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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927244/wuzi-yanzong-pill-a-chinese-polyherbal-formula-alleviates-testicular-damage-in-mice-induced-by-ionizing-radiation
#1
Hai-Jie Ji, Dong-Mei Wang, Yu-Peng Wu, Yan-Yan Niu, Li-Li Jia, Bi-Wang Liu, Qian-Jin Feng, Ma-Li Feng
BACKGROUND: Chinese medicine Wuzi Yanzong pill (WZYZP) was firstly documented in ancient Chinese medical works "She Sheng Zhong Miao Fang" by Shi-Che Zhang in 1550 AD. The traditional herbal formula is widely used in treating nephrasthenia lumbago, prospermia, erectile dysfunction and male sterility. The present study was to explore the effects of WZYZP on ionizing irradiation-induced testicular damage in mice. METHODS: The pelvic region of male mice was exposed to X-rays for inducing testicular damage...
December 7, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911835/two-crystal-structures-reveal-design-for-repurposing-the-c-ala-domain-of-human-alars
#2
Litao Sun, Youngzee Song, David Blocquel, Xiang-Lei Yang, Paul Schimmel
The 20 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) couple each amino acid to their cognate tRNAs. During evolution, 19 aaRSs expanded by acquiring novel noncatalytic appended domains, which are absent from bacteria and many lower eukaryotes but confer extracellular and nuclear functions in higher organisms. AlaRS is the single exception, with an appended C-terminal domain (C-Ala) that is conserved from prokaryotes to humans but with a wide sequence divergence. In human cells, C-Ala is also a splice variant of AlaRS...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909154/towards-a-novel-modular-architecture-for-cern-radiation-monitoring
#3
Hamza Boukabache, Michel Pangallo, Gael Ducos, Nicola Cardines, Antonio Bellotta, Ciarán Toner, Daniel Perrin, Doris Forkel-Wirth
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability...
November 30, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901466/differentiation-alters-stem-cell-nuclear-architecture-mechanics-and-mechano-sensitivity
#4
Su-Jin Heo, Tristan P Driscoll, Stephen D Thorpe, Nandan L Nerurkar, Brendon M Baker, Michael T Yang, Christopher S Chen, David A Lee, Robert L Mauck
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is mediated by soluble and physical cues. In this study, we investigated differentiation induced transformations in MSC cellular and nuclear biophysical properties and queried their role in mechanosensation. Our data show that nuclei in differentiated bovine and human MSCs stiffen and become resistant to deformation. This attenuated nuclear deformation was governed by restructuring of Lamin A/C and increased heterochromatin content. This change in nuclear stiffness sensitized MSCs to mechanical loading induced calcium signaling and differentiated marker expression...
November 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901132/ligand-density-quantification-on-colloidal-inorganic-nanoparticles
#5
REVIEW
Ashley M Smith, Kathryn A Johnston, Scott E Crawford, Lauren E Marbella, Jill E Millstone
Colloidal inorganic nanoparticles are being used in an increasingly large number of applications ranging from biological imaging to television displays. In all cases, nanoparticle surface chemistry can significantly impact particle physical properties, processing, and performance. The first step in leveraging this tunability is to develop analytical approaches to describe surface chemical features. Some of the most basic descriptors of particle surface chemistry include the quantity, identity, and arrangement of ligands appended to the particle core...
