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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731850/the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis-pbc-in-anti-mitochondrial-antibody-ama-negative-pbc-patients-a-review-of-literature
#1
Federica de Liso, Caterina Matinato, Mariangela Ronchi, Rita Maiavacca
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), also known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver characterized by anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in 90%-95% of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of several serum biomarkers in patients with PBC but negative for AMA. Some antinuclear antibodies (ANA) pattern, detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), such as multiple nuclear dot (MND) and rim-like patterns are well-known to be specific for PBC. The corresponding nuclear antigens are the components of the nuclear pore complex (Gp210 for rim-like pattern) and Sp100, PML proteins (for MND pattern) detectable by immunoblotting and ELISA methods...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720791/in-vivo-analysis-of-protein-crowding-within-the-nuclear-pore-complex-in-interphase-and-mitosis
#2
Hide A Konishi, Suguru Asai, Tomonobu M Watanabe, Shige H Yoshimura
The central channel of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is occupied by non-structured polypeptides with a high content of Phe-Gly (FG) motifs. This protein-rich environment functions as an entropic barrier that prevents the passage of molecules, as well as the binding sites for karyopherins, to regulate macromolecular traffic between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. In this study, we expressed individual Nups fused with a crowding-sensitive probe (GimRET) to determine the spatial distribution of protein-rich domains within the central channel in vivo, and characterize the properties of the entropic barrier...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713609/the-molecular-mechanism-for-nuclear-transport-and-its-application
#3
REVIEW
Yun Hak Kim, Myoung-Eun Han, Sae-Ock Oh
Transportation between the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm is critical for many physiological and pathophysiological processes including gene expression, signal transduction, and oncogenesis. So, the molecular mechanism for the transportation needs to be studied not only to understand cell physiological processes but also to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Recent progress in the research of the nuclear transportation (import and export) via nuclear pore complex and four important factors affecting nuclear transport (nucleoporins, Ran, karyopherins, and nuclear localization signals/nuclear export signals) will be discussed...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712764/nucleocytoplasmic-transport-in-cells-with-progerin-induced-defective-nuclear-lamina
#4
Gianmarco Ferri, Barbara Storti, Ranieri Bizzarri
Recent data indicate that nuclear lamina (NL) plays a relevant role in many fundamental cellular functions. The peculiar role of NL in cells is dramatically demonstrated by the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an inherited laminopathy that causes premature, rapid aging shortly after birth. In HGPS, a mutant form of Lamin A (progeria) leads to a dysmorphic NL structure, but how this perturbation is transduced into cellular changes is still largely unknown. Owing to the close structural relationship between NL and the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC), in this work we test whether HGPS affects passive and active nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of cargoes by means of an established model based of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching...
June 28, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711524/strategic-disruption-of-nuclear-pores-structure-integrity-and-barrier-for-nuclear-apoptosis
#5
REVIEW
Victor Shahin
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death playing key roles in physiology and pathophysiology of multi cellular organisms. Its nuclear manifestation requires transmission of the death signals across the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). In strategic sequential steps apoptotic factors disrupt NPCs structure, integrity and barrier ultimately leading to nuclear breakdown. The present review reflects on these steps.
July 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700925/protein-transport-by-the-nuclear-pore-complex-simple-biophysics-of-a-complex-biomachine
#6
REVIEW
Tijana Jovanovic-Talisman, Anton Zilman
In eukaryotic cells, transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is facilitated by highly selective and efficient biomachines known as nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The structural details of NPCs vary across species, with many of their constituent proteins exhibiting relatively low sequence conservation; yet the NPC as a whole retains its general architecture and mechanism of action in all eukaryotes from yeast to humans. This functional conservation in the absence of precise molecular conservation suggests that many aspects of the NPC transport mechanism may be understood based on general biophysical considerations...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699737/extending-the-use-of-highly-porous-and-functionalized-mofs-to-th-iv-capture
#7
Nan Zhang, Li-Yong Yuan, Wen-Lu Guo, Shi-Zhong Luo, Zhi-Fang Chai, Wei-Qun Shi
Thorium separation has recently become a hot topic because of the potential application of thorium as a future nuclear fuel, while metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have received much attention in the separation field due to their unique properties. Herein, a highly porous and stable MOF, UiO-66, and its carboxyl derivatives (UiO-66-COOH and UiO-66-(COOH)2) were synthesized and explored for the first time for Th(IV) capture from a weak acidic solution. Although the introduction of carboxyl groups into UiO-66 leads to an obvious decrease in the surface area and pore volume, the adsorbability toward Th(IV) is greatly enhanced...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696859/nucleoporins-redistribute-inside-the-nucleus-after-cell-cycle-arrest-induced-by-histone-deacetylases-inhibition
#8
Miguel Pérez-Garrastachu, Jon Arluzea, Ricardo Andrade, Alejandro Díez-Torre, Marta Urtizberea, Margarita Silió, Juan Aréchaga
Nucleoporins are the main components of the nuclear-pore complex (NPC) and were initially considered as mere structural elements embedded in the nuclear envelope, being responsible for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Nevertheless, several recent scientific reports have revealed that some nucleoporins participate in nuclear processes such as transcription, replication, DNA repair and chromosome segregation. Thus, the interaction of NPCs with chromatin could modulate the distribution of chromosome territories relying on the epigenetic state of DNA...
