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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142071/chromatin-histone-modifications-and-rigidity-affect-nuclear-morphology-independent-of-lamins
#1
Andrew D Stephens, Patrick Z Liu, Edward J Banigan, Luay M Almassalha, Vadim Backman, Stephen A Adam, Robert D Goldman, John F Marko
Nuclear shape and architecture influence gene localization, mechanotransduction, transcription, and cell function. Abnormal nuclear morphology and protrusions termed "blebs" are diagnostic markers for many human afflictions including heart disease, aging, progeria, and cancer. Nuclear blebs are associated with both lamin and chromatin alterations. A number of prior studies suggest that lamins dictate nuclear morphology, but the contributions of altered chromatin compaction remain unclear. We show that chromatin histone modification state dictates nuclear rigidity, and modulating it is sufficient to both induce and suppress nuclear blebs...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141034/structure-of-the-human-chromosome-interaction-network
#2
Sergio Sarnataro, Andrea M Chiariello, Andrea Esposito, Antonella Prisco, Mario Nicodemi
New Hi-C technologies have revealed that chromosomes have a complex network of spatial contacts in the cell nucleus of higher organisms, whose organisation is only partially understood. Here, we investigate the structure of such a network in human GM12878 cells, to derive a large scale picture of nuclear architecture. We find that the intensity of intra-chromosomal interactions is power-law distributed. Inter-chromosomal interactions are two orders of magnitude weaker and exponentially distributed, yet they are not randomly arranged along the genomic sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140279/free-standing-and-self-crosslinkable-hybrid-films-by-core-shell-particle-design-and-processing
#3
Steffen Vowinkel, Stephen Paul, Torsten Gutmann, Markus Gallei
The utilization and preparation of functional hybrid films for optical sensing applications and membranes is of utmost importance. In this work, we report the convenient and scalable preparation of self-crosslinking particle-based films derived by directed self-assembly of alkoxysilane-based cross-linkers as part of a core-shell particle architecture. The synthesis of well-designed monodisperse core-shell particles by emulsion polymerization is the basic prerequisite for subsequent particle processing via the melt-shear organization technique...
November 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136629/modified-alcohol-formalin-cell-block-technique-in-head-and-neck-pathology-diagnosis
#4
Karishma M Desai, Punnya V Angadi, Alka D Kale, Seema Hallikerimath
OBJECTIVES: Cell block preparation is a recognized technique in histopathological diagnosis. This technique aids in maintaining an intact architecture and reducing the diagnostic errors associated with fine-needle aspiration cytology. Numerous techniques have been put forth, but the need for an optimal technique for routine use in the laboratory still persists. The aim of our study was to establish a cell block technique which aids in the accurate diagnosis of head and neck pathology...
November 15, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134302/nuclear-organization-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-into-adipocytes
#5
Joanna Stachecka, Agnieszka Walczak, Beata Kociucka, Błażej Ruszczycki, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Izabela Szczerbal
Differentiation of progenitor cells into adipocytes is accompanied by remarkable changes in cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression profile. Mature adipocytes are filled with a large lipid droplet and the nucleus tends to move to the cell periphery. It was hypothesized that the differentiation process is also associated with changes of nuclear organization. The aim of this study was to determine the number and distribution of selected components of nuclear architecture during porcine in vitro adipogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129333/pitfalls-in-the-interpretation-of-specimens-from-patients-with-testicular-tumours-with-an-emphasis-on-variant-morphologies
#6
REVIEW
Thomas M Ulbright
Accurate diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumours is essential in testicular cancer. While many cases are straightforward, some pose difficulties, especially when variant morphologies occur. Seminoma with 'atypical' features, including increased nuclear pleomorphism and crowding and greater cytoplasmic density with loss of membrane definition, mimics embryonal carcinoma, although ancillary features (fibrous septa, lymphocytes) and immunohistochemistry are of great help. Other deceptive seminoma features include prominent to exclusive intertubular growth, microcystic/tubular patterns, and signet-ring tumour cells...
November 9, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127043/fourier-phase-based-depth-resolved-nanoscale-nuclear-architecture-mapping-for-cancer-detection
#7
REVIEW
Shikhar Uttam, Yang Liu
Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) modality has been widely adopted in a variety of applications ranging from identifying photomask defects in lithography to characterizing cell structure and tissue morphology in cancer. Traditional QPI utilizes the electromagnetic phase of transmitted light to measure, with nanometer scale sensitivity, alterations in the optical thickness of a sample of interest. In our work, the QPI paradigm is generalized to study depth-resolved properties of phase objects with slowly varying refractive index without a strong interface by utilizing the Fourier phase associated with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT)...
