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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642229/evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-kinetochore-network-in-eukaryotes-as-revealed-by-comparative-genomics
#1
Jolien Je van Hooff, Eelco Tromer, Leny M van Wijk, Berend Snel, Geert Jpl Kops
During eukaryotic cell division, the sister chromatids of duplicated chromosomes are pulled apart by microtubules, which connect via kinetochores. The kinetochore is a multiprotein structure that links centromeres to microtubules, and that emits molecular signals in order to safeguard the equal distribution of duplicated chromosomes over daughter cells. Although microtubule-mediated chromosome segregation is evolutionary conserved, kinetochore compositions seem to have diverged. To systematically inventory kinetochore diversity and to reconstruct its evolution, we determined orthologs of 70 kinetochore proteins in 90 phylogenetically diverse eukaryotes...
June 22, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637791/store-operated-calcium-entry-suppressed-tgf%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway-in-glomerular-mesangial-cells
#2
Sarika Chaudhari, Weizu Li, Yanxia Wang, Hui Jiang, Yuhong Ma, Mark E Davis, Jonathan E Zuckerman, Rong Ma
Our previous study demonstrated that the abundance of extracellular matrix proteins was suppressed by store-operated Ca2+ entry in mesangial cells (MCs). The present study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism focused on the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) - Smad3 pathway, a critical pathway for ECM expansion in diabetic kidneys. We hypothesized that SOCE suppressed ECM protein expression by inhibiting this pathway in MCs. In cultured human MCs, we observed that TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml for 15 hours) significantly increased Smad3 phosphorylation as evaluated by immunoblot...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636640/targeted-nanodiamonds-for-identification-of-subcellular-protein-assemblies-in-mammalian-cells
#3
Michael P Lake, Louis-S Bouchard
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to successfully determine the structures of proteins. However, such studies are typically done ex situ after extraction of the protein from the cellular environment. Here we describe an application for nanodiamonds as targeted intensity contrast labels in biological TEM, using the nuclear pore complex (NPC) as a model macroassembly. We demonstrate that delivery of antibody-conjugated nanodiamonds to live mammalian cells using maltotriose-conjugated polypropylenimine dendrimers results in efficient localization of nanodiamonds to the intended cellular target...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624666/the-nuclear-pore-complex-core-scaffold-and-permeability-barrier-variations-of-a-common-theme
#4
REVIEW
Ryo Hayama, Michael P Rout, Javier Fernandez-Martinez
The study of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a fascinating endeavor, as it not only implies uncovering the 'engineering marvel' of its architecture and function, but also provides a key window into a significant evolutionary event: the origin of the eukaryotic cell. The combined efforts of many groups in the field, with the help of novel methodologies and new model organisms, are facilitating a much deeper understanding of this complex assembly. Here we cover recent advances on the characterization of the structure of the NPC scaffold and of the biophysical mechanisms that define the permeability barrier...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624084/water-diffusion-to-assess-meat-microstructure
#5
Luca Laghi, Luca Venturi, Nicolò Dellarosa, Massimiliano Petracci
In the quest for setting up rapid methods to evaluate water retention ability of meat microstructures, time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) has gained a prominent role, due to the possibility to observe water located outside the myofibrils, easily lost upon storage or cooking. Diffusion weighted signals could be used to monitor the shape and dimension of the pores in which water is confined, thus boosting the information offered by TD-NMR. The work outlines a parsimonious model to describe relative abundance and diffusion coefficient of intra and extra myofibrillar water populations, exchange rate between them, diameter of the myofibrillar cells...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613818/efficient-removal-of-anionic-radioactive-pollutant-from-water-using-ordered-urea-functionalized-mesoporous-polymeric-nanoparticle
#6
Jian Shen, Wei Chai, Kaixuan Wang, Fang Zhang
A urea-functionalized ordered mesoporous polymeric nanoparticle for removing the perrhenate anion ReO4- as the surrogate of the particularly intractable anion radioactive pollutant TcO4- was demonstrated in the present study. This nanomaterial (denoted as urea-MPN) was produced for the first time by a surfactant-directed urea-phenol-formaldehyde resol oligomers self-assembly protocol under hydrothermal condition. The obtained urea-MPN possessed the uniform nanosized spherical morphology with 3D interconnected ordered cubic mesoporous structure...