July 11, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696814/ddx19-links-mrna-nuclear-export-with-progression-of-transcription-and-replication-and-suppresses-genomic-instability-upon-dna-damage-in-proliferating-cells
#9
Dana Hodroj, Kamar Serhal, Domenico Maiorano
The DEAD-box Helicase 19 (Ddx19) gene codes for an RNA helicase involved in both messenger RNA (mRNA) export from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and in mRNA translation. In unperturbed cells, Ddx19 localizes in the cytoplasm and at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore. Here we review recent findings related to an additional Ddx19 function in the nucleus in resolving RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) generated during collision between transcription and replication, and upon DNA damage. Activation of a DNA damage response pathway dependent upon the ATR kinase, a major regulator of replication fork progression, stimulates translocation of the Ddx19 protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus...
July 11, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676424/nuclear-pore-complex-tethers-to-the-cytoskeleton
#10
REVIEW
Martin W Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676422/kinetics-of-transport-through-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#11
REVIEW
Ulrich Kubitscheck, Jan-Peter Siebrasse
Single molecule microscopy techniques allow to visualize the translocation of single transport receptors and cargo molecules or particles through nuclear pore complexes. These data indicate that cargo molecule import into the nucleus takes less than 10 milliseconds and nuclear export of messenger RNA (mRNA) particles takes 50 to 350 milliseconds, up to several seconds for extremely bulky particles. This review summarizes and discusses experimental results on transport of nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2), importin β and mRNA particles...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673770/alterations-of-the-nuclear-transport-system-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-new-basis-for-therapeutic-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Martin Beck, Peter Schirmacher, Stephan Singer
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most prevalent human malignancies world-wide with rising incidence in industrialized countries, few therapeutic options and poor prognosis. To expand and improve therapeutic strategies identification of drug targets ideally involved in several liver cancer relevant pathways appears mandatory. Virtually all signal transduction cascades cross the nuclear envelope and thereby require components of the nuclear transport system (NTS) including nuclear transport receptors (e...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669824/floppy-but-not-sloppy-interaction-mechanism-of-fg-nucleoporins-and-nuclear-transport-receptors
#13
REVIEW
Iker Valle Aramburu, Edward A Lemke
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) forms a permeability barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Molecules that are able to cross this permeability barrier encounter different disordered phenylalanine glycine rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups) that act as a molecular filter and regulate the selective NPC crossing of biomolecules. In this review, we provide a current overview regarding the interaction mechanism between FG-Nups and the carrier molecules that recognize and enable the transport of cargoes through the NPC aiming to understand the general molecular mechanisms that facilitate the nucleocytoplasmic transport...
June 29, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667771/long-term-effects-of-severe-burn-injury-on-bone-turnover-and-microarchitecture
#14
Gabriela Katharina Muschitz, Elisabeth Schwabegger, Alexandra Fochtmann, Andreas Baierl, Roland Kocijan, Judith Haschka, Wolfgang Gruther, Jakob E Schanda, Heinrich Resch, Thomas Rath, Peter Pietschmann, Christian Muschitz
Severe burn injury triggers massive alterations in stress hormone levels with a dose-dependent hypermetabolic status including increased bone resorption. This study evaluated bone microarchitecture measured by non-invasive high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Changes of serum bone turnover markers (BTM) as well as regulators of bone signaling pathways involved in skeletal health were assessed. Standardized effect sizes as a quantitative measure regarding the impact of serum changes and the prediction of these changes on bone microarchitecture were investigated...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661135/modeling-co2-water-mineral-wettability-and-mineralization-for-carbon-geosequestration
#15
Yunfeng Liang, Shinya Tsuji, Jihui Jia, Takeshi Tsuji, Toshifumi Matsuoka
Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is an important climate change mitigation option along with improved energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. CO2 geosequestration, that is, to store CO2 under the subsurface of Earth, is feasible because the world's sedimentary basins have high capacity and are often located in the same region of the world as emission sources. How CO2 interacts with the connate water and minerals is the focus of this Account. There are four trapping mechanisms that keep CO2 in the pores of subsurface rocks: (1) structural trapping, (2) residual trapping, (3) dissolution trapping, and (4) mineral trapping...
