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Pathological gambling

Lucia Romo, Cindy Legauffre, Alice Guilleux, Marc Valleur, David Magalon, Mélina Fatséas, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Amandine Luquiens, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
Introduction The primary outcome of our study was to assess the links between the level of cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling disorder. We also aimed at assessing the links between patient gambling trajectories and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods The study population (n = 628) was comprised of problem and non-problem gamblers of both sexes between 18 and 65 years of age, who reported gambling on at least one occasion during the previous year. Data encompassed socio-demographic characteristics, gambling habits, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey - 23, the Wender Utah Rating Scale - Child, and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
J R Marsden, R Fox, N M Boota, M Cook, K Wheatley, L Billingham, N Steven
BACKGROUND: Topical imiquimod is sometimes used for lentigo maligna (LM) in-situ melanoma instead of surgery, but frequency of cure is uncertain. Pathological complete regression (pCR) is a logical surrogate marker for cure after imiquimod, although residual LM and atypical melanocytic hyperplasia may not be reliably distinguished. A trial comparing imiquimod versus surgery might be justified by a high imiquimod pCR rate. OBJECTIVES: Primary: to estimate pCR rate for LM following imiquimod...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Yudan Ren, Jun Fang, Jinglei Lv, Xintao Hu, Cong Christine Guo, Lei Guo, Jiansong Xu, Marc N Potenza, Tianming Liu
Assessing functional brain activation patterns in neuropsychiatric disorders such as cocaine dependence (CD) or pathological gambling (PG) under naturalistic stimuli has received rising interest in recent years. In this paper, we propose and apply a novel group-wise sparse representation framework to assess differences in neural responses to naturalistic stimuli across multiple groups of participants (healthy control, cocaine dependence, pathological gambling). Specifically, natural stimulus fMRI (N-fMRI) signals from all three groups of subjects are aggregated into a big data matrix, which is then decomposed into a common signal basis dictionary and associated weight coefficient matrices via an effective online dictionary learning and sparse coding method...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Krishna Vaddiparti, Catherine W Striley, Linda B Cottler
The purpose of this study is to assess the association between gambling severity and exposure to guns among substance-using women recruited in the community. Data for these analyses come from the baseline phase of two community-based HIV prevention interventions conducted among alcohol and drug-using women in St. Louis, MO. Gun exposure was assessed using the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), and DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule; The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module assessed DSM-IV substance dependence, including cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence...
September 1, 2016: Violence Gend
Nariakira Moriyama
Recently, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimated the prevalence rate of gambling disorder to be 4.8 percent of the population. This rate is outstandingly higher than other countries with prevalence rates between 0.25 and 2.0 percent. It is also estimated that no fewer than 5 million Japanese suffer from the disease. In the last two years, 100 new patients visited the author's clinic. On an average, they started gambling at the age of 19.7 years, and incurring debt at the age of 25.8 years. They first visited the clinic at an average age of 38...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Rory A Pfund, James P Whelan, Jordan E Greenburg, Samuel C Peter, Katherine K Wilson, Andrew W Meyers
Disordered gamblers frequently present with concurrent anxiety, depressive, personality, and substance use disorders, which may complicate treatment. Although there is a need for a thorough assessment, some questionnaires may prove lengthy for clients and clinicians. Thus, there is a need for brief screens for identifying co-occurring psychopathology. The present study sought to examine whether a brief, self-report measure of psychological distress could indicate the presence of co-occurring psychopathology among an outpatient sample of disordered gamblers...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
John A Flanders, Dana A Buoscio, Bonnie A Jacobs, Kathryn C Gamble
Cardiac disease is a common condition in captive primates, and multiple cases in François' langurs ( Trachypithecus francoisi ) were noted on review of the Species Survival Plan studbook. To determine the prevalence of cardiac disease in this species, surveys were distributed to current and previous holding institutions (n = 23) for the U.S. studbook population (n = 216). After exclusion of stillbirths (n = 48), animals less than 1 yr of age (n = 8), and animals housed internationally (n = 2), a study group (n = 158) was identified for this analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Fioravante Capone, Gianluca Capone, Giovanni Di Pino, Lucia Florio, Gianluca Oricchio, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
There is great interest about the individual differences that influence the ability of dealing with risky decisions. In this light, an intriguing question is whether decision-making during risk is related to other cognitive abilities, especially executive functions. To investigate, in healthy subjects, the existence of a possible correlation between risk-taking and cognitive abilities, the balloon analogue risk task (BART) has been exploited to assess risk-taking propensity and the random number generation (RNG), to investigate cognitive functions...
