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Zhong Liu, Cheng Zhang, Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Lam Dang, Xiaosi Han, Kitai Kim, Hu Li, Rui Zhao
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and therefore represent a promising donor tissue source for treating neurodegenerative diseases and repairing injuries of the nervous system. However, it remains unclear how canonical microRNAs (miRNAs), the subset of miRNAs requiring the Drosha-Dgcr8 microprocessor and the type III RNase Dicer for biogenesis, regulate NSCs. In this study, we established and characterized <i>Dgcr8</i><sup>-/-</sup> NSCs from conditionally <i>Dgcr8</i>-disrupted mouse embryonic brain...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Chantal Brosseau, Mohamed El Oirdi, Ayooluwa Adurogbangba, Xiaofang Ma, Peter Moffett
In plants, RNA silencing regulates gene expression through the action of Dicer-like (DCL) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins via micro RNAs and RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM). In addition, RNA silencing functions as an anti-viral defense mechanism by targeting virus-derived double stranded RNA. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins with specialized functions, including AGO4-like proteins, which effect RdDM and AGO2, AGO5 and AGO1, which have antiviral activities. We show here that AGO4 is also required for defense against Plantago asiatica mosaic potexvirus (PlAMV), most likely independent of RdDM components such as DCL3, Pol IV and Pol V...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Mitsuhiro Machitani, Fuminori Sakurai, Keisaku Wakabayashi, Masashi Tachibana, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Oncolytic viruses have been receiving much attention as potential agents for cancer treatment. Among the various types of oncolytic viruses, the telomerase-specific replication-competent adenovirus (TRAD), which carries the tumor-specific promoter-driven E1 gene expression cassette, exhibits efficient antitumor effects. The development of a novel TRAD that shows higher replication efficiency and antitumor activity would be highly beneficial for safer and more efficient cancer therapy. We recently demonstrated that the endoribonuclease Dicer significantly inhibits the replication of wild-type adenovirus (Ad) via the processing of viral-associated (VA)-RNAs, which are Ad-encoded small noncoding RNAs, and that the knockdown of Dicer leads to enhanced VA-RNA expression and Ad replication after infection with wild-type Ad...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Paulina Jackowiak, Marek Figlerowicz, Jacek Blazewicz
Since the beginning of the 21st century, an increasing interest in the research of ribonucleic acids has been observed in response to a surprising discovery of the role that RNA molecules play in the biological systems. It was demonstrated that they do not only take part in the protein synthesis (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) but also are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Several classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered (e.g. microRNA, small interfering RNA, piwiRNA). Most of them are excised from specific double-stranded RNA precursors by enzymes that belong to the RNaseIII family (Drosha, Dicer or Dicer-like proteins)...
October 19, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Natalia Koralewska, Weronika Hoffmann, Maria Pokornowska, Marek Milewski, Andrea Lipinska, Krystyna Bienkowska-Szewczyk, Marek Figlerowicz, Anna Kurzynska-Kokorniak
Ribonuclease Dicer plays a pivotal role in RNA interference pathways by processing long double-stranded RNAs and single-stranded hairpin RNA precursors into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), respectively. While details of Dicer regulation by a variety of proteins are being elucidated, less is known about non-protein factors, e.g. RNA molecules, that may influence this enzyme's activity. Therefore, we decided to investigate the question of whether the RNA molecules can function not only as Dicer substrates but also as its regulators...
