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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812461/soft-tissue-perineurioma-in-a-child-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Mudher Al-Adnani
Soft tissue perineurioma is a rare benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, especially in children. This manuscript presents an unusual case of soft tissue perineurioma in a 10-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient presented with a lump in the region of the right breast. A subcutaneous, well circumscribed mass was removed. The cut surface was cream with a vaguely nodular appearance. Histology showed a spindle cell lesion with variable architecture and biphasic morphology. There was no nuclear atypia or pleomorphism...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810713/co-opted-megasatellite-dna-drives-evolution-of-secondary-night-vision-in-azara-s-owl-monkey
#2
Akihiko Koga, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yuriko Hirai, Hiroo Imai, Masanori Imamura, Takao Oishi, Roscoe Stanyon, Hirohisa Hirai
Owl monkeys (genus Aotus) are the only taxon in simian primates that consists of nocturnal or otherwise cathemeral species. Their night vision is superior to that of other monkeys, apes, and humans but not as good as that of typical nocturnal mammals. This incomplete night vision has been used to conclude that these monkeys only secondarily adapted to a nocturnal lifestyle, or to their cathemeral lifestyle that involves high night-time activity. It is known that the rod cells of many nocturnal mammals possess a unique nuclear architecture in which heterochromatin is centrally located...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808972/chromosome-conformation-capture-for-research-on-innate-antiviral-immunity
#3
Yoon Jung Kim, Tae Hoon Kim
Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology has revolutionized our knowledge on chromatin folding and nuclear organization. This cis-loop detection approach can be used to identify candidate regulatory elements interacting with target gene of interest. This chapter introduces the application of 3C technique to investigate a dynamic alteration in the chromosome folding structure or genomic architecture resulting from interaction changes between the enhancer and its target gene. Innate antiviral immunity is one of the well-known gene induction systems, involving rapid first-line response to virus or pathogen to trigger gene expression changes in order to protect cells and to limit further infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803781/myc-regulates-chromatin-decompaction-and-nuclear-architecture-during-b-cell-activation
#4
Kyong-Rim Kieffer-Kwon, Keisuke Nimura, Suhas S P Rao, Jianliang Xu, Seolkyoung Jung, Aleksandra Pekowska, Marei Dose, Evan Stevens, Ewy Mathe, Peng Dong, Su-Chen Huang, Maria Aurelia Ricci, Laura Baranello, Ying Zheng, Francesco Tomassoni Ardori, Wolfgang Resch, Diana Stavreva, Steevenson Nelson, Michael McAndrew, Adriel Casellas, Elizabeth Finn, Charles Gregory, Brian Glenn St Hilaire, Steven M Johnson, Wendy Dubois, Maria Pia Cosma, Eric Batchelor, David Levens, Robert D Phair, Tom Misteli, Lino Tessarollo, Gordon Hager, Melike Lakadamyali, Zhe Liu, Monique Floer, Hari Shroff, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Rafael Casellas
50 years ago, Vincent Allfrey and colleagues discovered that lymphocyte activation triggers massive acetylation of chromatin. However, the molecular mechanisms driving epigenetic accessibility are still unknown. We here show that stimulated lymphocytes decondense chromatin by three differentially regulated steps. First, chromatin is repositioned away from the nuclear periphery in response to global acetylation. Second, histone nanodomain clusters decompact into mononucleosome fibers through a mechanism that requires Myc and continual energy input...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797839/building-a-complex-complex-assembly-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complex-i
#5
REVIEW
Luke E Formosa, Marris G Dibley, David A Stroud, Michael T Ryan
Mitochondrial complex I is the primary entry point for electrons into the electron transport chain, required for the bulk of cellular ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Complex I consists of 45 subunits, which are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Currently, at least 15 assembly factors are known to be required for the complete maturation of complex I. Mutations in the genes encoding subunits and assembly factors leads to complex I deficiency, which can manifest as mitochondrial disease...
August 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794204/chromosome-topology-guides-the-drosophila-dosage-compensation-complex-for-target-gene-activation
#6
Tamás Schauer, Yad Ghavi-Helm, Tom Sexton, Christian Albig, Catherine Regnard, Giacomo Cavalli, Eileen Em Furlong, Peter B Becker
X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila requires chromosome-wide coordination of gene activation. The male-specific lethal dosage compensation complex (DCC) identifies and binds to X-chromosomal high-affinity sites (HAS) from which it boosts transcription. A sub-class of HAS, PionX sites, represent first contacts on the X. Here, we explored the chromosomal interactions of representative PionX sites by high-resolution 4C and determined the global chromosome conformation by Hi-C in sex-sorted embryos. Male and female X chromosomes display similar nuclear architecture, concordant with clustered, constitutively active genes...
August 9, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780612/invisible-cities-segregated-domains-in-the-yeast-genome-with-distinct-structural-and-functional-attributes
#7
Christoforos Nikolaou
Recent advances in our understanding of the three-dimensional organization of the eukaryotic nucleus have rendered the spatial distribution of genes increasingly relevant. In a recent work (Tsochatzidou et al., Nucleic Acids Res 45:5818-5828, 2017), we proposed the existence of a functional compartmentalization of the yeast genome according to which, genes occupying the chromosomal regions at the nuclear periphery have distinct structural, functional and evolutionary characteristics compared to their centromeric-proximal counterparts...
