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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716842/outer-nuclear-membrane-protein-kuduk-modulates-the-linc-complex-and-nuclear-envelope-architecture
#1
Zhao-Ying Ding, Ying-Hsuan Wang, Yu-Cheng Huang, Myong-Chol Lee, Min-Jen Tseng, Ya-Hui Chi, Min-Lang Huang
Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes spanning the nuclear envelope (NE) contribute to nucleocytoskeletal force transduction. A few NE proteins have been found to regulate the LINC complex. In this study, we identify one, Kuduk (Kud), which can reside at the outer nuclear membrane and is required for the development of Drosophila melanogaster ovarian follicles and NE morphology of myonuclei. Kud associates with LINC complex components in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Loss of Kud increases the level but impairs functioning of the LINC complex...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715662/preaged-remodeling-of-myofibrillar-cytoarchitecture-in-skeletal-muscle-expressing-r349p-mutant-desmin
#2
Stefanie Diermeier, Andreas Buttgereit, Sebastian Schürmann, Lilli Winter, Hongyang Xu, Robyn M Murphy, Christoph S Clemen, Rolf Schröder, Oliver Friedrich
The majority of hereditary and acquired myopathies are clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness. We hypothesized that ongoing derangement of skeletal muscle cytoarchitecture at the single fiber level may precede and be responsible for the progressive muscle weakness. Here, we analyzed the effects of aging in wild-type (wt) and heterozygous (het) and homozygous (hom) R349P desmin knock-in mice. The latter harbor the ortholog of the most frequently encountered human R350P desmin missense mutation...
June 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703221/manipulation-of-nuclear-architecture-through-crispr-mediated-chromosomal-looping
#3
Stefanie L Morgan, Natasha C Mariano, Abel Bermudez, Nicole L Arruda, Fangting Wu, Yunhai Luo, Gautam Shankar, Lin Jia, Huiling Chen, Ji-Fan Hu, Andrew R Hoffman, Chiao-Chain Huang, Sharon J Pitteri, Kevin C Wang
Chromatin looping is key to gene regulation, yet no broadly applicable methods to selectively modify chromatin loops have been described. We have engineered a method for chromatin loop reorganization using CRISPR-dCas9 (CLOuD9) to selectively and reversibly establish chromatin loops. We demonstrate the power of this technology to selectively modulate gene expression at targeted loci.
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701827/malignancy-rate-in-thyroid-nodules-categorized-as-atypia-of-undetermined-significance-or-follicular-lesion-of-undetermined-significance-an-institutional-experience
#4
Smita Chandra, Harish Chandra, Sampan S Bisht
INTRODUCTION: Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) of Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology has emerged as most controversial category due to its heterogeneity and inconsistent usage. Initially associated risk of malignancy was estimated to be about 5-15%, but eventually different results have been obtained across institutions due to variable follow-ups and interpretation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the rate of malignancy along with appropriate management in this category...
July 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700925/protein-transport-by-the-nuclear-pore-complex-simple-biophysics-of-a-complex-biomachine
#5
REVIEW
Tijana Jovanovic-Talisman, Anton Zilman
In eukaryotic cells, transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is facilitated by highly selective and efficient biomachines known as nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The structural details of NPCs vary across species, with many of their constituent proteins exhibiting relatively low sequence conservation; yet the NPC as a whole retains its general architecture and mechanism of action in all eukaryotes from yeast to humans. This functional conservation in the absence of precise molecular conservation suggests that many aspects of the NPC transport mechanism may be understood based on general biophysical considerations...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690840/making-the-clock-tick-the-transcriptional-landscape-of-the-plant-circadian-clock
#6
REVIEW
James Ronald, Seth J Davis
Circadian clocks are molecular timekeepers that synchronise internal physiological processes with the external environment by integrating light and temperature stimuli. As in other eukaryotic organisms, circadian rhythms in plants are largely generated by an array of nuclear transcriptional regulators and associated co-regulators that are arranged into a series of interconnected molecular loops. These transcriptional regulators recruit chromatin-modifying enzymes that adjust the structure of the nucleosome to promote or inhibit DNA accessibility and thus guide transcription rates...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684113/sericin-improves-heart-and-liver-mitochondrial-architecture-in-hypercholesterolaemic-rats-and-maintains-pancreatic-and-adrenal-cell-biosynthesis
#7
Sumate Ampawong, Duangnate Isarangkul, Pornanong Aramwit
Hypercholesterolaemia is well known to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, subsequently leading to multiple organ failure. Similar to other natural products, sericin is a candidate for adjunctive therapy in hyperlipidaemic conditions. However, the cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of sericin are multifactorial and controversial. Here, a high-cholesterol-fed rat model with or without sericin treatment was established using a dosage of 1,000mg/kg/day for 30 days. Blood lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; malondialdehyde, MDA; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor, Nrf-2), dysmorphic mitochondria in relation to fission (dynamin-related protein-1; Drp-1) and fusion (guanosine triphosphatase mutated in dominant optic atrophy; OPA-1) markers and biosynthetic markers (aquaporin, AQP-1; tubulin-4β, Tb4B) in the pancreas and adrenal gland were evaluated...