November 30, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899643/dna-structure-directs-positioning-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-packaging-protein-abf2p
#6
Arka Chakraborty, Sébastien Lyonnais, Federica Battistini, Adam Hospital, Giorgio Medici, Rafel Prohens, Modesto Orozco, Josep Vilardell, Maria Solà
The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is assembled into nucleo-protein structures termed nucleoids and maintained differently compared to nuclear DNA, the involved molecular basis remaining poorly understood. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), mtDNA is a ∼80 kbp linear molecule and Abf2p, a double HMG-box protein, packages and maintains it. The protein binds DNA in a non-sequence-specific manner, but displays a distinct 'phased-binding' at specific DNA sequences containing poly-adenine tracts (A-tracts). We present here two crystal structures of Abf2p in complex with mtDNA-derived fragments bearing A-tracts...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895148/trpc5-regulates-differentiation-through-the-ca2-wnt5a-signal-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Zhen Chen, Chunlei Tang, Yaodan Zhu, Mingxu Xie, Dongxu He, Qiongxi Pan, Peng Zhang, Dong Hua, Teng Wang, Linfang Jin, Xiaowei Qi, Yifei Zhu, Xiaoqiang Yao, Jian Jin, Xin Ma
Transient receptor potential channel 5 (TrpC5) is member of the TrpC subgroup, and it forms a receptor-activated non-selective Ca(2+) channel. The architecture of the TrpC5 channel is poorly understood. Here, we report that TrpC5 is a key factor in regulating differentiation in colorectal cancer. Through a study of specimens from a large cohort of patients with colorectal cancer, we found that TrpC5 was highly expressed and its cellular level correlated with tumor grade. We further showed that up-regulated TrpC5 caused a robust [Ca(2+)]i rise, increased Wnt5a expression, and the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, leading to a reduction of cancer differentiation and an increase of cancer cell stemness...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893180/hybrid-crosses-and-the-genetic-basis-of-interspecific-divergence-in-lifespan-in-pristionchus-nematodes
#8
Cameron J Weadick, Ralf J Sommer
Characterizing the genetic basis of among-species variation in lifespan is a major goal of evolutionary gerontology research, but the very feature that defines separate species-the inability to interbreed-makes achieving this goal impractical, if not impossible, for most taxa. Pristionchus nematodes provide an intriguing system for tackling this problem, as female lifespan varies among species that can be crossed to form viable (though infertile) hybrids. By conducting reciprocal crosses among three species-two dioecious (long-lived P...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889666/yap-dependent-mechanotransduction-is-required-for-proliferation-and-migration-on-native-like-substrate-topography
#9
Shamik Mascharak, Patrick L Benitez, Amy C Proctor, Christopher M Madl, Kenneth H Hu, Ruby E Dewi, Manish J Butte, Sarah C Heilshorn
Native vascular extracellular matrices (vECM) consist of elastic fibers that impart varied topographical properties, yet most in vitro models designed to study the effects of topography on cell behavior are not representative of native architecture. Here, we engineer an electrospun elastin-like protein (ELP) system with independently tunable, vECM-mimetic topography and demonstrate that increasing topographical variation causes loss of endothelial cell-cell junction organization. This loss of VE-cadherin signaling and increased cytoskeletal contractility on more topographically varied ELP substrates in turn promote YAP activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in significantly increased endothelial cell migration and proliferation...
January 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889665/a-three-dimensional-spheroidal-cancer-model-based-on-peg-fibrinogen-hydrogel-microspheres
#10
Shantanu Pradhan, Jacob M Clary, Dror Seliktar, Elizabeth A Lipke
Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cancer models offer an attractive approach towards the investigation of tumorigenic phenomena and other cancer studies by providing dimensional context and higher degree of physiological relevance than that offered by conventional two-dimensional (2D) models. The multicellular tumor spheroid model, formed by cell aggregation, is considered to be the "gold standard" for 3D cancer models, due to its ease and simplicity of use. Although better than 2D models, tumor spheroids are unable to replicate key features of the native tumor microenvironment, particularly due to a lack of surrounding extracellular matrix components and heterogeneity in shape, size and aggregate forming tendencies...