August 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777140/the-molecular-landscape-of-noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp-a-literature-review
#8
Fulvio Basolo, Elisabetta Macerola, Clara Ugolini, David N Poller, Zubair Baloch
The encapsulated and noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma has been recently reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). These tumors demonstrate indolent behavior. This change in nomenclature will have great clinical impact by avoiding overtreatment of patients with NIFTP lesions who in the past were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma and typically received completion thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation. The pathologic diagnosis of NIFTP requires surgical removal of the thyroid lesion or the lobe harboring it, and thorough sampling of the complete interface between the tumor capsule and the thyroid parenchyma, to exclude foci of invasion...
September 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776575/an-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma-quantitative-histomorphometric-based-image-classifier-of-nuclear-morphology-can-risk-stratify-patients-for-disease-specific-survival
#9
Cheng Lu, James S Lewis, William D Dupont, W Dale Plummer, Andrew Janowczyk, Anant Madabhushi
Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of head and neck carcinoma. Its incidence is increasing worldwide, and it is associated with major morbidity and mortality. It is often unclear which patients have aggressive, treatment refractory tumors vs those whose tumors will be more responsive to treatment. Better identification of patients with high- vs low-risk cancers could help provide more tailored treatment approaches and could improve survival rates while decreasing treatment-related morbidity...
August 4, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772667/hybrid-coatings-enriched-with-tetraethoxysilane-for-corrosion-mitigation-of-hot-dip-galvanized-steel-in-chloride-contaminated-simulated-concrete-pore-solutions
#10
Rita B Figueira, Emanuela Callone, Carlos J R Silva, Elsa V Pereira, Sandra Dirè
Hybrid sol-gel coatings, named U(X):TEOS, based on ureasilicate matrices (U(X)) enriched with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), were synthesized. The influence of TEOS addition was studied on both the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films as well as on the electrochemical properties. The effect of TEOS on the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films was investigated by solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The dielectric properties of the different materials were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
March 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770537/flavonoids-extracted-from-linaria-vulgaris-protect-against-hyperlipidemia-and-hepatic-steatosis-induced-by-western-type-diet-in-mice
#11
Wenhua Kuang, Xu Zhang, Zhou Lan
Previous studies have shown that flavonoids (Fs) present in Linaria vulgaris inhibit lipid accumulation in vitro. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Fs extracted from Linaria vulgaris ssp. sinensis (Bebeaux) Hong, on hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by a western-type diet in mice. The major constituents of Fs were analyzed by LC-MS analysis. C57BL/6 mice were fed a western-type diet for 8 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia (model group), or fed a western-type diet followed by Fs treatment (90, 30 or 10 mg/kg/day) or atorvastatin treatment (1...
August 2, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768697/a-novel-high-throughput-yeast-genetic-screen-for-factors-modifying-protein-levels-of-the-early-onset-torsion-dystonia-associated-variant-torsina%C3%AE-e
#12
Lucía F Zacchi, John C Dittmar, Michael J Mihalevic, Annette M Shewan, Benjamin L Schulz, Jeffrey L Brodsky, Kara A Bernstein
Dystonia is the third most common movement disorder, but its diagnosis and treatment remain challenging. One of the most severe types of Dystonia is Early-Onset Torsion Dystonia (EOTD). The best studied and validated EOTD-associated mutation, torsinAΔE, is a deletion of a C-terminal glutamate residue in the AAA+ ATPase, torsinA. TorsinA appears to be an Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)/Nuclear Envelope chaperone with multiple roles in the secretory pathway and in determining subcellular architecture. Many functions are disabled in the torsinAΔE variant, and torsinAΔE is also less stable than wild-type torsinA and is a substrate for ER-associated degradation...
