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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192751/ameliorative-potential-of-linagliptin-and-or-calcipotriol-on-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#1
Ahmed M Kabel, Maaly A Abd Elmaaboud, Aliaa Atef, Mohammed H Baali
Pulmonary fibrosis is a serious medical problem that may significantly compromise respiratory functions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of linagliptin and/or calcipotriol on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 6 equal groups as follows: control group; bleomycin group; bleomycin+carboxymethylcellulose group; bleomycin+linagliptin group; bleomycin+calcipotriol group and bleomycin+linagliptin+calcipotriol group...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192631/thyroid-cytology-nuclear-versus-architectural-atypia-within-the-atypia-of-undetermined-significance-follicular-lesion-of-undetermined-significance-bethesda-category-have-significantly-different-rates-of-malignancy
#2
Tiffany Rui Xuan Gan, Min En Nga, Jeffrey Huey Yew Lum, Wendy Meihua Wong, Wee Boon Tan, Rajeev Parameswaran, Kee Yuan Ngiam
BACKGROUND: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the most widely used classification system for the reporting of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimens. However, the "atypical" category ("atypia of undetermined significance" [AUS] or "follicular lesion of undetermined significance" [FLUS]) continues to cause diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. The objectives of this study were to describe the differential malignancy rates of FNACs diagnosed as AUS/FLUS based on nuclear or architectural atypia and to assess the significance of demographic and ultrasonographic features in predicting malignancy in this category...
February 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191291/diffuse-follicular-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-case-report-with-a-revision-of-literature
#3
Gian Luca Rampioni Vinciguerra, Niccolò Noccioli, Armando Bartolazzi
The diffuse follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DFV-PTC) is a rare malignant thyroid condition. It represents an uncommon variant of papillary carcinoma characterized by a diffuse involvement of thyroid parenchyma, follicular architecture and nuclear features of PTC in absence of a surrounding capsule. Up to date few data have been collected about this entity and, at the best of our knowledge, only 24 cases have been reported in the literature. According to these reports DFV-PTC seems to occur preferentially in young women and shows more aggressive behavior than other papillary thyroid tumors...
November 17, 2016: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189102/coordinated-events-of-nuclear-assembly
#4
REVIEW
Dollie LaJoie, Katharine S Ullman
Each time a metazoan cell undergoes open mitosis, the nucleus is dismantled in order to partition DNA content to the daughter cells. After chromosomes separate, changes at the chromatin surface usher in reestablishment of nuclear architecture. Proteins destined for the nuclear envelope are attracted to chromatin and concomitantly recruit membrane. As nuclear envelope and protein constituents spread to coat chromatin, distinct regions emerge-some rich in rapid pore formation, others occupied by microtubules that remain attached to kinetochores...
February 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186153/superresolution-imaging-of-nanoscale-chromosome-contacts
#5
Yejun Wang, Prasuna Ratna, G V Shivashankar
Co-expression of a specific group of genes requires physical associations among these genes, which form functional chromosomal contacts. While DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) pinpoints the localization of genes within the 3D nuclear architecture, direct evidence of physical chromosomal contacts is still lacking. Here, we report a method for the direct visualization of transcription-dependent chromosomal contacts formed in two distinct mechanical states of cells. We prepared open chromatin spreads from isolated nuclei, ensuring 2D rendering of chromosome organization...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179067/karine-le-roch-taking-a-closer-look-at-nuclear-architecture
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178282/trypanosoma-cruzi-high-mobility-group-b-tchmgb-can-act-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-on-mammalian-cells
#7
Pamela Cribb, Virginia Perdomo, Victoria L Alonso, Romina Manarin, Jorge Barrios-Payan, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Luis Tavernelli, Rogelio Hernández-Pando
BACKGROUND: High Mobility Group B (HMGB) proteins are nuclear architectural factors involved in chromatin remodeling and important nuclear events. HMGBs also play key roles outside the cell acting as alarmins or Damage-associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). In response to a danger signal these proteins act as immune mediators in the extracellular milieu. Moreover, these molecules play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and both infectious and sterile inflammatory chronic diseases...
February 8, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178086/identification-of-rare-nonsynonymous-variants-in-syne1-cpg2-in-bipolar-affective-disorder
#8
Sally I Sharp, Jenny Lange, Radhika Kandaswamy, Mazen Daher, Adebayo Anjorin, Nicholas J Bass, Andrew McQuillin
BACKGROUND: Bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is a severe mood disorder with a prevalence of ∼1.5% in the population. The pathogenesis of BPD is poorly understood; however, a strong heritable component has been identified. Previous genome-wide association studies have indicated a region on 6q25, coding for the SYNE1 gene, which increases disease susceptibility. SYNE1 encodes the synaptic nuclear envelope protein-1, nesprin-1. A brain-specific splice variant of SYNE1, CPG2 encoding candidate plasticity gene 2, has been identified...
