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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630303/how-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiota-overcome-the-sulfation-problem-posed-by-glycosaminoglycans
#1
Alan Cartmell, Elisabeth C Lowe, Arnaud Baslé, Susan J Firbank, Didier A Ndeh, Heath Murray, Nicolas Terrapon, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Jeremy E Turnbull, Mirjam Czjzek, Harry J Gilbert, David N Bolam
The human microbiota, which plays an important role in health and disease, uses complex carbohydrates as a major source of nutrients. Utilization hierarchy indicates that the host glycosaminoglycans heparin (Hep) and heparan sulfate (HS) are high-priority carbohydrates for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent member of the human microbiota. The sulfation patterns of these glycosaminoglycans are highly variable, which presents a significant enzymatic challenge to the polysaccharide lyases and sulfatases that mediate degradation...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628475/predictive-autoimmunity-using-autoantibodies-screening-for-anti-nuclear-antibodies
#2
Dolores Pérez, Boris Gilburd, Óscar Cabrera-Marante, Jose A Martínez-Flores, Manuel Serrano, Laura Naranjo, Daniel Pleguezuelo, Luis Morillas, Ora Shovman, Estela Paz-Artal, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Antonio Serrano
BACKGROUND: Early detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in asymptomatic subjects is useful to predict autoimmune diseases years before diagnosis. ANA have been determined by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cells, which is considered the gold standard technique. Multiplex technology (BioPlex ANA Screen) has been introduced for ANA evaluation in recent years. Nevertheless, concordance between BioPlex and IIF is low and there is no harmonization between both methods for detection of autoantibodies...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623817/development-of-a-simple-and-convenient-cell-based-electrochemical-biosensor-for-evaluating-the-individual-and-combined-toxicity-of-don-zen-and-afb1
#3
Shuang Xia, Pei Zhu, Fuwei Pi, Yinzhi Zhang, Yun Li, Jiasheng Wang, Xiulan Sun
A simple and convenient cell-based electrochemical biosensor was developed to assess the individual and combined toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on Hep G2 cells. The sensor was modified in succession with AuNPs (gold nanoparticles), cysteamine, and laminin. The cells interacting with laminin formed tight cell-to-electrode contacts, and collagen was used to maintain cell adhesion and viability. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was developed to evaluate mycotoxin toxicity...
June 14, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615927/p-tsa-promoted-syntheses-of-5h-benzo-h-thiazolo-2-3-b-quinazoline-and-indeno-1-2-d-thiazolo-3-2-a-pyrimidine-analogs-molecular-modeling-and-in-vitro-antitumor-activity-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Amit K Keshari, Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Amit Rai, Prakruti Trivedi, Balaram Ghosh, Umesh Kumar, Atul Rawat, Dinesh Kumar, Sudipta Saha
In our efforts to address the rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we have made a commitment to the synthesis of novel molecules to combat Hep-G2 cells. A facile and highly efficient one-pot, multicomponent reaction has been successfully devised utilizing a p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA)-catalyzed domino Knoevenagel/Michael/intramolecular cyclization approach for the synthesis of novel 5H-benzo[h]thiazolo[2,3-b]quinazoline and indeno[1,2-d] thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine analogs bearing a bridgehead nitrogen atom...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612519/glucosyltransferase-dependent-and-independent-effects-of-tcdb-on-the-proteome-of-hep-2-cells
#5
Jelena Erdmann, Johannes Junemann, Anke Schröder, Ingo Just, Ralf Gerhard, Andreas Pich
Toxin B (TcdB) of the nosocomial pathogen C. difficile has been reported to exhibit a glucosyltransferase dependent and independent effect on treated HEp-2 cells at toxin concentration above 0.3 nM. In order to investigate and further characterize both effects epithelial cells were treated with wild type TcdB and glucosyltransferase-deficient TcdBNXN and their proteomes were analyzed by LC-MS. Triplex SILAC labeling was used for quantification. Identification of 5212 and quantification of 4712 protein groups was achieved...
June 14, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612172/chromium-iii-and-iron-iii-inhibits-replication-of-dna-and-rna-viruses
#6
Sylwia Terpiłowska, Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treating of chromium(III) and iron(III) and their combinations on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV) replication. The antiviral efficacies of chromium(III) and iron(III) on HSV-1 and BVDV were evaluated using Real Time PCR method. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of these microelements was examined using the MTT reduction assay. The IC50 (50% inhibiotory concentration) for the chromium chloride was 1100 μM for Hep-2 cells and 1400 μM for BT cells...
June 13, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608141/triterpenoids-principle-of-wedelia-calendulacea-attenuated-diethynitrosamine-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-down-regulating-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-pathology-via-nf-kb-pathway
#7
Amita Verma, Deepika Singh, Firoz Anwar, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Fahad Al-Abbasi, Vikas Kumar
The aerial part of Wedelia calendulacea have been used in Ayurveda, Unani, Tibetan, Siddha and other folk medicine systems to protect the liver and renal tissue. Liver is considered as primary metabolizing site of body, which is prone to damage by endogenous and exogenous toxicants. A reason for liver toxicity, and major causes of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 19-α-Hydroxyurs-12(13)-ene-28 oic acid-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (HEG), a triterpenoids found in the higher plants, has been known to possess protective effect against various toxicants...
