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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326488/resveratrol-prevents-liver-fibrosis-via-two-possible-pathways-modulation-of-alpha-fetoprotein-transcriptional-levels-and-normalization-of-protein-kinase-c-responses
#1
Alyaa Farouk Hessin, Rehab Rehab Hegazy, Azza Ahmed Hassan, Nemat Zakaria Yassin, Sanaa Abdel-Baky Kenawy
OBJECTIVE: Liver fibrosis is a global health problem that causes approximately 1.4 million deaths per year. It is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, necrosis and ends with cirrhosis, liver cancer, or liver failure. Therefore, the present study was constructed to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol (RVT) on liver fibrosis, focusing on the possible involvement of alpha 1-fetoprotein and protein kinase C signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats received thioacetamide (TAA) (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) twice weekly, for 4 successive weeks to induce liver fibrosis...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297496/variants-of-acinar-adenocarcinoma-of-the-prostate-mimicking-benign-conditions
#2
Peter A Humphrey
Histological variants of acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate may be of significance due to difficulty in diagnosis or due to differences in prognosis compared to usual acinar adenocarcinoma. The 2016 World Health Organization classification of acinar adenocarcinoma includes four variants that are deceptively benign in histological appearance, such that a misdiagnosis of a benign condition may be made. These four variants are atrophic pattern adenocarcinoma, pseudohyperplastic adenocarcinoma, microcystic adenocarcinoma, and foamy gland adenocarcinoma...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297491/high-grade-prostatic-intraepithelial-neoplasia-pin-like-carcinoma-ductal-carcinoma-and-intraductal-carcinoma-of-the-prostate
#3
Ming Zhou
Many prostate lesions have 'large gland' morphology with gland size similar to or larger than benign glands, complex glandular architecture including papillary, cribriform, and solid, and significant cytological atypia in glandular epithelium with nucleomegaly, prominent nucleoli, or anisonucleosis. The most common and clinically important lesions with 'large gland' morphology include high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), PIN-like carcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma, and intraductal carcinoma...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290469/allosteric-coupling-of-drug-binding-and-intracellular-signaling-in-the-a2a-adenosine-receptor
#4
Matthew T Eddy, Ming-Yue Lee, Zhan-Guo Gao, Kate L White, Tatiana Didenko, Reto Horst, Martin Audet, Pawel Stanczak, Kyle M McClary, Gye Won Han, Kenneth A Jacobson, Raymond C Stevens, Kurt Wüthrich
Signaling across cellular membranes, the 826 human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) govern a wide range of vital physiological processes, making GPCRs prominent drug targets. X-ray crystallography provided GPCR molecular architectures, which also revealed the need for additional structural dynamics data to support drug development. Here, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with the wild-type-like A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) in solution provides a comprehensive characterization of signaling-related structural dynamics...
December 27, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288061/the-effect-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-on-radiation-induced-neuron-architecture-impairment-is-associated-with-the-nfatc4-3-pathway
#5
Qixian Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Ru He, Quanhong Ma, Rui Sun, Shengjun Ji, Bei Wang, Ye Tian
Irradiation to developing brains results in progressive cognitive dysfunction. Changes in the morphology of mature neurons are thought to be related to impairments of cognitive function. However, little is known about the effects of radiation on neurite outgrowth of immature neurons. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the structural alterations of immature neurons following X-ray irradiation and determine potential strategies to reverse it. Our data revealed damage to the neurite outgrowths of cultured neurons after 2 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation at 1 d and 3 d, respectively...
December 26, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276943/nuclear-bodies-built-on-architectural-long-noncoding-rnas-unifying-principles-of-their-construction-and-function
#6
Takeshi Chujo, Tetsuro Hirose
Nuclear bodies are subnuclear, spheroidal, and membraneless compartments that concentrate specific proteins and/or RNAs. They serve as sites of biogenesis, storage, and sequestration of specific RNAs, proteins, or ribonucleoprotein complexes. Recent studies reveal that a subset of nuclear bodies in various eukaryotic organisms is constructed using architectural long noncoding RNAs (arcRNAs). Here, we describe the unifying mechanistic principles of the construction and function of these bodies, especially focusing on liquid-liquid phase separation induced by architectural molecules that form multiple weakly adhesive interactions...