June 29, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659328/characterization-of-spindle-pole-body-duplication-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-nuclear-pore-complexes
#16
Diana Rüthnick, Annett Neuner, Franziska Dietrich, Daniel Kirrmaier, Ulrike Engel, Michael Knop, Elmar Schiebel
The spindle pole body (SPB) of budding yeast duplicates once per cell cycle. In G1, the satellite, an SPB precursor, assembles next to the mother SPB (mSPB) on the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear envelope (NE). How the growing satellite subsequently inserts into the NE is an open question. To address this, we have uncoupled satellite growth from NE insertion. We show that the bridge structure that separates the mSPB from the satellite is a distance holder that prevents deleterious fusion of both structures...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654114/functionalized-metal-organic-frameworks-for-effective-capture-of-radioactive-organic-iodides
#17
Baiyan Li, Xinglong Dong, Hao Wang, Dingxuan Ma, Kui Tan, Zhan Shi, Yves J Chabal, Yu Han, Jing Li
Highly efficient capture of radioactive organic iodides (ROIs) from off-gas mixtures remains a substantial challenge for nuclear waste treatment. Current materials utilized for ROI sequestration suffer from low capacity, high cost (e.g. use of noble metals), and poor recyclability. Recently, we have developed a new strategy to tackle this challenge by functionalizing MOF materials with tertiary amines to create molecular traps for the effective capture and removal of ROIs (e.g. radioactive methyl iodide) from nuclear wastes...
June 27, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642229/evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-kinetochore-network-in-eukaryotes-as-revealed-by-comparative-genomics
#18
Jolien Je van Hooff, Eelco Tromer, Leny M van Wijk, Berend Snel, Geert Jpl Kops
During eukaryotic cell division, the sister chromatids of duplicated chromosomes are pulled apart by microtubules, which connect via kinetochores. The kinetochore is a multiprotein structure that links centromeres to microtubules, and that emits molecular signals in order to safeguard the equal distribution of duplicated chromosomes over daughter cells. Although microtubule-mediated chromosome segregation is evolutionary conserved, kinetochore compositions seem to have diverged. To systematically inventory kinetochore diversity and to reconstruct its evolution, we determined orthologs of 70 kinetochore proteins in 90 phylogenetically diverse eukaryotes...
June 22, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637791/store-operated-calcium-entry-suppressed-tgf%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway-in-glomerular-mesangial-cells
#19
Sarika Chaudhari, Weizu Li, Yanxia Wang, Hui Jiang, Yuhong Ma, Mark E Davis, Jonathan E Zuckerman, Rong Ma
Our previous study demonstrated that the abundance of extracellular matrix proteins was suppressed by store-operated Ca2+ entry in mesangial cells (MCs). The present study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism focused on the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) - Smad3 pathway, a critical pathway for ECM expansion in diabetic kidneys. We hypothesized that SOCE suppressed ECM protein expression by inhibiting this pathway in MCs. In cultured human MCs, we observed that TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml for 15 hours) significantly increased Smad3 phosphorylation as evaluated by immunoblot...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636640/targeted-nanodiamonds-for-identification-of-subcellular-protein-assemblies-in-mammalian-cells
#20
Michael P Lake, Louis-S Bouchard
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to successfully determine the structures of proteins. However, such studies are typically done ex situ after extraction of the protein from the cellular environment. Here we describe an application for nanodiamonds as targeted intensity contrast labels in biological TEM, using the nuclear pore complex (NPC) as a model macroassembly. We demonstrate that delivery of antibody-conjugated nanodiamonds to live mammalian cells using maltotriose-conjugated polypropylenimine dendrimers results in efficient localization of nanodiamonds to the intended cellular target...
2017: PloS One
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