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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528443/herpesvirus-nuclear-egress
#1
Richard J Roller, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses assemble and package their genomes into capsids in the nucleus, but complete final assembly of the mature virion in the cell cytoplasm. This requires passage of the genome-containing capsid across the double-membrane nuclear envelope. Herpesviruses have evolved a mechanism that relies on a pair of conserved viral gene products to shuttle the capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by way of envelopment and de-envelopment at the inner and outer nuclear membranes, respectively. This complex process requires orchestration of the activities of viral and cellular factors to alter the architecture of the nuclear membrane, select capsids at the appropriate stage for egress, and accomplish efficient membrane budding and fusion events...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528441/herpesvirus-latency-on-the-importance-of-positioning-oneself
#2
Patrick Lomonte
The nucleus is composed of multiple compartments and domains, which directly or indirectly influence many cellular processes including gene expression, RNA splicing and maturation, protein post-translational modifications, and chromosome segregation. Nuclear-replicating viruses, especially herpesviruses, have co-evolved with the cell, adopting strategies to counteract and eventually hijack this hostile environment for their own benefit. This allows them to persist in the host for the entire life of an individual and to ensure their maintenance in the target species...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525751/lamina-associated-domains-links-with-chromosome-architecture-heterochromatin-and-gene-repression
#3
REVIEW
Bas van Steensel, Andrew S Belmont
In metazoan cell nuclei, hundreds of large chromatin domains are in close contact with the nuclear lamina. Such lamina-associated domains (LADs) are thought to help organize chromosomes inside the nucleus and have been associated with gene repression. Here, we discuss the properties of LADs, the molecular mechanisms that determine their association with the nuclear lamina, their dynamic links with other nuclear compartments, and their proposed roles in gene regulation.
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522851/mouse-rif1-is-a-regulatory-subunit-of-protein-phosphatase-1-pp1
#4
Rasa Sukackaite, Daniela Cornacchia, Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Philippe J Mas, Martin Blackledge, Elin Enervald, Guangyou Duan, Tania Auchynnikava, Maja Köhn, Darren J Hart, Sara B C Buonomo
Rif1 is a conserved protein that plays essential roles in orchestrating DNA replication timing, controlling nuclear architecture, telomere length and DNA repair. However, the relationship between these different roles, as well as the molecular basis of Rif1 function is still unclear. The association of Rif1 with insoluble nuclear lamina has thus far hampered exhaustive characterization of the associated protein complexes. We devised a protocol that overcomes this problem, and were thus able to discover a number of novel Rif1 interactors, involved in chromatin metabolism and phosphorylation...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511385/intra-operative-diagnosis-of-breast-lesions-by-imprint-cytology-and-frozen-section-with-histopathological-correlation
#5
Asha Mahadevappa, Thattamparambil Gopalakrishnan Nisha, Gubbanna V Manjunath
INTRODUCTION: The most common malignant tumour among women is breast carcinoma. Early lesions of the breast including carcinoma are potentially curable if treated properly in the era of breast conservative therapy. For this purpose different diagnostic strategies are in practice. Intra operative Imprint Cytology (IC) and Frozen Section (FS) have a role in spite of the intense recognition of aspiration cytology in the following settings: inconclusive cytological/core biopsy findings; for evaluation of lumpectomy margins and intra operative nodal status...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510184/footprint-of-the-eastern-euroasian-past-in-italian-populations-of-cryptotaenia-thomasii-ten-dc
#6
Anna Maria Palermo, Liliana Bernardo, Domenico Gargano, Giuseppe Pellegrino
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the genetic architecture of closely related species and/or populations of a single species can be very useful to shed light on the processes that led to their current distributions. The present study provides a preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of the populations of Cryptotaenia thomasii, a very narrow endemic species occurring in southern Italy. Previous studies showed that C. thomasii was phylogenetically closely related to C. flahaultii, endemic species of Caucasus, and to evaluate its conservation status and the genetic variability of plant species the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced and the SNPs were analyzed...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507139/long-read-sequencing-uncovers-the-adaptive-topography-of-a-carnivorous-plant-genome
#7
Tianying Lan, Tanya Renner, Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Kimberly M Farr, Tien-Hao Chang, Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Chunfang Zheng, David Sankoff, Haibao Tang, Rikky W Purbojati, Alexander Putra, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan C Schuster, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Victor A Albert
Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506725/the-first-invertebrate-nfil3-transcription-factor-with-role-in-immune-defense-identified-from-the-hong-kong-oyster-crassostrea-hongkongensis
#8
Jun Li, Yang Zhang, Yuehuan Zhang, Fan Mao, Zhiming Xiang, Shu Xiao, Haitao Ma, Ziniu Yu
NFIL3 (nuclear factor interleukin 3-regulated) is a basic leucine zipper type transcription factor that mediates a variety of immune responses in vertebrates. However, the sequence information and function of NFIL3 homologs in invertebrates, especially mollusks, remains unknown. In the present study, the first NFIL3 homolog was identified in a marine mollusk, Crassostrea hongkongensis (designated as ChNFIL3), followed by its functional characterization. The full-length cDNA of ChNFIL3 is 2221 bp and consists of an open reading frame (ORF) of 1536 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 551 amino acids...