December 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276759/in-vivo-multiscale-and-spatially-dependent-biomechanics-reveals-differential-strain-transfer-hierarchy-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
Soham Ghosh, James G Cimino, Adrienne K Scott, Frederick W Damen, Evan H Phillips, Alexander I Veress, Corey P Neu, Craig J Goergen
Biological tissues have a complex hierarchical architecture that spans organ to subcellular scales and comprises interconnected biophysical and biochemical machinery. Mechanotransduction, gene regulation, gene protection, and structure-function relationships in tissues depend on how force and strain are modulated from macro to micro scales, and vice versa. Traditionally, computational and experimental techniques have been used in common model systems (e.g., embryos) and simple strain measures were applied. But the hierarchical transfer of mechanical parameters like strain in mammalian systems is largely unexplored in vivo...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276099/lethal-3-malignant-brain-tumor-like-2-l3mbtl2-protein-protects-against-kidney-injury-by-inhibiting-the-dna-damage-p53-apoptosis-pathway-in-renal-tubular-cells
#8
Huihui Huang, Chunhua Xu, Yang Wang, Chenling Meng, Wenjing Liu, Yueshui Zhao, Xiao-Ru Huang, Wenxing You, Bo Feng, Zhi-Hua Zheng, Yu Huang, Hui-Yao Lan, Jinzhong Qin, Yin Xia
DNA damage contributes to renal tubular cell death during kidney injury, but how DNA damage in tubular cells is regulated is not fully understood. Lethal (3) malignant brain tumor like 2 (L3MBTL2), a novel polycomb group protein, has been implicated in regulating chromatin architecture. However, the biological functions of L3MBTL2 are largely undefined. Here we found that L3MBTL2 was expressed in the nuclei of renal tubular epithelial cells in mice. Ablation of L3mbtl2 in renal tubular cells resulted in increases in nuclear DNA damage, p53 activation, apoptosis, tubular injury and kidney dysfunction after cisplatin treatment or unilateral ureteral obstruction...
December 21, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273625/the-nuclear-matrix-protein-hnrnpu-maintains-3d-genome-architecture-globally-in-mouse-hepatocytes
#9
Hui Fan, Pin Lv, Xiangru Huo, Jicheng Wu, Qianfeng Wang, Lu Cheng, Yun Liu, Qiqun Tang, Ling Zhang, Feng Zhang, Xiaoqi Zheng, Hao Wu, Bo Wen
The eukaryotic chromosomes are folded into higher-order conformation to coordinate genome functions. Besides long-range chromatin loops, recent chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based studies indicated the higher level of chromatin structures including compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), which may serve as units of genome organization and functions. However, the molecular machinery underlying these hierarchically three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architectures remains poorly understood...
December 22, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242553/nuclear-lamin-a-c-harnesses-the-perinuclear-apical-actin-cables-to-protect-nuclear-morphology
#10
Jeong-Ki Kim, Arghavan Louhghalam, Geonhui Lee, Benjamin W Schafer, Denis Wirtz, Dong-Hwee Kim
The distinct spatial architecture of the apical actin cables (or actin cap) facilitates rapid biophysical signaling between extracellular mechanical stimuli and intracellular responses, including nuclear shaping, cytoskeletal remodeling, and the mechanotransduction of external forces into biochemical signals. These functions are abrogated in lamin A/C-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts that recapitulate the defective nuclear organization of laminopathies, featuring disruption of the actin cap. However, how nuclear lamin A/C mediates the ability of the actin cap to regulate nuclear morphology remains unclear...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241690/nuclear-positioning-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
REVIEW
William Roman, Edgar R Gomes
Skeletal muscle cells possess a unique cellular architecture designed to fulfill their contractile function. Muscle cells (also known as myofibers) result from the fusion of hundreds of myoblasts and grow into a fiber of several centimeters in length. Cellular structures gradually become organized during muscle development to raise a mature contractile cell. A hallmark of this singular cell architecture is the position of nuclei at the periphery of the myofiber, below the plasma membrane. Nuclei in myofibers are evenly distributed except in specialized regions like the neuromuscular or myotendinous junctions...
December 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239036/a-user-s-guide-to-non-invasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp
#12
REVIEW
Yin P Hung, Justine A Barletta
The term non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was recently introduced to replace a subset of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). The goal of this change was to promote more conservative management of these tumours and spare patients the psychological burden of a cancer diagnosis. The histological diagnosis of NIFTP is stringent: the tumour needs to demonstrate encapsulation or circumscription, a purely follicular architecture and the presence of nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma, while lacking capsular and vascular invasion, a significant component of solid growth and high-grade features (increased mitotic activity and necrosis)...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235449/evaluation-of-skin-absorbed-doses-during-manipulation-of-radioactive-sources-a-comparison-between-varskin-code-and-monte-carlo-simulations
#13
Ernesto Amato, Antonio Italiano
The evaluation of skin doses during manipulation of radioactive sources can be a critical issue, worth using the most accurate calculation strategies available. The aim of this work was to compare the results of the analytical approach used in VARSKIN with the simulation of radiation transport and interaction by Monte Carlo calculations in GAMOS (GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations), and to provide an accurate and versatile tool for the evaluation of skin doses from radionuclide sources of any realistic shape (e...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226548/diffusion-tensor-imaging-determines-three-dimensional-architecture-of-human-cervix-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
J P Nott, E Pervolaraki, A P Benson, E A Bonney, J D Pickering, N Wilkinson, Nab Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the microarchitecture of the cervix using high-resolution diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Leeds, UK. SAMPLE: Women undergoing hysterectomy for benign pathology. METHODS: Ex-vivo DT-MRI measurements were obtained using a 9.4-T Bruker nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer on seven fixed human cervices obtained at hysterectomy...