June 12, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606845/effects-of-community-screening-for-helicobacter-pylori-13-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-hep-fyn
#8
Maria Bomme Høgh, Jane Møller Hansen, Mette Wildner-Christensen, Jesper Hallas, Ove B Schaffalitzky de Muckadell
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication improves the prognosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), dyspepsia, and possibly gastric cancer. Hp screening tests are accurate and eradication therapy is effective. Hp population screening seems attractive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of Hp population screening and eradication on dyspepsia prevalence and the incidence of PUD, and as secondary outcomes to assess the effect on health-care consumption and quality of life...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606534/ternary-polysaccharide-complexes-colloidal-drug-delivery-systems-stabilized-in-physiological-media
#9
Danjun Wu, Agathe Ensinas, Bernard Verrier, Armelle Cuvillier, Gaël Champier, Stephane Paul, Thierry Delair
Chitosan-hyaluronan (HYA) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were designed to maintain their colloidal stabilities in physiological ionic strength and pH, via a new concept of ternary complexes. This strategy relied on the formation of a binary PEC between chitosan and a strong polyacid, dextran sulphate (DS) or heparin (HEP), and further functionalization with HYA. The major parameter leading to stabilized colloids was a high ratio of the degrees of polymerization of chitosan versus the strong polyacid. The process afforded either positive or negative particles when HYA was used in default or in excess (vs...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602611/dna-methyltransferases-modulate-hepatogenic-lineage-plasticity-of%C3%A2-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#10
Chien-Wei Lee, Wei-Chih Huang, Hsien-Da Huang, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Jennifer H Ho, Muh-Hwa Yang, Vincent W Yang, Oscar K Lee
The irreversibility of developmental processes in mammalian cells has been challenged by rising evidence that de-differentiation of hepatocytes occurs in adult liver. However, whether reversibility exists in mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived hepatocytes (dHeps) remains elusive. In this study, we find that hepatogenic differentiation (HD) of MSCs is a reversible process and is modulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). DNMTs are regulated by transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), which in turn controls hepatogenic differentiation and de-differentiation...
June 1, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595938/bifidobacteria-derived-lipoproteins-inhibit-infection-with-coxsackievirus-b4-in-vitro
#11
Khalil Antoine El Kfoury, Marie-Bénédicte Romond, Angelo Scuotto, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze, Ilka Engelmann, Famara Sane, Didier Hober
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bifidobacteria in protecting cells from coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) infection. Bifidobacterial screening identified two of five strains that protected human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell viability when bifidobacteria were incubated with viral particles prior to inoculation. In contrast, no effect was shown by incubating HEp-2 cells with bifidobacteria prior to CV-B4 inoculation. Cell wall lipoprotein aggregates (LpAs) secreted by the selected strains were assayed for their antiviral activity...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591822/neural-sources-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-neural-responses-to-heartbeats-and-their-role-in-bodily-self-consciousness-an-intracranial-eeg-study
#12
Hyeong-Dong Park, Fosco Bernasconi, Roy Salomon, Catherine Tallon-Baudry, Laurent Spinelli, Margitta Seeck, Karl Schaller, Olaf Blanke
Recent research has shown that heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), brain activity in response to heartbeats, are a useful neural measure for investigating the functional role of brain-body interactions in cognitive processes including self-consciousness. In 2 experiments, using intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated (1) the neural sources of HEPs, (2) the underlying mechanisms for HEP generation, and (3) the functional role of HEPs in bodily self-consciousness. In Experiment-1, we found that shortly after the heartbeat onset, phase distributions across single trials were significantly concentrated in 10% of the recording sites, mainly in the insula and the operculum, but also in other regions including the amygdala and fronto-temporal cortex...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578343/filter-size-not-the-anticoagulation-method-is-the-decisive-factor-in-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-circuit-survival
#13
Monika Miklaszewska, Przemysław Korohoda, Katarzyna Zachwieja, Krzysztof Kobylarz, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Alina Sobczak, Dorota Drożdż
BACKGROUND/AIM: As continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has emerged as a standard therapy in pediatric intensive care units (PICU), many related issues that may have an impact on circuit survival have gained in importance. Objective of the study was an evaluation of factors associated with circuit survival, including anticoagulation (ACG). METHODS: Retrospective study that included 40 patients, who in total received 7636 hours of CRRT during 150 sessions (84 filters, 4260 hours with heparin anticoagulation (Hep-ACG); 66 filters, 3376 hours with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA))...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577596/novel-electrochemical-immune-sensor-based-on-hep-pga-ppy-nanoparticles-for-detection-of-%C3%AE-fetoprotein-in-whole-blood
#14
Tingting Xu, Bo Chi, Jian Gao, Meilin Chu, Wenlu Fan, Meihui Yi, Hong Xu, Chun Mao
A simple and accurate immune sensor for quantitative detection of α-Fetoprotein (AFP) was developed based on the immobilization of antigen on the surface of Hep-PGA-PPy nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The obtained Hep-PGA-PPy nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). And the blood compatibility of Hep-PGA-PPy nanoparticles was investigated by in vitro coagulation tests, hemolysis assay and whole blood adhesion tests...