May 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503382/poly-adp-ribosylation-is-present-in-murine-sciatic-nerve-fibers-and-is-altered-in-a-charcot-marie-tooth-1e-neurodegenerative-model
#9
Laura I Lafon Hughes, Carlos J Romeo Cardeillac, Karina B Cal Castillo, Salomé C Vilchez Larrea, José R Sotelo Sosa, Gustavo A Folle Ungo, Silvia H Fernández Villamil, Alejandra E Kun González
BACKGROUND: Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) as a postranslational protein modification and catabolized mainly by poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). In spite of the existence of cytoplasmic PARPs and PARG, research has been focused on nuclear PARPs and PAR, demonstrating roles in the maintenance of chromatin architecture and the participation in DNA damage responses and transcriptional regulation. We have recently detected non-nuclear PAR structurally and functionally associated to the E-cadherin rich zonula adherens and the actin cytoskeleton of VERO epithelial cells...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501201/waste-derivitized-blue-luminescent-carbon-quantum-dots-for-selenite-sensing-in-water
#10
Pooja Devi, Gurvinder Kaur, Anupma Thakur, Navneet Kaur, Anita Grewal, Praveen Kumar
Herein, we report an environmental friendly, facile, and completely green synthetic method for producing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from whey, a major dairy waste. The as-prepared monodispersed diameter CQDs exhibit blue luminescence with noteworthy quantum yield (~11.4%) and excitation dependent emission behaviour. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis reveals the presence of aromatized carbon peaks, leading to polymerized CQDs diameter architecture during whey pyrolysis. The X-ray and selected area electron diffraction patterns confirm their amorphous nature...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500793/integrating-the-genomic-architecture-of-human-nucleolar-organizer-regions-with-the-biophysical-properties-of-nucleoli
#11
REVIEW
Hazel Mangan, Michael Ó Gailín, Brian McStay
Nucleoli are the sites of ribosome biogenesis and the largest membraneless sub-nuclear structures. They are intimately linked with growth and proliferation control and function as sensors of cellular stress. Nucleoli form around arrays of ribosomal gene (rDNA) repeats also called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). In humans, NORs are located on the short arms of all five human acrocentric chromosomes. Multiple NORs contribute to the formation of large heterochromatin-surrounded nucleoli observed in most human cells...
May 13, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495309/group-ii-introns-in-wheat-mitochondria-have-degenerate-structural-features-and-varied-splicing-pathways
#12
Matthew Ngu, Karen Massel, Linda Bonen
Mitochondrial introns in flowering plant genes are virtually all classified as members of the group II ribozyme family although certain structural features have degenerated to varying degrees over evolutionary time. We are interested in the impact that unconventional intron architecture might have on splicing biochemistry in vivo and we have focused in particular on intronic domains V and VI, which for self-splicing introns provide a key component of the catalytic core and the bulged branchpoint adenosine, respectively...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494440/nuclear-architecture-of-mouse-spermatocytes-chromosome-topology-heterochromatin-and-nucleolus
#13
Soledad Berrios
The nuclear organization of spermatocytes in meiotic prophase I is primarily determined by the synaptic organization of the bivalents that are bound by their telomeres to the nuclear envelope and described as arc-shaped trajectories through the 3D nuclear space. However, over this basic meiotic organization, a spermatocyte nuclear architecture arises that is based on higher-ordered patterns of spatial associations among chromosomal domains from different bivalents that are conditioned by the individual characteristics of chromosomes and the opportunity for interactions between their domains...