January 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879513/high-grade-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-lung-with-carcinoid-morphology-a-study-of-12-cases
#11
Anne Marie Quinn, Anshuman Chaturvedi, Daisuke Nonaka
Twelve lung neuroendocrine tumors with morphologic features of carcinoid tumors but with mitotic count >10/2 mm are reported. There were 7 males and 5 females, with age ranging from 56 to 78 years. Four cases were from never-smokers. All tumors showed architectural and cytomorphologic features of carcinoid tumor, including organoid nesting, insular, trabecular, or acinar growth, and tumor cells with low nucleocytoplasmic ratio, abundant cytoplasm, ovoid to round nuclei, and salt and pepper chromatin. Angulated or confluent nesting, insular or lobular growth pattern was also seen...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873269/the-use-of-3d-telomere-fish-for-the-characterization-of-the-nuclear-architecture-in-ebv-positive-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#12
Hans Knecht, Sabine Mai
The 3D nuclear architecture is closely related to cellular functions and chromosomes are organized in distinct territories. Quantitative 3D telomere FISH analysis (3D Q-FISH) and 3D super-resolution imaging (3D-SIM) at a resolution up to 80 nm as well as the recently developed combined quantitative 3D TRF2-telomere immune FISH technique (3D TRF2/Telo-Q-FISH) have substantially contributed to elucidate molecular pathogenic mechanisms of hematological diseases. Here we report the methods we applied to uncover major molecular steps involved in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863249/lineage-specific-genome-architecture-links-enhancers-and-non-coding-disease-variants-to-target-gene-promoters
#13
Biola M Javierre, Oliver S Burren, Steven P Wilder, Roman Kreuzhuber, Steven M Hill, Sven Sewitz, Jonathan Cairns, Steven W Wingett, Csilla Várnai, Michiel J Thiecke, Frances Burden, Samantha Farrow, Antony J Cutler, Karola Rehnström, Kate Downes, Luigi Grassi, Myrto Kostadima, Paula Freire-Pritchett, Fan Wang, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, John A Todd, Daniel R Zerbino, Oliver Stegle, Willem H Ouwehand, Mattia Frontini, Chris Wallace, Mikhail Spivakov, Peter Fraser
Long-range interactions between regulatory elements and gene promoters play key roles in transcriptional regulation. The vast majority of interactions are uncharted, constituting a major missing link in understanding genome control. Here, we use promoter capture Hi-C to identify interacting regions of 31,253 promoters in 17 human primary hematopoietic cell types. We show that promoter interactions are highly cell type specific and enriched for links between active promoters and epigenetically marked enhancers...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861795/sex-specific-mitonuclear-epistasis-and-the-evolution-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-ageing-and-life-history-in-seed-beetles
#14
Mirko Đorđević, Biljana Stojković, Uroš Savković, Elina Immonen, Nikola Tucić, Jelica Lazarević, Göran Arnqvist
The role of mitochondrial DNA for the evolution of life-history traits remains debated. We examined mitonuclear effects on the activity of the multisubunit complex of the electron transport chain (ETC) involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) across lines of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for a short (E) or a long (L) life for more than >160 generations. We constructed and phenotyped mitonuclear introgression lines, which allowed us to assess the independent effects of the evolutionary history of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome...
November 9, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856763/normal-chromosome-conformation-depends-on-subtelomeric-facultative-heterochromatin-in-neurospora-crassa
#15
Andrew D Klocko, Tereza Ormsby, Jonathan M Galazka, Neena A Leggett, Miki Uesaka, Shinji Honda, Michael Freitag, Eric U Selker
High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analyses revealed that the 3D structure of the Neurospora crassa genome is dominated by intra- and interchromosomal links between regions of heterochromatin, especially constitutive heterochromatin. Elimination of trimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3) or its binding partner Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1)-both prominent features of constitutive heterochromatin-have little effect on the Hi-C pattern. It remained possible that di- or trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me2/3), which becomes localized in regions of constitutive heterochromatin when H3K9me3 or HP1 are lost, plays a critical role in the 3D structure of the genome...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852749/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-replicative-and-non-replicative-forms-reveals-important-insights-into-chromatin-biology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#16
Teresa Cristina Leandro de Jesus, Simone Guedes Calderano, Francisca Nathalia de Luna Vitorino, Ricardo Pariona Llanos, Mariana de Camargo Lopes, Christiane Bezerra de Araújo, Otavio Henrique Thiemann, Marcelo da Silva Reis, Maria Carolina Elias, Julia Pinheiro Chagas da Cunha
Chromatin associated proteins are key regulators of many important processes in the cell. Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoa flagellate that causes Chagas disease, alternates between replicative and non-replicative forms accompanied by a shift on global transcription levels and by changes in its chromatin architecture. Here, we investigated the T. cruzi chromatin proteome using three different protocols and compared it between replicative (epimastigote) and non-replicative (trypomastigote) forms by high-resolution mass spectrometry...
