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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527379/diagnosing-water-security-in-the-rural-north-with-an-environmental-security-framework
#1
Henry J F Penn, Philip A Loring, William E Schnabel
This study explores the nature of water security challenges in rural Alaska, using a framework for environmental security that entails four interrelated concepts: availability, access, utility, and stability of water resources. Many researchers and professionals agree that water insecurity is a problem in rural Alaska, although the scale and nature of the problem is contested. Some academics have argued that the problem is systemic, and rooted in an approach to water security by the state that prioritizes economic concerns over public health concerns...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527341/unravelling-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreaks-in-buenos-aires-argentina-molecular-basis-of-the-spatio-temporal-transmission
#2
Gabriel Lihue Rojo, Stephanie Goya, Mariana Orellana, Andrea Sancilio, Alberto Rodriguez Perez, César Montali, Carolina García, Lilian Sosa, Alejandra Musto, Daniela Alvarez, Alejandro Castello, Mariana Viegas
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RSV are under research and development, which are about to be approved. We evaluated transmission patterns in different settings to determine age-specific vaccination targets from a viral perspective. We sequenced the G glycoprotein's ectodomain of a constant clinical sampling between two epidemic outbreaks in a limited geographical region and performed phylogeographic analyses...
May 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527266/-risk-factors-associated-with-the-development-of-perinatal-asphyxia-in-neonates-at-the-hospital-universitario-del-valle-cali-colombia-2010-2011
#3
Javier Torres-Muñoz, Christian Rojas, Diana Mendoza-Urbano, Darly Marín-Cuero, Sandra Orobio, Carlos Echandía
INTRODUCTION: Perinatal asphyxia is one of the main causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide and it generates high costs for health systems; however, it has modifiable risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors associated with the development of perinatal asphyxia in newborns at Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Incident cases and concurrent controls were examined. Cases were defined as newborns with moderate to severe perinatal asphyxia who were older than or equal to 36 weeks of gestational age, needed advanced resuscitation and presented one of the following: early neurological disorders, multi-organ commitment or a sentinel event...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527100/parents-expectations-of-high-schools-in-firearm-violence-prevention
#4
Erica Payton, Jagdish Khubchandani, Amy Thompson, James H Price
Firearm violence remains a significant problem in the US (with 2787 adolescents killed in 2015). However, the research on school firearm violence prevention practices and policies is scant. Parents are major stakeholders in relation to firearm violence by youths and school safety in general. The purpose of this study was to examine what parents thought schools should be doing to reduce the risk of firearm violence in schools. A valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 600 parents who had at least one child enrolled in a public secondary school (response rate = 47%)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527007/factors-associated-with-supportive-care-needs-in-glioma-patients-in-the-neuro-oncological-outpatient-setting
#5
Mirjam Renovanz, Marlene Hechtner, Mareile Janko, Karoline Kohlmann, Jan Coburger, Minou Nadji-Ohl, Jochem König, Florian Ringel, Susanne Singer, Anne-Katrin Hickmann
Objective of this study aimed at assessing glioma patients' supportive care needs in a neurosurgical outpatient setting and identifying factors that are associated with needs for support. In three neuro-oncological outpatient departments, glioma patients were assessed for their psychosocial needs using the Supportive Care Needs Survey short-form (SCNS-SF34-G). Associations between clinical, sociodemographic, treatment related factors as well as distress (measured with the distress thermometer) and supportive care needs were explored using multivariable general linear models...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526785/effects-of-arginine-on-growth-virulence-gene-expression-and-stress-tolerance-by-streptococcus-mutans
#6
Brinta Chakraborty, Robert A Burne
Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of oral biofilms and a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The bacteria associated with dental caries have a potent ability to produce organic acids from dietary carbohydrates and to grow and metabolize in acidic conditions. In contrast, many commensal bacteria produce ammonia through the arginine deiminase system (ADS), which moderates the pH of oral biofilms. Arginine metabolism by the ADS is a significant deterrent to the initiation and progression of dental caries...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526674/development-of-a-web-based-health-care-intervention-for-patients-with-heart-disease-lessons-learned-from-a-participatory-design-study
#7
Birgitte Noergaard, Marianne Sandvei, Nina Rottmann, Helle Johannessen, Uffe Wiil, Thomas Schmidt, Susanne S Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The use of telemedicine technologies in health care has increased substantially, together with a growing interest in participatory design methods when developing telemedicine approaches. OBJECTIVE: We present lessons learned from a case study involving patients with heart disease and health care professionals in the development of a personalized Web-based health care intervention. METHODS: We used a participatory design approach inspired by the method for feasibility studies in software development...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526665/the-sensor-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-management-checks-to-predict-exacerbations-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-long-term-respiratory-conditions
#8
Claire Roberts, Thomas L Jones, Samal Gunatilake, Will Storrar, Scott Elliott, Sharon Glaysher, Ben Green, Steven Rule, Carole Fogg, Ann Dewey, Kevin A Auton, Anoop J Chauhan
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease...
