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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224315/modeling-of-free-fatty-acid-dynamics-insulin-and-nicotinic-acid-resistance-under-acute-and-chronic-treatments
#1
Robert Andersson, Tobias Kroon, Joachim Almquist, Mats Jirstrand, Nicholas D Oakes, Neil D Evans, Michael J Chappel, Johan Gabrielsson
Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of adipose tissue lipolysis. Acute administration results in a rapid reduction of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Sustained NiAc exposure is associated with tolerance development (drug resistance) and complete adaptation (FFA returning to pretreatment levels). We conducted a meta-analysis on a rich pre-clinical data set of the NiAc-FFA interaction to establish the acute and chronic exposure-response relations from a macro perspective. The data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects framework...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224112/intravenous-vitamin-c-as-adjunctive-therapy-for-enterovirus-rhinovirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
Alpha A Fowler Iii, Christin Kim, Lawrence Lepler, Rajiv Malhotra, Orlando Debesa, Ramesh Natarajan, Bernard J Fisher, Aamer Syed, Christine DeWilde, Anna Priday, Vigneshwar Kasirajan
We report a case of virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with parenteral vitamin C in a patient testing positive for enterovirus/rhinovirus on viral screening. This report outlines the first use of high dose intravenous vitamin C as an interventional therapy for ARDS, resulting from enterovirus/rhinovirus respiratory infection. From very significant preclinical research performed at Virginia Commonwealth University with vitamin C and with the very positive results of a previously performed phase I safety trial infusing high dose vitamin C intravenously into patients with severe sepsis, we reasoned that infusing identical dosing to a patient with ARDS from viral infection would be therapeutic...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223381/a-phase-i-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-and-moxifloxacin-controlled-4-period-crossover-study-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-gepotidacin-on-cardiac-conduction-as-assessed-by-12-lead-electrocardiogram-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
Mohammad Hossain, Meijian Zhou, Courtney Tiffany, Etienne Dumont, Borje Darpo
Gepotidacin is a novel, first in class triazaacenaphthylene antibiotic in development for treatment of conventional and biothreat infections. This was a single-dose, cross-over thorough QT study in healthy subjects who were administered an IV gepotidacin as a therapeutic (1000 mg), and supra-therapeutic (1800 mg) dose, placebo and 400 mg oral moxifloxacin in 4 separate treatment periods.Gepotidacin caused a mild effect on heart rate with a largest placebo-corrected change-from-baseline HR of 7 and 10 bpm at the end of the 1000 mg and 1800 mg infusion, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223145/rapid-induction-of-dopamine-sensitization-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-induced-by-a-single-injection-of-cocaine
#4
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Terry E Robinson, Brandon J Aragona
Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217658/pain-management-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-efficacy-of-a-multimodal-opiate-free-protocol
#5
Gian Luigi Canata, Valentina Casale, Alfredo Chiey
PURPOSE: this study was conducted to identify the most effective method of postoperative pain management, comparing the intravenous opiate infusion protocol with the use of a single periarticular local anesthetic infiltration (LAI) in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery. METHODS: 50 patients submitted to TKA surgery between 2013 and 2015 were divided into two groups. Buprenorphine was administered intravenously to the patients in Group A, while the Group B patients received a single periarticular LAI (ropivacaine and ketorolac) during surgery...
October 2016: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214595/the-impact-of-delayed-infusion-time-in-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation
#6
R Mitchell, J E Wagner, C Brunstein, Q Cao, D H McKenna, M R Verneris
In umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation, UCB units are typically thawed, washed and infused into the patient as rapidly as possible. In some instances, there is a delay in the time from the unit thaw/wash procedure to infusion into the patient. Therefore, we examined the effect of thaw duration time on engraftment outcomes in 567 patients undergoing UCB transplantation. With a range of 32 to 523 minutes, a prolonged thaw duration had no obvious effect on the incidence of neutrophil engraftment or time to recovery...