June 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611252/the-primary-enveloped-virion-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-its-role-in-nuclear-egress
#7
William W Newcomb, Juan Fontana, Dennis C Winkler, Naiqian Cheng, J Bernard Heymann, Alasdair C Steven
Many viruses migrate between different cellular compartments for successive stages of assembly. The HSV-1 capsid assembles in the nucleus and then transfers into the cytoplasm. First, the capsid buds through the inner nuclear membrane, becoming coated with nuclear egress complex (NEC) protein. This yields a primary enveloped virion (PEV) whose envelope fuses with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing the capsid into the cytoplasm. We investigated the associated molecular mechanisms by isolating PEVs from US3-null-infected cells and imaging them by cryo-electron microscopy and tomography...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607146/epigenetic-transcriptional-memory-of-gal-genes-depends-on-growth-in-glucose-and-the-tup1-transcription-factor-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Varun Sood, Ivelisse Cajigas, Agustina D'Urso, William H Light, Jason H Brickner
Previously expressed inducible genes can remain poised for faster reactivation for multiple cell divisions, a conserved phenomenon called epigenetic transcriptional memory. The GAL genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show faster reactivation for up to seven generations after being repressed. During memory, previously produced Gal1 protein enhances the rate of reactivation of GAL1, GAL10, GAL2 and GAL7 These genes also interact with the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and localize to the nuclear periphery both when active and during memory...
June 12, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602187/desi-ms-imaging-and-nmr-spectroscopy-to-investigate-the-influence-of-biodiesel-in-the-structure-of-commercial-rubbers
#9
Lorena M A Silva, Elenilson G Alves Filho, André J Simpson, Marcos R Monteiro, Elaine Cabral, Demian Ifa, Tiago Venâncio
Biodiesel has been introduced as an energetic matrix in several countries around the world. However, the affinity of biodiesel with the components of petrodiesel engines is a growing concern. In order to obtain information regarding the effect of biodiesel on the rubber structure, nuclear magnetic resonance technics under a new technology named as comprehensive multiphase (CMP NMR) and the imaging through desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS imaging) were used. The (1)H CMP-DOSY NMR showed the entrapped fuel into the rubber cavities, which the higher constraint caused by the rubber structure is related to the smaller diffusion coefficient...
October 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598151/active-targeting-of-the-nucleus-using-non-peptidic-boronate-tags
#10
Rui Tang, Ming Wang, Moumita Ray, Ying Jiang, Ziwen Jiang, Qiaobing Xu, Vincent M Rotello
Active intracellular transport is a central mechanism in cell biology, directed by a limited set of naturally occurring signaling peptides. Here we report the first non-peptide moiety that recruits intracellular transport machinery for nuclear targeting. Proteins synthetically modified with a simple aromatic boronate motif are actively trafficked to the nucleus via the importin α/β pathway. Significantly, proteins too large to passively diffuse through nuclear pores were readily imported into the nucleus through this boronate-mediated pathway...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591600/elastic-fluid-model-for-dna-damage-and-mutation-from-nuclear-fluid-segregation-due-to-cell-migration
#11
Rachel R Bennett, Charlotte R Pfeifer, Jerome Irianto, Yuntao Xia, Dennis E Discher, Andrea J Liu
When cells migrate through constricting pores, they incur DNA damage and develop genomic variation. Experiments show that this damage is not due to DNA breakage from mechanical stress on chromatin in the deformed nucleus. Here we propose a model for a mechanism by which nuclear deformation can lead to DNA damage. We treat the nucleus as an elastic-fluid system with an elastic component (chromatin) and fluid component that can be squeezed out when the nucleus is deformed. We couple the elastic-fluid model to the kinetics of DNA breakage and repair by assuming that the local volume fraction of the elastic component controls the rate of damage per unit volume due to naturally occurring DNA breaks, whereas the volume fraction of the fluid component controls the rate of repair of DNA breaks per unit volume by repair factors, which are soluble in the fluid...