May 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526661/the-parasol-protocol-an-implementation-science-study-of-hiv-continuum-of-care-interventions-for-gay-men-and-transgender-women-in-burma-myanmar
#9
Andrea L Wirtz, Soe Naing, Emily Clouse, Kaung Htet Thu, Sandra Hsu Hnin Mon, Zin Min Tun, Stefan Baral, Aung Zayar Paing, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with HIV and reduce onward transmission of HIV rely on innovative interventions along multiple steps of the HIV care continuum. These innovative methods are particularly important for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated among key populations, and national efforts now focus on reducing stigma and improving engagement of MSM and TW in HIV prevention and care...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526570/role-of-medicinal-plants-on-growth-performance-and-immune-status-in-fish
#10
REVIEW
Elham Awad, Amani Awaad
Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increases in intensive aquaculture. Natural products including medicinal plants have been known from thousands of years for treating some human diseases. It is well known that many active compounds are responsible for potential bio-activities. For that reason, there has been considerable interest in the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture with a view to providing safe and eco-friendly compounds for replacing antibiotics and chemical compounds as well as to enhance immune status and control fish diseases...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#11
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526400/surgeons-opinions-of-legal-practice-in-bile-duct-injury-following-cholecystectomy
#12
Alex Gordon-Weeks, Harsh Samarendra, John de Bono, Zahir Soonawalla, Michael Silva
INTRODUCTION: Litigation for bile duct injury following laparoscopic cholecystectomy places financial strain on the health service, causes significant patient morbidity and adversely affects the patient and surgeon. Claimants argue that the injury itself is evidence of negligence. METHODS: A questionnaire addressing views on BDI causation was sent to members of AUGIS working in the National Health Service, UK. Response themes and responses were compared between groups of surgeons...
May 17, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526259/the-impact-of-daytime-light-exposures-on-sleep-and-mood-in-office-workers
#13
Mariana G Figueiro, Bryan Steverson, Judith Heerwagen, Kevin Kampschroer, Claudia M Hunter, Kassandra Gonzales, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea
BACKGROUND: By affecting the internal timing mechanisms of the brain, light regulates human physiology and behavior, perhaps most notably the sleep-wake cycle. Humans spend over 90% of their waking hours indoors, yet light in the built environment is not designed to affect circadian rhythms. OBJECTIVE: Using a device calibrated to measure light that is effective for the circadian system (circadian-effective light), collect personal light exposures in office workers and relate them to their sleep and mood...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526241/-guidelines-for-prevention-detection-and-management-of-hyperbilirubinaemia-in-newborns-of-35-or-more-weeks-of-gestation
#14
María Dolores Sánchez-Redondo Sánchez-Gabriel, José Luis Leante Castellanos, Isabel Benavente Fernández, Alejandro Pérez Muñuzuri, Segundo Rite Gracia, Cesar W Ruiz Campillo, Ester Sanz López, Manuel Sánchez Luna
Hyperbilirubinaemia is one of the most frequent causes of hospital readmission during the first week of life. Its detection is still a big challenge, mainly due to the early discharge from the hospital that can be associated with a delay of the diagnosis. The identification of those newborns at risk of developing significant hyperbilirubinaemia is one of the main priorities in the public health care system. An approach to the management of newborn jaundice is presented in this article, following the recommendations based on the medical evidence and on the opinion of the Standards Committee of the Spanish Society of Neonatology...