November 16, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851973/soft-x-ray-tomography-reveals-gradual-chromatin-compaction-and-reorganization-during-neurogenesis-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Mark A Le Gros, E Josephine Clowney, Angeliki Magklara, Angela Yen, Eirene Markenscoff-Papadimitriou, Bradley Colquitt, Markko Myllys, Manolis Kellis, Stavros Lomvardas, Carolyn A Larabell
The realization that nuclear distribution of DNA, RNA, and proteins differs between cell types and developmental stages suggests that nuclear organization serves regulatory functions. Understanding the logic of nuclear architecture and how it contributes to differentiation and cell fate commitment remains challenging. Here, we use soft X-ray tomography (SXT) to image chromatin organization, distribution, and biophysical properties during neurogenesis in vivo. Our analyses reveal that chromatin with similar biophysical properties forms an elaborate connected network throughout the entire nucleus...
November 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851967/a-compendium-of-chromatin-contact-maps-reveals-spatially-active-regions-in-the-human-genome
#18
Anthony D Schmitt, Ming Hu, Inkyung Jung, Zheng Xu, Yunjiang Qiu, Catherine L Tan, Yun Li, Shin Lin, Yiing Lin, Cathy L Barr, Bing Ren
The three-dimensional configuration of DNA is integral to all nuclear processes in eukaryotes, yet our knowledge of the chromosome architecture is still limited. Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture studies have uncovered features of chromatin organization in cultured cells, but genome architecture in human tissues has yet to be explored. Here, we report the most comprehensive survey to date of chromatin organization in human tissues. Through integrative analysis of chromatin contact maps in 21 primary human tissues and cell types, we find topologically associating domains highly conserved in different tissues...
November 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829622/morphological-and-mechanical-properties-of-osteosarcoma-microenvironment-cells-explored-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#19
Xinlong Wang, Yingjun Yang, Xiaohong Hu, Naoki Kawazoe, Yingnan Yang, Guoping Chen
Cell mechanical properties that depend on cytoskeleton architecture are critical to the mechanotransduction process, and have great potential for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, the morphological and mechanical properties of typical osteosarcoma microenvironment cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), normal human osteoblast cells (NHOst) and osteosarcoma cells (MG-63), were compared using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The MG-63 cells were smaller and thicker than the MSC and NHOst cells...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824185/an-fe60-tetrahedral-cage-building-nanoscopic-molecular-assemblies-through-cyanometallate-and-alkoxo-linkers
#20
J-R Jiménez, A Mondal, L-M Chamoreau, P Fertey, F Tuna, M Julve, A Bousseksou, R Lescouëzec, L Lisnard
A nanoscopic {Fe60} coordination cage (approximately 3 nm) was prepared by the self assembly of a partially blocked tricyanidoferrate(iii) complex and tris(alkoxo)-based iron(iii) coordination motifs. This cage is a rare example of a mixed cyanido/alkoxo-bridged high nuclearity complex and it exemplifies the great potential of this new synthetic route to generate uncommon molecular architectures using cyanometallates as metalloligands versus alkoxo-based polynuclear entities.
November 8, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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