September 22, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Edward B McNeil, Nopporn Tantirangsee, Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon
Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand's 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Petra Heiden, Andreas Heinz, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
The incidence of pathological gambling in Parkinson's patients is significantly greater than in the general population. A correlation has been observed between dopamine agonist medication and the development of pathological gambling. However, scientists conjecture that the affected patients have underlying risk factors. Studies analysing Parkinson's patients have detected that patients who developed pathological gambling are younger, score higher on novelty-seeking tests, are more impulsive and are more likely to have a personal or family history of alcohol addiction...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
M E Ceylan, A Evrensel, Bö Ünsalver, G Cömert
Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic agent which has partial agonistic effect on dopamine D2 and D3 receptor. It is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Due to its partial agonistic effect, hyperactivity of dopamine may occur in the mesolimbic pathway. In the literature, there are few case reports about pathological gambling due to aripiprazole. In this article two case reports with a tendency to gambling and alcohol abuse under treatment of aripiprazole who show pathological gambling behaviour are reported...
November 4, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Gerardo Flórez, Pilar A Saiz, Emilia M Santamaría, Sandra Álvarez, Luis Nogueiras, Manuel Arrojo
Impulsivity, implicit attitudes and explicit cognitions regarding gambling, and alcohol abuse have been pointed out by past research as significant contributors to the development and maintenance of gambling disorders. In this study, we tested the relationship among these contributors and pathological gambling. Forty-four pathological gamblers (DSM-5 criteria), of whom 23 were active gamblers and 17 were alcohol dependent, were compared with 100 controls, consisting of patients with a lifetime history of alcohol use disorder in remission for at least 2 years...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Tim van Timmeren, Jochem M Jansen, Matthan W A Caan, Anna E Goudriaan, Ruth J van Holst
Pathological gambling (PG) is a behavioral addiction characterized by an inability to stop gambling despite the negative consequences, which may be mediated by cognitive flexibility deficits. Indeed, impaired cognitive flexibility has previously been linked to PG and also to reduced integrity of white matter connections between the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex. It remains unclear, however, how white matter integrity problems relate to cognitive inflexibility seen in PG. We used a cognitive switch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging in pathological gamblers (PGs; n = 26) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 26)...
September 9, 2016: Addiction Biology
Mark R Dixon, Seth W Whiting, Karl F Gunnarsson, Jacob H Daar, Kyle E Rowsey
The purpose of the present review was to analyze research outcomes for all gambling studies reported in the behavior analysis literature. We used the search term "gambling" to identify articles that were published in behaviorally oriented journals between the years 1992 and 2012 and categorized the content of each article as empirical or conceptual. Next, we examined and categorized the empirical articles by inclusion of an experimental manipulation and treatment to alleviate at least some aspect of pathological gambling, participant population used, type of gambling task employed in the research, whether the participants in the study actually gambled, and the behavioral phenomena of interest...
October 2015: Behavior Analyst
Maria Ciccarelli, Mark D Griffiths, Giovanna Nigro, Marina Cosenza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sarah Hamilton-Wright, Julia Woodhall-Melnik, Sara J T Guilcher, Andrée Schuler, Aklilu Wendaferew, Stephen W Hwang, Flora I Matheson
Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
N Kastirke, H-J Rumpf, U John, A Bischof, C Meyer
Objective: To investigate the extent to which the presence and number of symptoms of pathological gambling (PG), distinguished by region of origin (RO), differ. Methods: Data was obtained from a nationwide telephone survey of 15 023 individuals living in Germany and aged 14-64 years. They were categorized according to their RO and the number of symptoms of PG (0-10 DSM-IV-criteria). Results: The lifetime prevalence of PG symptoms is 18.1% for people of the RO Turkey, 9.0% for those of the RO Yugoslavia and 6...
September 2, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Dalma Tényi, Csilla Gyimesi, Norbert Kovács, Tamás Tényi, József Janszky
Background The retrospective diagnosis of Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky's (1821-1881) neurological and psychiatric disease proves to be particularly interesting. Recent neurobiological data suggest a solution to the questions regarding the writer's retrospective diagnosis, claiming the insular cortex to be the origin of the rare ecstatic seizures. Regarding Dostoyevsky's pathological gambling, this hypothesis is consistent with another finding from recent neuroscience, namely that the malfunction of the insula could be an important underlying pathology in gambling disorder...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Michela Di Trani, Alessia Renzi, Chiara Vari, Giulio Cesare Zavattini, Luigi Solano
The aim of the present study was to explore the dimensions of alexithymia and attachment styles in a group of disordered gamblers and to evaluate the relationship between alexithymia, attachment styles, and the severity of gambling disorder. Sixty disordered gamblers diagnosed according to the diagnostic and statistical manual-5 filled out the Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten, the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised. Approximately 70 % of the sample displayed 'intermediate' and 'severe' gambling severity levels on the Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten, and 77 % showed 'high' or 'borderline' levels of alexithymia on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (mean = 56...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
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