May 16, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526230/shared-decision-making-in-taiwan
#15
Hsun-Hsiang Liao, Huey-Wen Liang, Hou-Chaung Chen, Ching-I Chang, Pa-Chun Wang, Chung-Liang Shih
The paper aims to introduce the current status of shared decision making (SDM) in Taiwan under its mixed health care system and single-payer health insurance system. With experiences in promoting both evidence based medicine and patient safety, the Joint Commission of Taiwan has implemented a nationwide SDM program under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Welfare since 2016, incorporating multiple approaches such as developing patient decision aids (PDAs), executing the Medical Decision Aids Campaign, establishing a SDM platform, and integrating SDM in clinical practice...
May 17, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526229/cost-benefit-analysis-of-robotic-surgery-in-gynaecological-oncology
#16
REVIEW
Christos Iavazzo, Ioannis D Gkegkes
Robotic approach is a rather new technique that can be used to optimise the management of patients with gynaecological cancer. However, concerns have been raised regarding the cost of such an approach compared to laparoscopic or open techniques. The aim of our chapter is to review the data of papers published so far that analyse the cost of robotic gynaecological oncology. A systematic review of the current literature was performed trying to assess the cost of the robotic technique including parameters that affect it and ways to minimise it in favour of the patients and health care systems...
April 23, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526155/ketorolac-oxymorphone-tapentadol-and-tramadol-a-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
Nalini Vadivelu, Daniel Chang, Erik M Helander, Gregory J Bordelon, Alice Kai, Alan D Kaye, Dora Hsu, Daniel Bang, Inderjeet Julka
Pain remains a tremendous burden on patients and for the health care system, with uncontrolled pain being the leading cause of disability in this country. There are a variety of medications that can be used in the treatment of pain, including ketorolac, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol. Depending on the clinical situation, these drugs can be used as monotherapy or in conjunction with other types of medications in a multimodal approach. A strong appreciation of pharmacologic properties of these agents and potential side effects is warranted for clinicians...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526152/pharmacologic-properties-of-novel-local-anesthetic-agents-in-anesthesia-practice
#18
REVIEW
Chih H King, Sascha S Beutler, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
Therapeutic duration of traditional local anesthetics when used in peripheral nerve blocks is normally limited. This article describes novel approaches to extend the duration of peripheral nerve blocks currently available or in development. Three newer approaches on extending the duration of peripheral nerve blocks include site-1 sodium channel blockers, novel local anesthetics delivery systems, and novel adjuvants of local anesthetics. Compared with plain amide-based and ester-based local anesthetics, alternative approaches show significant promise in decreasing postoperative pain, rescue opioid requirement, hospital length-of-stay, and overall health care cost, without compromising the established safety profile of traditional local anesthetics...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526083/improving-local-health-workers-knowledge-of-malaria-in-the-elimination-phase-determinants-and-strategies-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-china
#19
Ruoxi Wang, Shangfeng Tang, Jun Yang, Tian Shao, Piaopiao Shao, Chunyan Liu, Da Feng, Hang Fu, Xiaoyu Chen, Tao Hu, Zhanchun Feng
BACKGROUND: The current stage of malaria elimination in China requires experienced local health workers with sufficient knowledge of malaria who help to keep the public health system vigilant about a possible resurgence. However, the influencing factors of local health workers' knowledge level are not fully comprehended. This study aims to explore the factors with heavy impact on local health worker's knowledge of malaria and propose corresponding suggestions. METHODS: Underpinned by stratified sampling method, a cross-sectional survey was carried out between November 2014 and April 2016...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526074/oral-health-behaviour-in-migrant-and-non-migrant-adults-in-germany-the-utilization-of-regular-dental-check-ups
#20
Fabian Erdsiek, Dorothee Waury, Patrick Brzoska
BACKGROUND: Migrants in many European countries including Germany tend to utilize preventive measures less frequently than the majority population. Little is known about the dental health of migrants as well as about their oral health behaviour, particularly in the adult population. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the uptake of annual dental check-ups in adult migrants and non-migrants in Germany. METHODS: We used data from the cross-sectional survey 'German Health Update 2010' conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 22,050)...
May 19, 2017: BMC Oral Health
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