February 15, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212385/the-effect-of-tumour-size-on-drug-transport-and-uptake-in-3-d-tumour-models-reconstructed-from-magnetic-resonance-images
#7
Wenbo Zhan, Wladyslaw Gedroyc, Xiao Yun Xu
Drug transport and its uptake by tumour cells are strongly dependent on tumour properties, which vary in different types of solid tumours. By simulating the key physical and biochemical processes, a numerical study has been carried out to investigate the transport of anti-cancer drugs in 3-D tumour models of different sizes. The therapeutic efficacy for each tumour is evaluated by using a pharmacodynamics model based on the predicted intracellular drug concentration. Simulation results demonstrate that interstitial fluid pressure and interstitial fluid loss vary non-linearly with tumour size...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197553/the-role-of-sirt1-in-epileptogenesis
#8
Alicia M Hall, Gary P Brennan, Tiffany M Nguyen, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Hyun-Seung Mun, Mary J Sargious, Tallie Z Baram
The mechanisms by which brain insults lead to subsequent epilepsy remain unclear. Insults, including trauma, stroke, tumors, infections, and long seizures [status epilepticus (SE)], create a neuronal state of increased metabolic demand or decreased energy supply. Neurons express molecules that monitor their metabolic state, including sirtuins (Sirts). Sirtuins deacetylate cytoplasmic proteins and nuclear histones, and their epigenetic modulation of the chromatin governs the expression of many genes, influencing neuronal properties...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196469/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-patient-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-case-report-and-short-literature-review
#9
Qi Nie, Ding-Yu Zhang, Wen-Juan Wu, Chao-Lin Huang, Zheng-Yi Ni
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is performed as an acceptable life-saving bridging procedure in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).To patients with avian influenza A (H7N9)-associated ARDS, ECMO could be adopted as a feasible therapeutic solution. We present our successful experience with ECMO utilized in a respiratory failure patient with H7N9 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44 years-old female with H7N9-induced ARDS was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and was treated with veno-venous ECMO for six days, antiviral therapy, prolonged corticosteroid infusion and other therapies...
February 14, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191773/notch-expanded-murine-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-mitigate-death-from-lethal-radiation-and-convey-immune-tolerance-in-mismatched-recipients
#10
Filippo Milano, Fabiola Merriam, Ian Nicoud, Jianqiang Li, Ted A Gooley, Shelly Heimfeld, Suzan Imren, Colleen Delaney
The hematopoietic syndrome of acute radiation syndrome (h-ARS) is characterized by severe bone marrow aplasia, resulting in a significant risk for bleeding, infections, and death. To date, clinical management of h-ARS is limited to supportive care dictated by the level of radiation exposure, with a high incidence of mortality in those exposed to high radiation doses. The ideal therapeutic agent would be an immediately available, easily distributable single-agent therapy capable of rapid in vivo hematopoietic reconstitution until recovery of autologous hematopoiesis occurs...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191664/direct-arterial-injection-of-hyperpolarized-13-c-labeled-substrates-into-rat-tumors-for-rapid-mr-detection-of-metabolism-with-minimal-substrate-dilution
#11
Steven Reynolds, Stephen Metcalf, Edward J Cochrane, Rebecca C Collins, Simon Jones, Martyn N J Paley, Gillian M Tozer
PURPOSE: A rat model was developed to enable direct administration of hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled molecules into a tumor-supplying artery for magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of tumor metabolism. METHODS: Rat P22 sarcomas were implanted into the right inguinal fat pad of BDIX rats such that the developing tumors received their principle blood supply directly from the right superior epigastric artery. Hyperpolarized (13) C-molecules were either infused directly to the tumor through the epigastric artery or systemically through the contralateral femoral vein...
February 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186707/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-for-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-results-of-a-first-in-man-study
#12
Daniel C Chambers, Debra Enever, Sharon Lawrence, Marian J Sturm, Richard Herrmann, Stephanie Yerkovich, Michael Musk, Peter M A Hopkins
Chronic lung transplant rejection (termed chronic lung allograft dysfunction [CLAD]) is the main impediment to long-term survival after lung transplantation. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent an attractive cell therapy in inflammatory diseases, including organ rejection, given their relative immune privilege and immunosuppressive and tolerogenic properties. Preclinical studies in models of obliterative bronchiolitis and human trials in graft versus host disease and renal transplantation suggest potential efficacy in CLAD...
February 1, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185296/a-report-of-cerebral-malaria-treated-with-automated-red-blood-cell-exchange
#13
Waseem Q Anani, Gerald P Smith, Mehraboon Irani, Kathleen E Puca
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive automated whole blood or red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) can rapidly decrease malarial hyperparasitemia. Several case reports and series suggest improvement in clinical symptomatology; however, recent Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations concluded that RBCEx has no efficacy as an adjunctive therapy. We present a case of mental status changes secondary to cerebral malaria treated with automated RBCEx resulting in rapid and dramatic neurologic improvement...