July 3, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674855/carnosic-acid-attenuates-rankl-induced-oxidative-stress-and-osteoclastogenesis-via-induction-of-nrf2-and-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signalling
#8
Dinesh Thummuri, V G M Naidu, Pradip Chaudhari
Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor, which plays an important role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by induction of anti-oxidant and cytoprotective enzymes. In the current study, we sought to investigate the osteoprotective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic (catecholic) diterpene. It is widely identified for its electrophilic nature under oxidative stress conditions and thus anticipated to counter osteoporosis by facilitation of Nrf2 signalling...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673821/the-effects-of-chemical-fixation-on-the-cellular-nanostructure
#9
Yue Li, Luay M Almassalha, John E Chandler, Xiang Zhou, Yolanda E Stypula-Cyrus, Karl A Hujsak, Eric W Roth, Reiner Bleher, Hariharan Subramanian, Igal Szleifer, Vinayak P Dravid, Vadim Backman
Chemical fixation is nearly indispensable in the biological sciences, especially in circumstances where cryo-fixation is not applicable. While universally employed for the preservation of cell organization, chemical fixatives often introduce artifacts that can confound identification of true structures. Since biological research is increasingly probing ever-finer details of the cellular architecture, it is critical to understand the nanoscale transformation of the cellular organization due to fixation both systematically and quantitatively...
June 30, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668130/analysis-of-functional-dynamics-of-modular-multidomain-proteins-by-saxs-and-nmr
#10
Matthew K Thompson, Aaron C Ehlinger, Walter J Chazin
Multiprotein machines drive virtually all primary cellular processes. Modular multidomain proteins are widely distributed within these dynamic complexes because they provide the flexibility needed to remodel structure as well as rapidly assemble and disassemble components of the machinery. Understanding the functional dynamics of modular multidomain proteins is a major challenge confronting structural biology today because their structure is not fixed in time. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have proven particularly useful for the analysis of the structural dynamics of modular multidomain proteins because they provide highly complementary information for characterizing the architectural landscape accessible to these proteins...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661210/solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas-a-rare-entity-with-unique-features
#11
Peyman Dinarvand, Jinping Lai
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas is a rare entity with low malignant potential and excellent overall prognosis. It has nonspecific clinical presentations such as abdominal pain and nausea, with vague radiologic features. Histologic features of this neoplasm are usually specific. The tumor shows minimally cohesive, uniform, monotonous cells lining delicate capillary-sized blood vessels, described as pseudopapillary architecture. Other features including hyaline globules, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and nuclear grooving are frequently present...
July 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659485/cytomegalovirus-late-protein-pul31-alters-pre-rrna-expression-and-nuclear-organization-during-infection
#12
Kristen N Westdorp, Andrea Sand, Nathaniel J Moorman, Scott S Terhune
The replication cycle of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) leads to drastic reorganization of domains in the host cell nucleus. However, the mechanisms involved and how these domains contribute to infection are not well understood. Our recent studies defining the CMV-induced nuclear proteome identified several viral proteins of unknown functions including a protein encoded by the UL31 gene. We set out to define the role of UL31 in CMV replication. UL31 is predicted to encode a 74 kDa protein, referred to as pUL31, containing a bi-partite nuclear localization signal, an intrinsically disordered region overlapping with arginine-rich motifs, and a C-terminal dUTPase-like structure...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652207/characterizing-the-molecular-architectures-of-chromatin-modifying-complexes
#13
REVIEW
Dheva T Setiaputra, Calvin K Yip
Eukaryotic cells package their genome in the form of a DNA-protein complex known as chromatin. This organization not only condenses the genome to fit within the confines of the nucleus, but also provides a platform for a cell to regulate accessibility to different gene sequences. The basic packaging element of chromatin is the nucleosome, which consists of 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around histone proteins. One major means that a cell regulates chromatin structure is by depositing post-translational modifications on nucleosomal histone proteins, and thereby altering internucleosomal interactions and/or binding to different chromatin associated factors...