November 7, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118094/fragment-based-drug-discovery-and-its-application-to-challenging-drug-targets
#8
REVIEW
Amanda J Price, Steven Howard, Benjamin D Cons
Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a technique for identifying low molecular weight chemical starting points for drug discovery. Since its inception 20 years ago, FBDD has grown in popularity to the point where it is now an established technique in industry and academia. The approach involves the biophysical screening of proteins against collections of low molecular weight compounds (fragments). Although fragments bind to proteins with relatively low affinity, they form efficient, high quality binding interactions with the protein architecture as they have to overcome a significant entropy barrier to bind...
November 8, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114468/classification-of-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumors-new-insights
#9
REVIEW
Giuseppe Pelosi, Angelica Sonzogni, Sergio Harari, Adriana Albini, Enrica Bresaola, Caterina Marchiò, Federica Massa, Luisella Righi, Gaia Gatti, Nikolaos Papanikolaou, Namrata Vijayvergia, Fiorella Calabrese, Mauro Papotti
Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (Lu-NETs) embrace a heterogeneous family of neoplasms classified into four histological variants, namely typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Defining criteria on resection specimens include mitotic count in 2 mm(2) and the presence or absence of necrosis, alongside a constellation of cytological and histological traits including cell size and shape, nuclear features and overall architecture...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106627/bi-nucleation-of-podocytes-is-uniformly-accompanied-by-foot-processes-widening-in-renal-disease
#10
Johanna Mühldorfer, Eva Pfister, Maike Büttner-Herold, Monika Klewer, Kerstin Amann, Christoph Daniel
Background: Podocytes are terminally differentiated glomerular cells expressing a highly complex architecture and lacking the ability to proliferate. However, during renal injury or stress these cells can re-enter into the cell cycle but fail to divide. As a consequence, bi- and multi-nucleated podocytes can be identified in renal biopsies from patients with various kidney diseases. It is still unclear whether the occurrence of such cells is dependent on or correlates with renal damage and if bi- or multi-nucleation results in ultrastructural alterations such as e...
July 2, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106056/microenvironmental-stiffness-of-3d-polymeric-structures-to-study-invasive-rates-of-cancer-cells
#11
Enrico Domenico Lemma, Barbara Spagnolo, Francesco Rizzi, Stefania Corvaglia, Marco Pisanello, Massimo De Vittorio, Ferruccio Pisanello
Cells are highly dynamic elements, continuously interacting with the extracellular environment. Mechanical forces sensed and applied by cells are responsible for cellular adhesion, motility, and deformation, and are heavily involved in determining cancer spreading and metastasis formation. Cell/extracellular matrix interactions are commonly analyzed with the use of hydrogels and 3D microfabricated scaffolds. However, currently available techniques have a limited control over the stiffness of microscaffolds and do not allow for separating environmental properties from biological processes in driving cell mechanical behavior, including nuclear deformability and cell invasiveness...
November 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099948/heritable-sperm-chromatin-epigenetics-a-break-to-remember
#12
Ralph G Meyer, Chelsea Ketchum, Mirella L Meyer-Ficca
Sperm chromatin not only has a unique structure to condense and protect the paternal DNA in transit, but also provides epigenetic information that supports embryonic development. Most of the unique sperm nuclear architecture is formed during the sweeping postmeiotic chromatin remodeling events in spermiogenesis, where the majority of nucleosomes are removed and replaced by protamines. The remaining histones and other chromatin proteins are located in structurally and transcriptionally relevant positions in the genome and carry diverse posttranslational modifications relevant to the control of embryonic gene expression...
November 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099381/-adenoma-metanephric-report-of-2-cases-and-bibliographic-review
#13
Enrique Rodríguez-Zarco, Ana Vallejo-Benítez, Francisco Javier Farfán-López, Ángel Vilches-Arenas, Sofía Pereira-Gallardo, Francisco Javier Vázquez-Ramírez
OBJECTIVE: Two cases of metanephric adenoma are presented, a rare benign renal tumor, and a literature review is done under the current WHO classification (2016). METHODS: Standard histopathological study was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of WT, Vimentin, Racemase, CK7, CD10 and RCC. RESULTS: Neoplasms of 3 and 4.5 cm, histologically, exhibiting tubulopapillary architecture. There was no evidence of significant nuclear atypia and mitotic figures...