July 18, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576059/manufacture-and-property-research-of-heparin-grafted-electrospinning-pcu-artificial-vascular-scaffolds
#15
Qing Li, Lanlan Mu, Fenghua Zhang, Zhichao Mo, Chuanyu Jin, Weiguo Qi
PCU (polycarbonate polyurethane) is supposed to be an ideal elastomer for manufacturing artificial vessel scaffold with perfect mechanical strength and biocompatibility. Surface grafting by heparin sodium can increase its anticoagulant hemorrhagic, achieving a better application in artificial vessels. Artificial vessels were preliminarily prepared by electrostatic spinning, treated by NH3 plasma and cross-linked with the anticoagulant heparin sodium chemically. Performances of the PCU-Hep (heparin sodium grafted purethane artificial vessels) artificial vessel were calculated through the physical and chemical property tests, evaluation of blood and biocompatibility...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575981/pancreatic-islet-surface-bioengineering-with-a-heparin-incorporated-starpeg-nanofilm
#16
Shaofeng Lou, Xiuyuan Zhang, Jimin Zhang, Juan Deng, Deling Kong, Chen Li
Cell surface engineering could protect implanted cells from host immune rejections while modify the cellular landscape for better post-transplantation graft function and survival. Islet transplantation is considered the most promising therapeutic option with the potential to cure diabetes. Current approach to improve clinical efficacy of pancreatic islet transplantation is alginate encapsulation. However, disappointing outcomes have been reported in clinical trials due to larger islet size resulted by encapsulation and alginate-elicited host immune responses...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570910/the-impact-of-anticancer-activity-upon-beta-vulgaris-extract-mediated-biosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-ag-nps-against-human-breast-mcf-7-lung-a549-and-pharynx-hep-2-cancer-cell-lines
#17
K Venugopal, H Ahmad, E Manikandan, K Thanigai Arul, K Kavitha, M K Moodley, K Rajagopal, R Balabhaskar, M Bhaskar
The present study tried for a phyto-synthetic method of producing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with size controlled as and eco-friendly route that can lead to their advanced production with decorative tranquil morphology. By inducing temperature fluctuation of the reaction mixture from 25 to 80°C the plasmon resonance band raised slowly which had an ultimate effect on size and shape of Ag-NPs as shown by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM results. The biosynthesized nanoparticles showed good cytotoxic impact against MCF-7, A549 and Hep2 cells compared to normal cell lines...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566085/prevalence-of-autoantibodies-against-cellular-antigens-in-patients-with-hiv-and-leprosy-coinfection-in-the-amazon-region
#18
Clea Nazaré Carneiro Bichara, Carlos David Araújo Bichara, Camila Tostes, Marinete Marins Povoa, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma, Marília Brasil Xavier
BACKGROUND: Infectious agents can activate self-reactive T cells. In general, infections trigger various mechanisms, including a lack of auto-tolerance, induction of costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells, and molecular simulation, in addition to cross-reactions between microbial antigens and self-antigens. HIV and leprosy coinfections lead to self-immunity with the production of autoantibodies. However, not enough data on the immune behaviour associated with this coinfection are available...
June 1, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565917/differences-in-carbon-source-utilization-of-salmonella-oranienburg-and-saintpaul-isolated-from-river-water
#19
Andrés Medrano-Félix, Mitzi Estrada-Acosta, Felipe Peraza-Garay, Nohelia Castro-Del Campo, Jaime Martínez-Urtaza, Cristóbal Chaidez
Long-term exposure to river water by non-indigenous micro-organisms such as Salmonella may affect metabolic adaptation to carbon sources. This study was conducted to determine differences in carbon source utilization of Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul (isolated from tropical river water) as well as the control strain Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to laboratory, river water, and host cells (Hep-2 cell line) growth conditions. Results showed that Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul showed better ability for carbon source utilization under the three growth conditions evaluated; however, S...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565914/human-melanoma-inhibitory-protein-binds-to-the-fn12-14-hep-ii-domain-of-fibronectin
#20
King Tuo Yip, Xueyin Zhong, Nadia Seibel, Oliver Arnolds, Miriam Schöpel, Raphael Stoll
The heparin binding site (Hep II) of fibronectin plays a major role in tumor cell metastasis. Its interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycans occurs in a variety of physiological processes including focal adhesion and migration. The melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) is an important protein that is functionally involved in melanoma development, progression, and tumor cell invasion. After its secretion by malignant melanoma cells, MIA interacts with fibronectin and thereby actively facilitates focal cell detachment from surrounding structures and strongly promotes tumor cell invasion and the formation of metastases...
May 31, 2017: Biointerphases
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