February 7, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177615/an-unusual-topological-rna-architecture-with-an-eight-stranded-helical-fragment-containing-a-g-and-u-tetrads
#9
Chao-Da Xiao, Takumi Ishizuka, Xiao-Qing Zhu, Yue Li, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Yan Xu
Human telomeric RNA performs various cellular functions such as telomere length regulation, heterochromatin formation, and chromosome end protection. Using a combination of nuclear magnetic reso-nance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD), and gel electro-phoresis, we observed an unusual topological structure formed by human telomere RNA r(GUUAGGGU). Our results showed that every set of four strands formed a parallel G-quadruplex as symmetry-related units con-taining four G-tetrads, two U-tetrads, and one A-tetrad...
February 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167501/comprehensive-characterization-of-neutrophil-genome-topology
#10
Yina Zhu, Ke Gong, Matthew Denholtz, Vivek Chandra, Mark P Kamps, Frank Alber, Cornelis Murre
Neutrophils are responsible for the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Their nuclei are uniquely structured as multiple lobes that establish a highly constrained nuclear environment. Here we found that neutrophil differentiation was not associated with large-scale changes in the number and sizes of topologically associating domains (TADs). However, neutrophil genomes were enriched for long-range genomic interactions that spanned multiple TADs. Population-based simulation of spherical and toroid genomes revealed declining radii of gyration for neutrophil chromosomes...
February 6, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162953/molecular-architecture-of-the-major-membrane-ring-component-of-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#11
Paula Upla, Seung Joong Kim, Parthasarathy Sampathkumar, Kaushik Dutta, Sean M Cahill, Ilan E Chemmama, Rosemary Williams, Jeffrey B Bonanno, William J Rice, David L Stokes, David Cowburn, Steven C Almo, Andrej Sali, Michael P Rout, Javier Fernandez-Martinez
The membrane ring that equatorially circumscribes the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in the perinuclear lumen of the nuclear envelope is composed largely of Pom152 in yeast and its ortholog Nup210 (or Gp210) in vertebrates. Here, we have used a combination of negative-stain electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and small-angle X-ray scattering methods to determine an integrative structure of the ∼120 kDa luminal domain of Pom152. Our structural analysis reveals that the luminal domain is formed by a flexible string-of-pearls arrangement of nine repetitive cadherin-like Ig-like domains, indicating an evolutionary connection between NPCs and the cell adhesion machinery...
February 2, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152338/dynamic-regulation-of-nuclear-architecture-and-mechanics-a-rheostatic-role-for-the-nucleus-in-tailoring-cellular-mechanosensitivity
#12
Stephen D Thorpe, David A Lee
Nuclear architecture, a function of both chromatin and nucleoskeleton structure, is known to change with stem cell differentiation and differs between various somatic cell types. These changes in nuclear architecture are associated with the regulation of gene expression and genome function in a cell-type specific manner. Biophysical stimuli are known effectors of differentiation and also elicit stimuli-specific changes in nuclear architecture. This occurs via the process of mechanotransduction whereby extracellular mechanical forces activate a number of well characterised signalling cascades of cytoplasmic origin, and potentially some recently elucidated signalling cascades originating in the nucleus...
February 2, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150820/astragaloside-iv-ameliorates-2-4-6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-tnbs-induced-colitis-implicating-regulation-of-energy-metabolism
#13
Xu-Guang Jiang, Kai Sun, Yu-Ying Liu, Li Yan, Ming-Xia Wang, Jing-Yu Fan, Hong-Na Mu, Chong Li, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Chuan-She Wang, Jing-Yan Han
Dysfunction of energy metabolism is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the potential of astragaloside IV (ASIV), an active ingredient of Radix Astragalus, to ameliorate colonic mucosal injury, with focusing on the implication of energy restoration in the underlying mechanism. Experimental colitis model was established in rats by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) through anus. After 24 hours, ASIV was administrated once daily by gavage for 6 days...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146420/a-silent-mutation-in-human-alpha-a-crystallin-gene-in-patients-with-age-related-nuclear-or-cortical-cataract
#14
Bharani K Mynampati, Thungapathra Muthukumarappa, Sujata Ghosh, Jagat Ram
A cataract is a complex multifactorial disease that results from alterations in the cellular architecture, i.e. lens proteins. Genes associated with the development of lens include crystallin genes. Although crystallins are highly conserved proteins among vertebrates, a significant number of polymorphisms exist in human population. In this study, we screened for polymorphisms in crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) and alpha B (CRYAB) genes in 200 patients over 40 years of age, diagnosed with age-related cataract (ARC; nuclear and cortical cataracts)...
