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Pathological gambling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424382/-near-miss-outcomes-in-gambling-games
#1
Zsuzsa Pecsenye, Gyozo Kurucz
BACKGROUND: Games of chance operate with an intermittent reinforcement schedule in which the number of games takes the player to win differ in each turn thus they can not predict when the next positive reinforcement arrives. The near miss outcome (close to winning but actually a losing outcome) can be interpreted as a secondary (built in) reinforcement within variable ratio reinforcement schedule that presumably contribute to the development and maintanance of gambling addiction. METHODS: The aim of this publication would be to introduce near miss outcomes and to summarize and critically analyze literature connected to this issue...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415138/the-roles-of-valuation-and-reward-processing-in-cognitive-function-and-psychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Sébastien Hélie, Farzin Shamloo, Keisha Novak, Dan Foti
In neuroeconomics, valuation refers to the process of assigning values to states and actions on the basis of the animal's current representation of the environment, while reward processing corresponds to processing the feedback received from the environment to update the values of states and actions. In this article, we review the brain circuits associated with valuation and reward processing and argue that these are fundamental processes critical to many cognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on the role of valuation and reward processing in attention, memory, decision making, and learning...
April 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399600/-stealing-as-an-impulse-control-disorder-associated-with-pramipexole-a-case-report-from-forensic-psychiatric-practice
#3
Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Harald Dreßing
We report the case of a 48-year-old female whom we examined for legal culpability. The proband was taking the dopamine agonist pramipexole as a treatment for Parkinson's disease. In temporal association, she had committed numerous shoplifting offences.While pathological gambling, excessive shopping and hypersexuality have often been described as adverse effects of dopamine agonists, there are only few reports about impulsive stealing in this context.We discuss the synergy of the pharmacological effects with familial, biographic and social factors, suggesting a bio-psycho-social etiology...
April 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384607/latent-class-analysis-of-gambling-subtypes-and-impulsive-compulsive-associations-time-to-rethink-diagnostic-boundaries-for-gambling-disorder
#4
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jan Stochl, Sarah A Redden, Brian L Odlaug, Jon E Grant
BACKGROUND: Gambling disorder has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and impaired quality of life. The current definition of non-pathological, problem, and pathological types of gambling is based on total symptom scores, which may overlook nuanced underlying presentations of gambling symptoms. The aims of the current study were (i) to identify subtypes of gambling in young adults, using latent class analysis, based on individual responses from the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD); and (ii) to explore relationships between these gambling subtypes, and clinical/cognitive measures...
March 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381496/pathological-gambling
#5
EDITORIAL
Henrietta Bowden-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364687/comorbidity-family-history-and-personality-traits-in-pathological-gamblers-compared-with-healthy-controls
#6
K Mann, T Lemenager, E Zois, S Hoffmann, H Nakovics, M Beutel, M Vogelgesang, K Wölfling, F Kiefer, M Fauth-Bühler
BACKGROUND: While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. METHODS: In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls...
December 23, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346715/cabergoline-related-impulse-control-disorder-in-an-adolescent-with-a-giant-prolactinoma
#7
C Bulwer, R Conn, A Shankar, F Ferrau, S Kapur, A Ederies, M Korbonits, H A Spoudeas
Giant prolactinomas, rare in children, can have devastating endocrine, neurological and visual sequelae. Dopamine agonists (DA) are effective first-line therapy with few side-effects at doses usually used for prolactinoma treatment(1) , but higher-dose therapy for Parkinson's disease has well-recognized associations with impulse control disorders (ICD) including pathological gambling, impulsive eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality. Such associations are not well recognized with prolactinomas; to our knowledge this is the first reported case of hypersexuality in an adolescent receiving cabergoline for a giant prolactinoma...
March 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344568/time-is-money-the-decision-making-of-smartphone-high-users-in-gain-and-loss-intertemporal-choice
#8
Zixuan Tang, Huijun Zhang, An Yan, Chen Qu
Nowadays the smartphone plays an important role in our lives. While it brings us convenience and efficiency, its overuse can cause problems. Although a great number of studies have demonstrated that people affected by substance abuse, pathological gambling, and internet addiction disorder have lower self-control than average, scarcely any study has investigated the decision making of smartphone high users by using a behavioral paradigm. The present study employed an intertemporal task, the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11) to explore the decision control of smartphone high users in a sample of 125 college students...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342535/-professional-stressors-and-common-mental-health-disorders-causal-links
#9
C Nicolas, N Chawky, C Jourdan-Ionescu, M-S Drouin, C Page, N Houlfort, G Beauchamp, M Séguin
According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link...