June 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587976/mechanosensing-of-matrix-by-stem-cells-from-contractility-and-matrix-heterogeneity-to-cardiogenesis-and-muscle-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
Lucas Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells are particularly 'plastic' cell types that are induced by various cues to become specialized, tissue-functional lineages by switching on the expression of specific gene programs. Matrix stiffness is among the cues that multiple stem cell types can sense and respond to. This seminar-style review focuses on mechanosensing of matrix elasticity in the differentiation or early maturation of a few illustrative stem cell types, with an intended audience of biologists and physical scientists. Contractile forces applied by a cell's acto-myosin cytoskeleton are often resisted by the extracellular matrix and transduced through adhesions and the cytoskeleton ultimately into the nucleus to modulate gene expression...
June 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587927/the-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-the-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-cacnb4-regulates-the-rate-of-cell-proliferation-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#13
Mohamad Rima, Marwa Daghsni, Stephan De Waard, Nathalie Gaborit, Ziad Fajloun, Michel Ronjat, Yasuo Mori, Juan L Brusés, Michel De Waard
The β subunits of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (VGCC) are cytosolic proteins that interact with the VGCC pore -forming subunit and participate in the trafficking of the channel to the cell membrane and in ion influx regulation. β subunits also exert functions independently of their binding to VGCC by translocation to the cell nucleus including the control of gene expression. Mutations of the neuronal Cacnb4 (β4) subunit are linked to human neuropsychiatric disorders including epilepsy and intellectual disabilities...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586646/nuclear-pores-regulate-muscle-development-and-maintenance-by-assembling-a-localized-mef2c-complex
#14
Marcela Raices, Lucas Bukata, Stephen Sakuma, Joana Borlido, Leanora S Hernandez, Daniel O Hart, Maximiliano A D'Angelo
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are multiprotein channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm. NPCs have been shown to have tissue-specific composition, suggesting that their function can be specialized. However, the physiological roles of NPC composition changes and their impacts on cellular processes remain unclear. Here we show that the addition of the Nup210 nucleoporin to NPCs during myoblast differentiation results in assembly of an Mef2C transcriptional complex required for efficient expression of muscle structural genes and microRNAs...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580973/the-particle-in-the-spider-s-web-transport-through-biological-hydrogels
#15
Jacob Witten, Katharina Ribbeck
Biological hydrogels such as mucus, extracellular matrix, biofilms, and the nuclear pore have diverse functions and compositions, but all act as selectively permeable barriers to the diffusion of particles. Each barrier has a crosslinked polymeric mesh that blocks penetration of large particles such as pathogens, nanotherapeutics, or macromolecules. These polymeric meshes also employ interactive filtering, in which affinity between solutes and the gel matrix controls permeability. Interactive filtering affects the transport of particles of all sizes including peptides, antibiotics, and nanoparticles and in many cases this filtering can be described in terms of the effects of charge and hydrophobicity...
