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Yoshihiro Tanaka, Juan Abella, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Maria Gregori, R Ewan Fordyce
A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins...
2017: PloS One
Virginie Riou, Marine Périot, Isabelle C Biegala
Oligonucleotide probes are increasingly being used to characterize natural microbial assemblages by Tyramide Signal Amplification-Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (TSA-FISH, or CAtalysed Reporter Deposition CARD-FISH). In view of the fast-growing rRNA databases, we re-evaluated the in silico specificity of eleven bacterial and eukaryotic probes and competitor frequently used for the quantification of marine picoplankton. We performed tests on cell cultures to decrease the risk for non-specific hybridization, before they are used on environmental samples...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Ferreira-Cardoso, R Araújo, N E Martins, G G Martins, S Walsh, R M S Martins, N Kardjilov, I Manke, A Hilger, R Castanhinha
The cerebellar floccular and parafloccular lobes are housed in fossae of the periotic region of the skull of different vertebrates. Experimental evidence indicates that the lobes integrate visual and vestibular information and control the vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-collic reflex, smooth pursuit and gaze holding. Multiple paleoneuroanatomy studies have deduced the behaviour of fossil vertebrates by measuring the floccular fossae (FF). These studies assumed that there are correlations between FF volume and behaviour...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
José Alberto Avila-Funes, Amandine Pelletier, Céline Meillon, Gwénaëlle Catheline, Olivier Periot, Irene Trevin O-Frenk, Magali Gonzalez-Colaço, Jean-François Dartigues, Karine Pérès, Michèle Allard, Bixente Dilharreguy, Hélène Amieva
Background: Frailty has been associated with increased risk of adverse-health related outcomes including cognitive impairment. However, little is know about the pathogenesis relating frailty to cognitive decline. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between vascular cerebral damage and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 176 community-dwelling participants aged 67-86 years, participating in the AMImage Study, an ancillary neuro-imaging project of the AMI cohort, a French prospective cohort including older farmers living in rural areas...
July 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Nathan E Pierce, Patrick J Antonelli
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of combined antistaphylococcal and antipseudomonal preoperative antibiotics for preventing surgical site infections following tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy with contaminated cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent tympanoplasty ± mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma were reviewed. Only cases considered to have contaminated or dirty surgical fields were included...
October 2016: Laryngoscope
Ruishuang Geng, Teppei Noda, Joanna F Mulvaney, Vincent Y W Lin, Albert S B Edge, Alain Dabdoub
BACKGROUND: In the inner ear Wnt signaling is necessary for proliferation, cell fate determination, growth of the cochlear duct, polarized orientation of stereociliary bundles, differentiation of the periotic mesenchyme, and homeostasis of the stria vascularis. In neonatal tissue Wnt signaling can drive proliferation of cells in the sensory region, suggesting that Wnt signaling could be used to regenerate the sensory epithelium in the damaged adult inner ear. Manipulation of Wnt signaling for regeneration will require an understanding of the dynamics of Wnt pathway gene expression in the ear...
2016: PloS One
Amandine Pelletier, Christine Barul, Catherine Féart, Catherine Helmer, Charlotte Bernard, Olivier Periot, Bixente Dilharreguy, Jean-François Dartigues, Michèle Allard, Pascale Barberger-Gateau, Gwénaëlle Catheline, Cécilia Samieri
INTRODUCTION: The Mediterranean diet (MeDi) has been related to a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease; yet, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that protection against neurodegeneration would translate into higher gray matter volumes, whereas a specific association with preserved white matter microstructure would suggest alternative mechanisms (e.g., vascular pathways). METHODS: We included 146 participants from the Bordeaux Three-City study nondemented when they completed a dietary questionnaire and who underwent a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging at an average of 9 years later, including diffusion tensor imaging...
September 2015: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Sung-Ho Huh, Mark E Warchol, David M Ornitz
The sensory and supporting cells (SCs) of the organ of Corti are derived from a limited number of progenitors. The mechanisms that regulate the number of sensory progenitors are not known. Here, we show that Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGF) 9 and 20, which are expressed in the non-sensory (Fgf9) and sensory (Fgf20) epithelium during otic development, regulate the number of cochlear progenitors. We further demonstrate that Fgf receptor (Fgfr) 1 signaling within the developing sensory epithelium is required for the differentiation of outer hair cells and SCs, while mesenchymal FGFRs regulate the size of the sensory progenitor population and the overall cochlear length...
2015: ELife
Byron H Hartman, Robert Durruthy-Durruthy, Roman D Laske, Steven Losorelli, Stefan Heller
Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations) from other major lineages of vertebrate development...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Matthew J Mason, Johannes M Segenhout, Ariadna Cobo-Cuan, Patricia M Quiñones, Pim van Dijk
Many recent accounts of the frog peripheral auditory system have reproduced Wever's (1973) schematic cross-section of the ear of a leopard frog. We sought to investigate to what extent this diagram is an accurate and representative depiction of the anuran inner ear, using three-dimensional reconstructions made from serial sections of Rana pipiens, Eleutherodactylus limbatus and Xenopus laevis. In Rana, three discrete contact membranes were found to separate the posterior otic (=endolymphatic) labyrinth from the periotic (=perilymphatic) system: those of the amphibian and basilar recesses and the contact membrane of the saccule...
April 2015: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Bernd Fritzsch, Ning Pan, Israt Jahan, Karen L Elliott
The mammalian inner ear develops from a placodal thickening into a complex labyrinth of ducts with five sensory organs specialized to detect position and movement in space. The mammalian ear also develops a spiraled cochlear duct containing the auditory organ, the organ of Corti (OC), specialized to translate sound into hearing. Development of the OC from a uniform sheet of ectoderm requires unparalleled precision in the topological developmental engineering of four different general cell types, namely sensory neurons, hair cells, supporting cells, and general otic epithelium, into a mosaic of ten distinctly recognizable cell types in and around the OC, each with a unique distribution...