February 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183547/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-administered-for-postoperative-analgesia-on-sleep-quality-in-patients-undergoing-abdominal-hysterectomy
#14
Zuolei Chen, Rundong Tang, Rui Zhang, Yan Jiang, Yingzhi Liu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of postoperative dexmedetomidine infusion on sleep quality in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind study. SETTING: Postoperative recovery area and ward. PATIENTS: Sixty patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II scheduled for elective hysterectomy were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS: Patients in group C received sufentanil infusion (a continuous dosage of 0...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183452/controversies-in-the-management-of-hyperglycaemic-emergencies-in-adults-with-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Luís Cardoso, Nuno Vicente, Dírcea Rodrigues, Leonor Gomes, Francisco Carrilho
Hyperglycaemic emergencies are associated with significant morbi-mortality and healthcare costs. Management consists on fluid replacement, insulin therapy, and electrolyte correction. However, some areas of patient management remain debatable. In patients without respiratory failure or haemodynamic instability, arterial and venous pH and bicarbonate measurements are comparable. Fluid choice varies upon replenishment phase and patient's condition. If patient is severely hypovolaemic, normal saline solution should be the first option...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181793/efficient-enrichment-and-self-assembly-of-hybrid-nanoparticles-into-removable-and-magnetic-sers-substrates-for-sensitive-detection-of-environmental-pollutants
#16
Siying Tang, Yong Li, Hao Huang, Penghui Li, Zhinan Guo, Qian Luo, Zhe Wang, Paul K Chu, Jia Li, Xue-Feng Yu
A structure consisting of a low surface energy substrate and low surface tension liquid is designed and prepared by taking advantage of perfluorinated fluid infusion into the porous Teflon membrane. This slippery platform allows efficient enrichment and self-assembly of hybrid nanoparticles and the assembled structure can be detached from the membrane. A macroscale superlattice array of Au nanorods doped with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles is obtained by suppressing the outward capillary flow and coffee-ring effect during evaporative self-assembly...
February 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179388/disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-like-reaction-following-rituximab-infusion
#17
Hind Rafei, Samah Nassereddine, Ivan F Garcia
Rituximab generally is a well-tolerated medication used in a variety of haematological and autoimmune conditions. The safety profile of the medication has been reviewed in the literature. Infusion reactions due to cytokine release are the most common side effects. With the increased use of rituximab, there is an increase incidence of cytopenias, most commonly thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Coagulopathy is quite rare, reported previously in four cases in the literature. We highlighted the clinical course of a 39-year-old patient with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who was started on rituximab infusion...
February 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179030/survival-in-infants-treated-with-sebelipase-alfa-for-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-an-open-label-multicenter-dose-escalation-study
#18
Simon A Jones, Sandra Rojas-Caro, Anthony G Quinn, Mark Friedman, Sachin Marulkar, Fatih Ezgu, Osama Zaki, J Jay Gargus, Joanne Hughes, Dominique Plantaz, Roshni Vara, Stephen Eckert, Jean-Baptiste Arnoux, Anais Brassier, Kim-Hanh Le Quan Sang, Vassili Valayannopoulos
BACKGROUND: Infants presenting with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency have marked failure to thrive, diarrhea, massive hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, rapidly progressive liver disease, and death typically in the first 6 months of life; the only available potential treatment has been hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality in this population. The study objective was to evaluate safety and efficacy (including survival) of enzyme replacement with sebelipase alfa in infants with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency...
February 8, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177694/is-there-a-role-of-inos-activation-in-the-delayed-antiarrhythmic-effect-of-sodium-nitrite
#19
Vivien Demeter-Haludka, László Juhász, Mária Kovács, János Gardi, Ágnes Végh
This study aimed to examine whether inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays a role in the delayed antiarrhythmic effect of sodium nitrite. Twenty-one dogs were infused intravenously with sodium nitrite (0.2 µmol/kg/min) for 20 min, either in the absence (<i>n</i>=12) or in the presence of the iNOS inhibitor S-(2-aminoethyl)-isothiourea (AEST; total dose: 2.0 mg/kg;<i> i.v.</i>, <i>n</i>=9). Control dogs (<i>n</i>=12) were given saline. Twenty-four hours later, all the dogs were subjected to a 25 min period occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, followed by rapid reperfusion...
November 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177206/propofol-sedation-reduces-diaphragm-activity-in-spontaneously-breathing-patients-ultrasound-assessment
#20
Monica Rocco, Luigi Maggi, Giorgio Ranieri, Giovanni Ferrari, Cesare Gregoretti, Giorgio Conti, Roberto A DE Blasi
BACKGROUND: The diaphragm is the most important respiratory muscle in humans, and the close relationship between inspired volume and diaphragmatic movement in normal subjects has led to investigations into diaphragmatic activity using ultrasound, during spontaneous breathing and sedative drug infusion. METHODS: A total of 36 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic procedures under deep propofol sedation were studied. Ultrasound measurements included the following: diaphragmatic thickening end-inspiration (TEI) and end-expiration (TEE)...
February 8, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
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