June 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647181/rosmarinic-acid-attenuates-hepatic-fibrogenesis-via-suppression-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-proliferation-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#14
Naglaa M El-Lakkany, Walaa H El-Maadawy, Sayed H Seif El-Din, Olfat A Hammam, Salwa H Mohamed, Shahira M Ezzat, Marwa M Safar, Samira Saleh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic role of rosmarinic acid (RA), a natural polyphenolic compound, on HSCs activation/proliferation and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The impact of RA on stellate cell line (HSC-T6) proliferation, activation and apoptosis was assessed along with its safety on primary hepatocytes. In vivo, rats were divided into: (i) normal; (ii) thioacetamide (TAA)-intoxicated rats for 12 weeks; (iii) TAA + silymarin or (iv) TAA + RA...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646544/pure-intraductal-carcinoma-of-the-parotid-gland-cytologic-findings-on-fna-sample-report-of-one-case
#15
Jessica Barizzi, Elisabetta Merlo, Rene Schönegg, Raffaele Pelloni, Luca Mazzuchelli, Franco Fulciniti
One case of intraductal carcinoma of the parotid gland in a 67-year-old male patient is here introduced. The patient, who had a one-year history of a parotid mass, had undergone ultrasound and MRI examination that disclosed a 13x4x3 mm well delimited nodular mass of the accessory lobe of his left parotid gland. Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) had been performed by the clinician. The obtained smears showed widespread cellular necrosis in which cellular clusters with moderate and focally severe atypias displayed papillary and cribriform architecture and were admixed with sheets of epithelial cells with less striking nuclear atypias, squamous, or apocrine metaplasia...
June 23, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641744/polygenic-risk-score-and-heritability-estimates-reveals-a-genetic-relationship-between-asd-and-ocd
#16
W Guo, J F Samuels, Y Wang, H Cao, M Ritter, P S Nestadt, J Krasnow, B D Greenberg, A J Fyer, J T McCracken, D A Geller, D L Murphy, J A Knowles, M A Grados, M A Riddle, S A Rasmussen, N C McLaughlin, E L Nurmi, K D Askland, B A Cullen, J Piacentini, D L Pauls, O J Bienvenu, S E Stewart, F S Goes, B Maher, A E Pulver, D Valle, M Mattheisen, J Qian, G Nestadt, Y Y Shugart
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions...
July 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641117/structural-components-of-nuclear-integrity-with-gene-regulatory-potential
#17
REVIEW
Kelli D Fenelon, Sevan Hopyan
The nucleus is a mechanosensitive and load-bearing structure. Structural components of the nucleus interact to maintain nuclear integrity and have become subjects of exciting research that is relevant to cell and developmental biology. Here we outline the boundaries of what is known about key architectural elements within the nucleus and highlight their potential structural and transcriptional regulatory functions.
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639124/low-grade-papillary-schneiderian-carcinoma-a-case-report
#18
Hui-Jeong Jeong, Jin Roh, Bong-Jae Lee, Kyung-Ja Cho
The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are covered with ciliated respiratory mucosa of ectodermal origin, known as Schneiderian epithelium, which can give rise to different types of sinonasal carcinomas. A 42-year-old woman with a history of nasal polypectomy 3 years previously presented with nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. She was found to have a papillary mass involving the left nasal cavity, and the left maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses by radiologic examination. She underwent endonasal resection under the diagnosis of oncocytic papilloma...
June 21, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637875/coupled-feedback-loops-control-the-stimulus-dependent-dynamics-of-the-yeast-transcription-factor-msn2
#19
Yanfei Jiang, Zohreh AkhavanAghdam, Lev S Tsimring, Nan Hao
Information about environmental stimuli often can be encoded by the dynamics of signaling molecules or transcription factors. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, different types of stresses induce distinct nuclear translocation dynamics of the general stress-responsive transcription factor Msn2, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using deterministic and stochastic modeling, we reproduced in silico the different dynamic responses of Msn2 to glucose limitation and osmotic stress observed in vivo and found that a positive feedback loop on protein kinase A mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase Snf1 is coupled with a negative feedback loop to generate the characteristic pulsatile dynamics of Msn2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#20
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
July 13, 2017: Nature
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