July 2015: Cell and Tissue Research
Andrew P Chervenak, Lisa M Bank, Nicole Thomsen, Hannah C Glanville-Jones, Skibo Jonathan, Kathleen J Millen, Ruth M Arkell, Kate F Barald
BACKGROUND: Murine Zic genes (Zic1-5) are expressed in the dorsal hindbrain and in periotic mesenchyme (POM) adjacent to the developing inner ear. Zic genes are involved in developmental signaling pathways in many organ systems, including the ear, although their exact roles haven't been fully elucidated. This report examines the role of Zic1, Zic2, and Zic4 during inner ear development in mouse mutants in which these Zic genes are affected. RESULTS: Zic1/Zic4 double mutants don't exhibit any apparent defects in inner ear morphology...
November 2014: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Tobias Bohnenpoll, Mark-Oliver Trowe, Irina Wojahn, Makoto Mark Taketo, Marianne Petry, Andreas Kispert
Otic fibrocytes tether the cochlear duct to the surrounding otic capsule but are also critically involved in maintenance of ion homeostasis in the cochlea, thus, perception of sound. The molecular pathways that regulate the development of this heterogenous group of cells from mesenchymal precursors are poorly understood. Here, we identified epithelial Wnt7a and Wnt7b as possible ligands of Fzd-mediated β-catenin (Ctnnb1)-dependent (canonical) Wnt signaling in the adjacent undifferentiated periotic mesenchyme (POM)...
July 1, 2014: Developmental Biology
Min Deng, Hua Yang, Xiaoling Xie, Guoqing Liang, Lin Gan
POU-homeodomain and LIM-homeodomain transcription factors are expressed in developing projection neurons within retina, inner ear, dorsal root ganglion, and trigeminal ganglion, and play synergistic roles in their differentiation and survival. Here, using immunohistochemistry, we present a comparative analysis of the spatiotemporal expression pattern of POU4F1, POU4F2, and ISL1 during the development of cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG) neurons in mouse inner ear. At early stages, when otic neurons are first detected in the otic epithelium (OE) and migrate into periotic mesenchyme to form the CVG, POU4F1 and ISL1 are co-expressed in a majority of the delaminated CVG neurons, which are marked by NEUROD1 expression, but POU4F1 is absent in the otic epithelium...
May 2014: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Amandine Pelletier, Olivier Periot, Bixente Dilharreguy, Bassem Hiba, Martine Bordessoules, Karine Pérès, Hélène Amieva, Jean-François Dartigues, Michèle Allard, Gwénaëlle Catheline
While hippocampal atrophy has been described during healthy aging, few studies have examined its relationship with the integrity of White Matter (WM) connecting tracts of the limbic system. This investigation examined WM structural damage specifically related to hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging subjects (n = 129), using morphological MRI to assess hippocampal volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to assess WM integrity. Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia were excluded from the analysis...
2013: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Andrew P Chervenak, Ibrahim S Hakim, Kate F Barald
BACKGROUND: Inner ear development involves signaling from surrounding tissues, including the adjacent hindbrain, periotic mesenchyme, and notochord. These signals include SHH, FGFs, BMPs, and WNTs from the hindbrain and SHH from the notochord. Zic genes, which are expressed in the dorsal neural tube and act during neural development, have been implicated as effectors of these pathways. This report examines whether Zic genes' involvement in inner ear development is a tenable hypothesis based on their expression patterns...
July 2013: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
M Meslé, C Périot, G Dromart, P Oger
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to design and test a method allowing the detection and quantification of methanogenic consortia in organic-rich rocks to determine the potential of methane biotransformation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Methanogen numbers in the rock are often below the detection levels of quantification methods. Biostimulation was tested as a means to specifically increase bacterial and archaeal numbers above the detection levels in microcosms. Biostimulation reveals the presence of active heterotrophic and syntrophic bacterial consortia, methane accumulation and methanogens in one of four rock samples...
January 2013: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Maya Yamato, Darlene R Ketten, Julie Arruda, Scott Cramer, Kathleen Moore
Cetaceans possess highly derived auditory systems adapted for underwater hearing. Odontoceti (toothed whales) are thought to receive sound through specialized fat bodies that contact the tympanoperiotic complex, the bones housing the middle and inner ears. However, sound reception pathways remain unknown in Mysticeti (baleen whales), which have very different cranial anatomies compared to odontocetes. Here, we report a potential fatty sound reception pathway in the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a mysticete of the balaenopterid family...
June 2012: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Dennis C Monks, Bernice E Morrow
BACKGROUND: The T-box transcription factor Tbx1 is expressed in the otic vesicle and surrounding mesoderm of the periotic mesenchyme (POM) during inner ear development. Mesenchymal Tbx1 is essential for inner ear development, with conditional mutants displaying defects in both the auditory and vestibular systems. We have previously reported that mesodermal Tbx1 loss of function mutants (Mest-KO) have reduced expression of retinoic acid (RA) metabolic genes, Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1, in the POM, consistent with other studies showing an increase in mesodermal RA reporter expression in Tbx1-/- embryos...
March 2012: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Mark A Parker, Kevin Jiang, Judith S Kempfle, Kunio Mizutari, Caitlin L Simmons, Rebecca Bieber, Joe Adams, Albert S B Edge
Transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is a mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase that is involved in diverse biological roles across species. Functioning downstream of TGF-β and BMP signaling, TAK1 mediates the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway, serves as the target of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, mediates NF-κβ activation, and plays a role in Wnt/Fz signaling in mesenchymal stem cells. Expression of TAK1 in the cochlea has not been defined...
August 2011: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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