March 22, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332064/gambling-disorder-exploring-pre-treatment-and-in-treatment-dropout-predictors-a-uk-study
#10
Silvia Ronzitti, Emiliano Soldini, Neil Smith, Massimo Clerici, Henrietta Bowden-Jones
The aim of this study was to identify predictors of treatment dropout in a sample of gamblers attending a specialist clinic for gambling disorder. We analysed data on 846 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Firstly, we investigated differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables between treatment completers and pre-treatment dropouts, as well as between treatment completers and during-treatment dropouts. Subsequently, variables were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify significant predictors of pre-treatment and in-treatment dropout...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324983/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#11
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316029/impulsivity-and-stress-response-in-pathological-gamblers-during-the-trier-social-stress-test
#12
G Maniaci, A E Goudriaan, C Cannizzaro, R J van Holst
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294474/modulating-risky-decision-making-in-parkinson-s-disease-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#13
A Benussi, A Alberici, V Cantoni, R Manenti, M Brambilla, V Dell'Era, S Gazzina, M Manes, V Cristillo, A Padovani, M Cotelli, B Borroni
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Performance on gambling tasks in Parkinson's disease (PD) is of particular interest, as pathological gambling is often associated with dopamine replacement therapy in these patients. We aimed to evaluate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in modulating gambling behaviour in PD. METHODS: We assessed the effects of cathodal tDCS over the right DLPFC during the Iowa Gambling Task in 20 patients with PD, compared with sham stimulation...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291294/-alexithymia-and-pathological-gambling-the-mediating-role-of-difficulties-in-emotion-regulation
#14
Hazal Gökçe Elmas, Gizem Cesur, E Timuçin Oral
OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to determine the prediction level of alexithymia and difficulties in emotion regulation on pathological gambling. Secondly, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of difficulties in emotion regulation on the relationship between alexithymia and pathological gambling. METHOD: The sample was consisted of 246 male gamblers. The average age was 33.30 with a standard deviation of 11.62. In addition to socio-demographic form, The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) were used to collect data...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286486/using-virtual-reality-in-the-treatment-of-gambling-disorder-the-development-of-a-new-tool-for-cognitive-behavior-therapy
#15
Stéphane Bouchard, Geneviève Robillard, Isabelle Giroux, Christian Jacques, Claudie Loranger, Manon St-Pierre, Maxime Chrétien, Annie Goulet
Virtual reality (VR) can be used in the treatment of gambling disorder to provide emotionally charged contexts (e.g., induce cravings) where patients can practice cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) techniques in the safety of the therapist's office. This raises practical questions, such as whether the cravings are sufficient to be clinically useful but also manageable enough to remain clinically safe. Pilot data are also needed to test the development of a treatment manual and prepare large randomized control trials...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274137/post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-pathological-gambling-potential-evidence-of-anti-reward-processes
#16
Cheryl L Green, Ramzi W Nahhas, Arielle A Scoglio, Igor Elman
Background Excessive gambling is considered to be a part of the addiction spectrum. Stress-like emotional states are a key feature both of pathological gambling (PG) and of substance addiction. In substance addiction, stress symptomatology has been attributed in part to "anti-reward" allostatic neuroadaptations, while a potential involvement of anti-reward processes in the course of PG has not yet been investigated. Methods To that end, individuals with PG (n = 22) and mentally healthy subjects (n = 13) were assessed for trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) using the Life Events Checklist and the Civilian Mississippi Scale, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260605/gambling-disorder-dsm-5-criteria-and-symptom-severity
#17
Jon E Grant, Brian L Odlaug, Samuel R Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Gambling disorder (GD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition whose severity is typically defined by the number of DSM-5 criteria met out of a maximum of nine. The relationships between the levels of gambling severity, thus defined, and other measures of psychopathology and everyday functioning are clinically important. METHODS: Baseline data were collected in patients with GD, conducted from 2001 to 2016. Participants completed clinical interviews and questionnaires...
May 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255941/identifying-environmental-and-social-factors-predisposing-to-pathological-gambling-combining-standard-logistic-regression-and-logic-learning-machine
#18
Stefano Parodi, Corrado Dosi, Antonella Zambon, Enrico Ferrari, Marco Muselli
Identifying potential risk factors for problem gambling (PG) is of primary importance for planning preventive and therapeutic interventions. We illustrate a new approach based on the combination of standard logistic regression and an innovative method of supervised data mining (Logic Learning Machine or LLM). Data were taken from a pilot cross-sectional study to identify subjects with PG behaviour, assessed by two internationally validated scales (SOGS and Lie/Bet). Information was obtained from 251 gamblers recruited in six betting establishments...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255940/pathological-gambling-and-motor-impulsivity-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Nahian S Chowdhury, Evan J Livesey, Alex Blaszczynski, Justin A Harris
Motor impulsivity, which is an impairment in withholding and cancelling inappropriate responses, may account for the inability for pathological gamblers (PGs) to inhibit their urges to gamble. The aim of this systematic review was to perform a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of existing studies in order to assess whether PGs without comorbid substance use disorder have elevated motor impulsivity, relative to healthy controls. An exhaustive literature search led to the identification of 20 studies which met inclusion criteria...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227248/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#20
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, S Subramanian, M S D Kerr, M A Johnson, J T Gale, K Kahn, P Sacre, S V Sarma, J Gonzalez-Martinez
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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