August 2, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766344/cell-shaping-micropatterns-for-quantitative-super-resolution-microscopy-imaging-of-membrane-mechanosensing-proteins
#13
Anthony Fernandez, Markville Bautista, Ramunas Stanciauskas, Taerin Chung, Fabien Pinaud
Patterning cells on microcontact-printed substrates is a powerful approach to control cell morphology and introduce specific mechanical cues on a cell's molecular organization. Although global changes in cellular architectures caused by micropatterns can easily be probed with diffraction-limited optical microscopy, studying molecular reorganizations at the nanoscale demands micropatterned substrates that accommodate the optical requirements of single molecule microscopy techniques. Here, we developed a simple micropatterning strategy that provides control of cellular architectures and is optimized for nanometer accuracy single molecule tracking and three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of plasma and nuclear membrane proteins in cells...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765144/comparing-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-different-aetiologies-of-infectious-necrotising-retinitis
#14
Alessandro Invernizzi, Aniruddha Kishandutt Agarwal, Vittoria Ravera, Chiara Mapelli, Agostino Riva, Giovanni Staurenghi, Peter J McCluskey, Francesco Viola
AIMS: To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of active necrotising infectious retinitis (NIR) due to toxoplasmosis or herpesviruses and to determine distinctive OCT signs for these two causes of infectious retinitis. METHODS: OCT scans from eyes with active NIR due to varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis (TOXO) were reviewed. All images were evaluated for the presence of previously described OCT findings in TOXO-NIR and compared with the viral group...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760746/insights-into-the-evolution-and-function-of-auxin-signaling-f-box-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-through-synthetic-analysis-of-natural-variants
#15
R Clay Wright, Mollye L Zahler, Stacey R Gerben, Jennifer L Nemhauser
The evolution of complex body plans in land plants has been paralleled by gene duplication and divergence within nuclear auxin-signaling networks. A deep mechanistic understanding of auxin signaling proteins therefore may allow rational engineering of novel plant architectures. Towards that end, we analyzed natural variation in the auxin receptor F-box family of wild accessions of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana and used this information to populate a structure/function map. We employed a synthetic assay to identify natural hypermorphic F-box variants, and then assayed auxin-associated phenotypes in accessions expressing these variants...
July 31, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747392/evaluation-of-grading-systems-in-stage-i-lung-adenocarcinomas-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Tamás Zombori, József Furák, Tibor Nyári, Gábor Cserni, László Tiszlavicz
AIMS: There is no internationally accepted grading system for lung adenocarcinoma despite the new WHO classification. The architectural grade, the Kadota grade and the Sica score were evaluated and compared with overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). METHODS: Comprehensive histological subtyping was used in a series of resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma to identify subtypes of adenocarcinomas, the architectural grade, the Kadota grade, the Sica grade, the mitotic count, nuclear atypia, the presence of lymphovascular, vascular and airway propagation, necrosis, and micropapillary or solid growth pattern in any percentage...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743737/real-time-visualization-of-chromatin-modification-in-isolated-nuclei
#17
Luca Sardo, Angel Lin, Svetlana Khakhina, Lucas Beckman, Luis Ricon, Weam Elbezanti, Tara Jaison, Harshad Vishwasrao, Hari Shroff, Christopher Janetopoulos, Zachary A Klase
Chromatin modification is traditionally queried by biochemical assays that provide average measurements of static events since the analysis requires components from many cells. Microscopy can visualize single cells, but the cell body and organelles can hamper staining and visualization of the nucleus. Normally, chromatin is visualized by immunostaining a fixed sample or by expressing exogenous fluorescently tagged proteins in a live cell. Alternative microscopy tools to observe changes of endogenous chromatin in real-time are needed...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740156/mapping-the-dynamics-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-within-the-nuclear-landscape
#18
Martin Stortz, Diego M Presman, Luciana Bruno, Paolo Annibale, Maria V Dansey, Gerardo Burton, Enrico Gratton, Adali Pecci, Valeria Levi
The distribution of the transcription machinery among different sub-nuclear domains raises the question on how the architecture of the nucleus modulates the transcriptional response. Here, we used fluorescence fluctuation analyses to quantitatively explore the organization of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the interphase nucleus of living cells. We found that this ligand-activated transcription factor diffuses within the nucleus and dynamically interacts with bodies enriched in the coregulator NCoA-2, DNA-dependent foci and chromatin targets...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737897/biogenic-hydroxyapatite-a-new-material-for-the-preservation-and-restoration-of-the-built-environment
#19
Ronald Joseph Turner, Joanna C Renshaw, Andrea Hamilton
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is by weight the world's most produced man-made material, and consequently is used in a variety of applications in environments ranging from buildings, to nuclear wasteforms, and within the human body. In this paper, we present for the first time the direct deposition of biogenic hydroxyapatite onto the surface of OPC, in a synergistic process which relies upon the unique properties of the cement substrate. The synthesised hydroxyapatite is very similar to that found in nature; having a crystallite size, iron and carbonate substitution, and a semi-crystalline structure which identify that this biogenic hydroxyapatite is akin to that found in natural bone and tooth enamel...
July 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737169/actomyosin-drives-cancer-cell-nuclear-dysmorphia-and-threatens-genome-stability
#20
Tohru Takaki, Marco Montagner, Murielle P Serres, Maël Le Berre, Matt Russell, Lucy Collinson, Karoly Szuhai, Michael Howell, Simon J Boulton, Erik Sahai, Mark Petronczki
Altered nuclear shape is a defining feature of cancer cells. The mechanisms underlying nuclear dysmorphia in cancer remain poorly understood. Here we identify PPP1R12A and PPP1CB, two subunits of the myosin phosphatase complex that antagonizes actomyosin contractility, as proteins safeguarding nuclear integrity. Loss of PPP1R12A or PPP1CB causes nuclear fragmentation, nuclear envelope rupture, nuclear compartment breakdown and genome instability. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of actomyosin contractility restores nuclear architecture and genome integrity in cells lacking PPP1R12A or PPP1CB...
July 24, 2017: Nature Communications
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