May 12, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487148/direct-observation-of-cell-cycle-dependent-interactions-between-ctcf-and-chromatin
#14
Harsha Agarwal, Matthias Reisser, Celina Wortmann, J Christof M Gebhardt
The three-dimensional arrangement of chromatin encodes regulatory traits important for nuclear processes such as transcription and replication. Chromatin topology is in part mediated by the architectural protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) that binds to the boundaries of topologically associating domains. Whereas sites of CTCF interactions are well characterized, little is known on how long CTCF binds to chromatin and how binding evolves during the cell cycle. We monitored CTCF-chromatin interactions by live cell single molecule tracking in different phases of the cell cycle...
May 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482216/arbitrary-waveform-modulated-pulse-epr-at-200ghz
#15
Ilia Kaminker, Ryan Barnes, Songi Han
We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200GHz with >150mW power...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479596/the-x-chromosome-in-space
#16
REVIEW
Teddy Jégu, Eric Aeby, Jeannie T Lee
Extensive 3D folding is required to package a genome into the tiny nuclear space, and this packaging must be compatible with proper gene expression. Thus, in the well-hierarchized nucleus, chromosomes occupy discrete territories and adopt specific 3D organizational structures that facilitate interactions between regulatory elements for gene expression. The mammalian X chromosome exemplifies this structure-function relationship. Recent studies have shown that, upon X-chromosome inactivation, active and inactive X chromosomes localize to different subnuclear positions and adopt distinct chromosomal architectures that reflect their activity states...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475002/form-follows-function-morphological-and-immunohistological-insights-into-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-characteristics-of-tumor-buds
#17
Kathrin Enderle-Ammour, Moritz Bader, Theresa Dorothee Ahrens, Kai Franke, Sylvia Timme, Agnes Csanadi, Jens Hoeppner, Birte Kulemann, Jochen Maurer, Philip Reiss, Oliver Schilling, Tobias Keck, Thomas Brabletz, Elmar Stickeler, Martin Werner, Ulrich Friedrich Wellner, Peter Bronsert
In cancer biology, the architectural concept "form follows function" is reflected by cell morphology, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition protein pattern. In vivo, features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition have been associated with tumor budding, which correlates significantly with patient outcome. Hereby, the majority of tumor buds are not truly detached but still connected to a major tumor mass. For detailed insights into the different tumor bud types and the process of tumor budding, we quantified tumor cells according to histomorphological and immunohistological epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristics...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474013/generation-of-low-dimensional-architectures-through-the-self-assembly-of-pyromellitic-diimide-derivatives
#18
Chiara Musumeci, Monika Wałe Sa-Chorab, Adam Gorczyński, Grzegorz Markiewicz, Andrzej Bogucki, Roman Świetlik, Zbigniew Hnatejko, Wojciech Jankowski, Marcin Hoffmann, Emanuele Orgiu, Artur R Stefankiewicz, Violetta Patroniak, Artur Ciesielski, Paolo Samorì
Small π-conjugated molecules can be designed and synthesized to undergo controlled self-assembly forming low-dimensional architectures, with programmed order at the supramolecular level. Such order is of paramount importance because it defines the property of the obtained material. Here, we have focused our attention to four pyromellitic diimide derivatives exposing different types of side chains. The joint effect of different noncovalent interactions including π-π stacking, H-bonding, and van der Waals forces on the four derivatives yielded different self-assembled architectures...
April 30, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468672/inferring-the-physical-properties-of-yeast-chromatin-through-bayesian-analysis-of-whole-nucleus-simulations
#19
Jean-Michel Arbona, Sébastien Herbert, Emmanuelle Fabre, Christophe Zimmer
BACKGROUND: The structure and mechanical properties of chromatin impact DNA functions and nuclear architecture but remain poorly understood. In budding yeast, a simple polymer model with minimal sequence-specific constraints and a small number of structural parameters can explain diverse experimental data on nuclear architecture. However, how assumed chromatin properties affect model predictions was not previously systematically investigated. RESULTS: We used hundreds of dynamic chromosome simulations and Bayesian inference to determine chromatin properties consistent with an extensive dataset that includes hundreds of measurements from imaging in fixed and live cells and two Hi-C studies...
May 3, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463551/comparative-interactomics-provides-evidence-for-functional-specialization-of-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#20
Samson O Obado, Mark C Field, Michael P Rout
The core architecture of the eukaryotic cell was established well over one billion years ago, and is largely retained in all extant lineages. However, eukaryotic cells also possess lineage-specific features, frequently keyed to specific functional requirements. One quintessential core eukaryotic structure is the nuclear pore complex (NPC), responsible for regulating exchange of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm as well as acting as a nuclear organizational hub. NPC architecture has been best documented in one eukaryotic supergroup, the Opisthokonts (e...
May 2, 2017: Nucleus
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