June 5, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579449/structural-dynamics-of-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#16
REVIEW
Yusuke Sakiyama, Radhakrishnan Panatala, Roderick Y H Lim
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole conduits that facilitate macromolecular exchange between the nucleus and cytosol. Recent advancements have led to a more highly resolved NPC structure. However, our understanding of the NPC modus operandi that facilitates transport selectivity, and speed, of diverse cargoes remains incomplete. For the most part, assorted cargo-complexes of different sizes traverse the NPC central channel in milliseconds, yet little is known about the nanoscopic movements of its barrier-forming Phe-Gly nucleoporins (FG Nups) and related sub-structures at transport-relevant time and length scales...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576968/localisation-of-nup153-and-senp1-to-nuclear-pore-complexes-is-required-for-53bp1-mediated-dna-double-strand-break-repair
#17
Vincent Duheron, Nadine Nilles, Sylvia Pecenko, Valérie Martinelli, Birthe Fahrenkrog
The nuclear basket of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is composed of three nucleoporins: Nup153, Nup50 and Tpr. Nup153 has a role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by promoting nuclear import of 53BP1, a mediator of DNA damage response. Here we provide evidence that loss of Nup153 compromises 53BP1 sumoylation, prerequisite for efficient accumulation of 53BP1 at DSBs. Depletion of Nup153 resulted in reduced SUMO1 modification of 53BP1 and the displacement of the SUMO protease SENP1 from NPCs. Artificial tethering of SENP1 to NPCs restored non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in the absence of Nup153 and re-established 53BP1 sumoylation...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562428/single-nucleotide-variant-in-nucleoporin-107-may-be-predictive-of-sensitivity-to-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#18
Shaheen Alanee, Kristin Delfino, Andrew Wilber, Kathy Robinson, Laurent Brard, Assaad Semaan
BACKGROUND: Alterations in nuclear pore complex (NPC) genes have been previously associated with response to chemotherapy. Using agnostic exome sequencing, we envisioned that new alleles in NPC genes, predictive of sensitivity to platinum treatment, could be discovered. METHODS: Twenty-two platinum-sensitive and six platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients were tested. Platinum sensitivity was defined as disease-free survival greater than 6 months. Next-generation sequencing of exomes was used to compare platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant patients...
July 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561834/organoindium-modified-monodisperse-ellipsoid-platelet-like-periodic-mesoporous-silicas
#19
Yucang Liang, Martin Meixner
In this study, an indium(iii) silylamide complex was respectively grafted onto monodisperse ellipsoid-like (E) and platelet-like (P) large-pore hexagonal periodic mesoporous silicas (PMSs) SBA-15 to afford hybrid materials In[N(SiMe3)2]3@SBA-15E and In[N(SiMe3)2]3@SBA-15P with well-defined surface species ([triple bond, length as m-dash]SiO)2In[N(SiMe3)2], [triple bond, length as m-dash]SiOIn[N(SiMe3)2]2, and [triple bond, length as m-dash]SiOSiMe3. Surface ligand exchange between silylamido and alkoxyl group led to the conversion of surface species ([triple bond, length as m-dash]SiO)2In[N(SiMe3)2] and [triple bond, length as m-dash]SiOIn[N(SiMe3)2]2 into ([triple bond, length as m-dash]SiO)2In(OR) and [triple bond, length as m-dash]SiOIn(OR)2 (R = Me, Et, iPr) with donor ligands thf or NH3, respectively, revealing that silylamido coordinated to the indium centre could be completely exchanged with alkoxyl groups (-OMe, OEt or OiPr)...
June 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561740/a-new-genus-of-proteocephalid-tapeworm-cestoda-from-the-marbled-swamp-eel-synbranchus-marmoratus-bloch-synbranchiformes-synbranchidae-in-the-river-paran%C3%A3-basin-argentina
#20
Nathalia J Arredondo, Philippe Vieira Alves, Alicia A Gil de Pertierra
Synbranchiella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Synbranchiella mabelae sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Monticelliinae) from the intestine of the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, in the River Colastiné, a tributary of the middle River Paraná in Argentina. The new genus is placed in the Monticelliinae because of the cortical position of the genital organs. It differs from all known monticelliine genera by the following combination of characters: (i) scolex robust, with a conical apex, without metascolex; (ii) biloculate suckers with a conspicuous septum separating unequally-sized loculi and a robust non-adherent area, lacking free posterior margin; (iii) vitelline follicles in two narrow lateral bands, extended throughout the nearly entire proglottid length; (iv) vagina always anterior to the cirrus-sac, with an inconspicuous vaginal sphincter; (v) a genital pore pre-equatorial...
May 5, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
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