November 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094038/intracorporeal-heat-distribution-from-fully-implantable-energy-sources-for-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-computational-proof-of-concept-study
#14
Jacopo Biasetti, Aliaksei Pustavoitau, Pier Giorgio Spazzini
Mechanical circulatory support devices, such as total artificial hearts and left ventricular assist devices, rely on external energy sources for their continuous operation. Clinically approved power supplies rely on percutaneous cables connecting an external energy source to the implanted device with the associated risk of infections. One alternative, investigated in the 70s and 80s, employs a fully implanted nuclear power source. The heat generated by the nuclear decay can be converted into electricity to power circulatory support devices...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094004/nuclear-medicine-imaging-in-osteonecrosis-of-hip-old-and-current-concepts
#15
REVIEW
Kanhaiyalal Agrawal, Sujit Kumar Tripathy, Ramesh Kumar Sen, S Santhosh, Anish Bhattacharya
Osteonecrosis (ON) is caused by inadequate blood supply leading to bone death, which results in the collapse of the architectural bony structure. Femoral head is the most common site involved in ON. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a commonly used imaging modality to detect early ON. When MRI is inconclusive, bone scan is helpful in detecting ON during early phase of the disease. As newer nuclear medicine equipment, like single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT, are emerging in medical science, we review the role of these imaging modalities in ON of femoral head...
October 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079634/small-rna-mediated-regulation-of-dna-dosage-in-the-ciliate-oxytricha
#16
Jaspreet S Khurana, Derek Clay, Sandrine Moreira, Xing Wang, Laura F Landweber
Dicer-dependent small non-coding RNAs play important roles in gene regulation in a wide variety of organisms. Endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are part of an ancient pathway of transposon control in plants and animals. The ciliate, Oxytricha trifallax, has approximately 16,000 gene-sized chromosomes in its somatic nucleus. Long non-coding RNAs establish high ploidy levels at the onset of sexual development, but the factors that regulate chromosome copy numbers during cell division and growth have been a mystery...
October 27, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072178/relationships-of-nuclear-architectural-and-figo-grading-systems-in-endometrial-cancer
#17
Tayfun Toptaş, Elif Peştereli, Selen Bozkurt, Gülgün Erdoğan, Tayup Şimşek
OBJECTIVE: To examine correlations among nuclear, architectural and FIGO grading systems, and their relationships with lymph node (LN) involvement in endometrioid endometrial cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Histopathology slides of 135 consecutive patients were reviewed with respect to tumor grade and LN metastasis. Notable nuclear atypia was defined as grade 3 nuclei. FIGO grade was established by raising the architectural grade (AG) by one grade when the tumor is composed of cells with nuclear grade (NG) 3...
October 26, 2017: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069547/multifaceted-modularity-a-key-for-stepwise-building-of-hierarchical-complexity-in-actinide-metal-organic-frameworks
#18
Ekaterina A Dolgopolova, Otega A Ejegbavwo, Corey R Martin, Mark D Smith, Wahyu Setyawan, Stavros G Karakalos, Charles H Henager, Hans-Conrad Zur Loye, Natalia B Shustova
Growing necessity for efficient nuclear waste management is a driving force for development of alternative architectures toward fundamental understanding of mechanisms involved in actinide (An) integration inside extended structures. In this manuscript, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were investigated as a model system for engineering radionuclide containing materials through utilization of unprecedented MOF modularity, which cannot be replicated in any other type of materials. Through the implementation of recent synthetic advances in the MOF field, hierarchical complexity of An-materials was built stepwise, which was only feasible due to preparation of the first examples of actinide-based frameworks with "unsaturated" metal nodes...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068549/expanding-the-genetic-architecture-and-phenotypic-spectrum-in-the-skeletal-ciliopathies
#19
Wenjuan Zhang, S Paige Taylor, Hayley A Ennis, Kimberly N Forlenza, Ivan Duran, Bing Li, Jorge A Ortiz Sanchez, Lisette Nevarez, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael Bamshad, Ralph S Lachman, Deborah Krakow, Daniel H Cohn
Defects in the biosynthesis and/or function of primary cilia cause a spectrum of disorders collectively referred to as ciliopathies. A subset of these disorders is distinguished by profound abnormalities of the skeleton that include a long narrow chest with markedly short ribs, extremely short limbs, and polydactyly. These include the perinatal lethal short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS) and the less severe asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), Ellis van Creveld (EVC) syndrome and cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) phenotypes...
October 25, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064543/effect-of-valproic-acid-administration-during-pregnancy-on-postnatal-development-of-cerebellar-cortex-and-the-possible-protective-role-of-folic-acid
#20
Saber I Shona, Ayman A Rizk, Abir O El Sadik, Hossam Y Emam, Eid N Ali
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA), one of the most important antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), is proved to be inevitable for epileptic pregnant women to limit the hazards of convulsions on the fetuses and mothers. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation was investigated to protect against several birth defects. However, its role against VPA cerebellar toxicity was not properly investigated. AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of folic acid against VPA cerebellar neurotoxicity...
October 24, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
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