February 1, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145559/myoepithelial-tumor-of-soft-tissue-and-bone-current-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Anuj Verma, Bharat Rekhi
Myoepithelial tumor (MET) of soft tissue and bone is an unusual tumor of uncertain differentiation and histogenesis, but lately has been recognized as a distinct tumor entity. This tumor forms a morphologic continuum with a mixed tumor and a parachordoma, but is different from an extra-axial chordoma or chordoma periphericium. METs display a range of histopathologic features, including architectural arrangements/growth patterns, cell types and intervening stroma, leading to their several differential diagnoses...
February 1, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140336/cell-like-features-imprinted-in-the-physical-nano-and-micro-topography-of-the-environment-modify-the-responses-to-anti-cancer-drugs-of-endometrial-cancer-cells
#16
Li Hui Tan, Peter H Sykes, Maan M Alkaisi, John J Evans
Topographical features of cells at nanometre resolution were fabricated in polystyrene. The study investigated the effect of physical topography on the response of cancer cells to the common anticancer drugs, paclitaxel and doxorubicin. Human endometrial cancer cells (Ishikawa) were incubated on substrates containing cell-like features that had been fabricated using our bioimprint methodology to create moulds of cells with positive (convex) and negative (concave) topography. Control cultures were performed on flat substrates...
February 14, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139771/a-new-model-of-sperm-nuclear-architecture-following-assessment-of-the-organization-of-centromeres-and-telomeres-in-three-dimensions
#17
Dimitrios Ioannou, Nicole M Millan, Elizabeth Jordan, Helen G Tempest
The organization of chromosomes in sperm nuclei has been proposed to possess a unique "hairpin-loop" arrangement, which is hypothesized to aid in the ordered exodus of the paternal genome following fertilization. This study simultaneously assessed the 3D and 2D radial and longitudinal organization of telomeres, centromeres, and investigated whether chromosomes formed the same centromere clusters in sperm cells. Reproducible radial and longitudinal non-random organization was observed for all investigated loci using both 3D and 2D approaches in multiple subjects...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137569/a-super-silac-strategy-for-the-accurate-and-multiplexed-profiling-of-histone-posttranslational-modifications
#18
R Noberini, T Bonaldi
Histone posttranslational modifications (hPTMs) generate a complex combinatorial code that plays a critical role in the regulation of gene activity and nuclear architecture during physiological and pathological processes. Mass spectrometry (MS) offers an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view on hPTM patterns, and has emerged as a powerful tool in epigenetic research. Stable isotope labeling by amino acid in cell culture (SILAC) is a MS-based quantitative method that relies on the metabolic labeling of cell populations, which has been widely applied in global proteomic studies and can also be exploited for the accurate quantitation of hPTM changes among distinct functional states...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125451/clinical-and-morphologic-features-of-etv6-ntrk3-translocated-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-an-adult-population-without-radiation-exposure
#19
Raja R Seethala, Simion I Chiosea, Cheng Z Liu, Marina Nikiforova, Yuri E Nikiforov
The ETV6-NTRK3 translocation characterizes a subset of radiation associated and pediatric papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). We now describe the clinicopathologic features of ETV6-NTRK3 translocated PTC in an adult population without radiation exposure. Twelve cases were identified by next-generation sequencing (ThyroSeq version 2). The mean patient age was 37 years with a female predilection (10:2). Preoperative fine needle aspiration was performed on 6 patients of which 4 were classified as "malignant," whereas 2 were classified as "follicular lesion of undetermined significance...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119442/metabolic-syndrome-in-men-metsim-study-a-resource-for-studies-of-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
Markku Laakso, Johanna Kuusisto, Alena Stancakova, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Päivi Pajukanta, Aldons Jake Lusis, Francis S Collins, Karen Mohlke, Michael Boehnke
METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study is a population-based study including 10,197 Finnish men examined in 2005-2010. The aim of the study is to investigate non-genetic and genetic factors associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and with cardiovascular risk factors. The protocol includes a detailed phenotyping of the participants, an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting laboratory measurements including proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, mass spectometry metabolomics, adipose tissue biopsies from 1,400 participants, and a stool sample...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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