October 26, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217586/resonantly-driven-cnot-gate-for-electron-spins
#15
D M Zajac, A J Sigillito, M Russ, F Borjans, J M Taylor, G Burkard, J R Petta
Single qubit rotations and two-qubit CNOT operations are crucial ingredients for universal quantum computing. Although high fidelity single qubit operations have been achieved using the electron spin degree of freedom, realizing a robust CNOT gate has been challenging owing to rapid nuclear spin dephasing and charge noise. We demonstrate an efficient resonantly driven CNOT gate for electron spins in silicon. Our platform achieves single-qubit rotations with fidelities >99%, as verified by randomized benchmarking...
December 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216191/transcription-factors-coregulators-and-epigenetic-marks-are-linearly-correlated-and-highly-redundant
#16
Tobias Ahsendorf, Franz-Josef Müller, Ved Topkar, Jeremy Gunawardena, Roland Eils
The DNA microstates that regulate transcription include sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs), coregulatory complexes, nucleosomes, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and parts of the three-dimensional architecture of genomes, which could create an enormous combinatorial complexity across the genome. However, many proteins and epigenetic marks are known to colocalize, suggesting that the information content encoded in these marks can be compressed. It has so far proved difficult to understand this compression in a systematic and quantitative manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213086/3d-microniches-reveal-the-importance-of-cell-size-and-shape
#17
Min Bao, Jing Xie, Aigars Piruska, Wilhelm T S Huck
Geometrical cues have been shown to alter gene expression and differentiation on 2D substrates. However, little is known about how geometrical cues affect cell function in 3D. One major reason for this lack of understanding is rooted in the difficulties of controlling cell geometry in a complex 3D setting and for long periods of culture. Here, we present a robust method to control cell volume and shape of individual human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) inside 3D microniches with a range of different geometries (e...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212225/the-relevance-of-prelamin-a-and-rad51-as-molecular-biomarkers-in-cervical-cancer
#18
Simona Leonardi, Marianna Buttarelli, Ilaria De Stefano, Gabriella Ferrandina, Marco Petrillo, Gabriele Babini, Giovanni Scambia, Carmela Marino, Mariateresa Mancuso, Daniela Gallo
Along with their role in the maintenance of nuclear architecture, nuclear lamins also control genomic stability, DNA damage repair, transcription, cell proliferation, differentiation and senescence. Recent reports reveal that prelamin A-processing defects play a role in cancer development by impacting on transcription of key players in the maintenance of the genome stability, including RAD51. Here, we performed a 'proof of concept' study evaluating the role of prelamin A and RAD51 expression in clinical outcome of cervical cancer patients...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208900/-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-accumulates-inside-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-vacuoles-in-the-gut-cells-of-diaphorina-citri
#19
Murad Ghanim, Diann Achor, Saptarshi Ghosh, Svetlana Kontsedalov, Galina Lebedev, Amit Levy
Citrus greening disease known also as Huanglongbing (HLB) caused by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) has resulted in tremendous losses and the death of millions of trees worldwide. CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. The closely-related bacteria 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso), associated with vegetative disorders in carrots, is transmitted by the carrot psyllid Bactericera trigonica. A promising approach to prevent the transmission of these pathogens is to interfere with the vector-pathogen interactions, but our understanding of these processes is limited...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208643/heterologous-protein-expression-in-the-xenopus-oocyte
#20
Jonathan S Marchant
The Xenopus oocyte is a specialized single cell of colossal size (>1 mm diameter) that is highly amenable for microinjection and a stalwart model for heterologous expression. Oocytes are easily obtainable, robust in vitro, and faithfully express injected constructs. Their large size translational capacity provides a huge canvas for observing and recording integrated cellular responses-from studies of single molecules within single cells to medium-throughput drug-screening applications. Most eukaryotic promoters suffice for Xenopus expression, and the oocyte can functionally express proteins from many diverse organisms...
December 5, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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