consists of capsid proteins (CA) surrounding viral genomic RNA. After virus-cell fusion, the core enters the cytoplasm and the capsid shell is lost through uncoating. CA loss precedes nuclear import and HIV integration into the host genome, but the timing and location of uncoating remain unclear. By visualizing single HIV-1 infection, we find that CA is required for core docking at the nuclear envelope (NE), whereas early uncoating in the cytoplasm promotes proteasomal degradation of viral complexes...
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Joshua J Elacqua, Alexandra L McGregor, Jan Lammerding
Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted the importance of the cell nucleus in governing migration through confined environments. Microfluidic devices that mimic the narrow interstitial spaces of tissues have emerged as important tools to study cellular dynamics during confined migration, including the consequences of nuclear deformation and nuclear envelope rupture. However, while image acquisition can be automated on motorized microscopes, the analysis of the corresponding time-lapse sequences for nuclear transit through the pores and events such as nuclear envelope rupture currently requires manual analysis...
2018: PloS One
Norberto Gonzalez-Juarbe, Kelley M Bradley, Ashleigh N Riegler, Luis F Reyes, Terry Brissac, Sang-Sang Park, Marcos I Restrepo, Carlos J Orihuela
Pore-forming toxins are the most common virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria. They lead to membrane permeabilization and cell death. Herein, we show that respiratory epithelial cells (REC) undergoing bacterial pore-forming toxin (PFT)-induced necroptosis simultaneously experienced caspase activation independently of RIPK3. MLKL deficient REC treated with a pan-caspase inhibitor were protected in an additive manner against PFT-induced death. Subsequently, cleaved versions of caspases-2, -4 and -10 were detected within REC undergoing necroptosis by immunoblots and monoclonal antibody staining...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xinlong Luo, Wei Yang, Guangxia Gao
HIV-1 can infect non-dividing cells via passing through the nuclear pore complex. The nuclear membrane imbedded protein SUN2 was recently reported to be involved in the nuclear import of HIV-1. Whether SUN1, which shares many functional similarities with SUN2, is involved in this process remained to be explored. Here, we report that overexpression of SUN1 specifically inhibited the infection of HIV-1, but not simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or murine leukemia virus (MLV). Overexpression of SUN1 did not affect reverse transcription, but led to reduced accumulation of the 2-LTR circular DNA and integrated viral DNA, suggesting a block in the process of nuclear import...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
Melpomeni Platani, Itaru Samejima, Kumiko Samejima, Masato T Kanemaki, W C Earnshaw
In metazoa the Nup107-160 nucleoporin Y complex plays a major role in formation of the nuclear pore complex in interphase and is localised to kinetochores in mitosis. The Nup107-160 complex shares a single highly conserved subunit, Seh1, with the GATOR2 complex, an essential activator of mTORC1 kinase. mTORC1/GATOR2 has a central role in the coordination of cell growth and proliferation. Here we use chemical genetics and quantitative chromosome proteomics to study the role of the Seh1 protein in mitosis. Surprisingly, Seh1 is not required for the association of the Nup107-160 complex with mitotic chromosomes, but it is essential for the association of both GATOR2 complex and nucleoporin Nup153 with mitotic chromosomes...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Guo-Hua Qiu, Cuiqin Huang, Xintian Zheng, Xiaoyan Yang
Peripheral and abundant noncoding DNA has been hypothesized to protect the genome and the central protein-coding sequences against DNA damage in somatic genome. In the cytosol, invading exogenous nucleic acids may first be deactivated by small RNAs encoded by noncoding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. In the nucleus, the radicals generated by radiation in the cytosol, radiation energy and invading exogenous nucleic acids are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin, and damaged DNA in heterochromatin is removed and excluded from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes...
April 4, 2018: Epigenomics
Ravi Kumar Pujala, C T W M Schneijdenberg, Alfons van Blaaderen, H B Bohidar
The search for new functional soft materials with precise and reconfigurable structures at the nano and meso-scale is a major challenge as well as objective of the current science. Patchy colloids of different shapes and functionalities are considered important new building blocks of a bottom-up approach towards rational design of new soft materials largely governed by anisotropic interactions. Herein, we investigate the self-assembly, growth of hierarchical microstructures and aging dynamics of 2D nano-platelets of two different aspect ratios (Laponite ~25 and Montmorillonite ~250) which form gels with different porosity that is achieved by tuning their mixing ratios...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Philipp Hoess, Markus Mund, Manuel Reitberger, Jonas Ries
Breaking the resolution limit of conventional microscopy by super-resolution microscopy (SRM) led to many new biological insights into protein assemblies at the nanoscale. Here we provide detailed protocols for single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) to image the structure of a protein complex. As examples, we show how to acquire single- and dual-color super-resolution images of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and dual-color 3D data on actin and paxillin in focal adhesions.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"