October 13, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Aline Koch, Dagmar Biedenkopf, Alexandra Furch, Lennart Weber, Oliver Rossbach, Eltayb Abdellatef, Lukas Linicus, Jan Johannsmeier, Lukas Jelonek, Alexander Goesmann, Vinitha Cardoza, John McMillan, Tobias Mentzel, Karl-Heinz Kogel
Meeting the increasing food and energy demands of a growing population will require the development of ground-breaking strategies that promote sustainable plant production. Host-induced gene silencing has shown great potential for controlling pest and diseases in crop plants. However, while delivery of inhibitory noncoding double-stranded (ds)RNA by transgenic expression is a promising concept, it requires the generation of transgenic crop plants which may cause substantial delay for application strategies depending on the transformability and genetic stability of the crop plant species...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Fu Mei, Xu Kehui, Xu Wenming
Dicer, an RNAse III endonuclease, is critical for the biogenesis of small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), including the biogenesis of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, which transcriptionally and post-transcription ally regulate mRNA expression through binding to target mRNA and leading to subsequent mRNA degradation. Recent studies show that Dicer plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. It has been attracted more and more attention in the reproductive field. In the male reproduction field, mouse model shows that Dicer is critical for the development of spermatogenic cell, sperm maturation, sperm motility and morphology...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Yan-Su Chen, Fei Meng, Hai-Long Li, Qing-Hua Liu, Ping-Fu Hou, Jin Bai, Jun-Nian Zheng
Dicer, a key component of the microRNA processing machinery, has been reported to exert discrepant prognostic values and biological roles in different types of cancers. Here, we investigated the function and prognostic value of Dicer in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Using the retrospective ccRCC patients' cohorts with tissue microarray (TMA), we demonstrated that Dicer expression was significantly down-regulated in ccRCC compared with renal non-tumor tissues, and negatively associated with pN status (P = 0...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tsang-Chih Kuo, Chi-Kuan Chen, Kuo-Ti Hua, Pei Yu, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Min-Wei Chen, Yung-Ming Jeng, Ming-Hsien Chien, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Michael Hsiao, Min-Liang Kuo
Glutaminolysis that catabolizes glutamine to glutamate plays a critical role in cancer progression. Glutaminase 2 (GLS2) has been reported as a tumor suppressor. Recent studies implied that GLS2 may display its multifunction besides classical metabolic feature by different localizations and potential protein binding domains. Here, we showed that GLS2 expression correlates inversely with stage, vascular invasion, tumor size and poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. We found that GLS2 significantly represses cell migration, invasion and metastasis of HCC through downregulation of Snail in vitro and in vivo...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Letters
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Juan Liu, XueJiao Zhang, YueKun Yang, Ni Hong, GuoPing Wang, Aiming Wang, LiPing Wang
BACKGROUND: Heat treatment (known as thermotherapy) together with in vitro culture of shoot meristem tips is a commonly used technology to obtain virus-free germplasm for the effective control of virus diseases in fruit trees. RNA silencing as an antiviral defense mechanism has been implicated in this process. To understand if high temperature-mediated acceleration of the host antiviral gene silencing system in the meristem tip facilitates virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) accumulation to reduce the viral RNA titer in the fruit tree meristem tip cells, we used the Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV)-Pyrus pyrifolia pathosystem to explore the possible roles of vsiRNA in thermotherapy...
October 6, 2016: Virology Journal
J A Castillo, S Urcuqui-Inchima
Dear Editor, A recent paper (Casseb et al., 2016) published in the journal Genetics and Molecular Research described the interesting concept that dengue virus (DENV)-4 infection, in the human cell line A-549, leads to the downregulation of expression of key components of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, such as Drosha, Dicer, and DGCR8. For this, the authors performed a time course infection of A-549 cells for 5 days. The highest viral load was observed at 3 days post-infection, which corresponded with the maximum downregulation of expression of Drosha, Dicer, and DGCR8, assayed by quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Kwaku Dad Abu-Bonsrah, Dongcheng Zhang, Donald F Newgreen
Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects detected. We also showed that very large deletions (>75 kb) could be achieved...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wanying Shan, Chaoyang Sun, Bo Zhou, Ensong Guo, Hao Lu, Meng Xia, Kezhen Li, Danhui Weng, Xingguang Lin, Li Meng, Ding Ma, Gang Chen
OBJECTIVE: The role of Dicer in the prognosis of cancer patients remains controversial. This systematic review is attempted to assess the influence of Dicer as a prognostic predictor for survival in diverse types of cancers. METHODS: Studies were selected as candidates if they published an independent evaluation of Dicer expression level together with the correlation with prognosis in cancers. Random-effect model was applied in this meta-analysis. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by Q-statistic with P < 0...
September 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Cristiane S Alves, Renato Vicentini, Gustavo T Duarte, Vitor F Pinoti, Michel Vincentz, Fabio T S Nogueira
The manuscript by Alves et al. entitled "Genome-wide identification and characterization of tRNA-derived RNA fragments in land plants" describes the identification and characterization of tRNAderived sRNA fragments in plants. By combining bioinformatic analysis and genetic and molecular approaches, we show that tRF biogenesis does not rely on canonical microRNA/siRNA processing machinery (i.e., independent of DICER-LIKE proteins). Moreover, we provide evidences that the Arabidopsis S-like Ribonuclease 1 (RNS1) might be involved in the biogenesis of tRFs...
September 28, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Zhao Wang, Jiaxiang Wang, Qun Wang, Jiachen Wang, Jiaxiang Yuan, Yaqing Si
AIM: MicroRNA (miRNA), functions as gene regulators, plays crucial roles in pathogenesis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Genetic variants in miRNA processing genes may affect miRNAs expression and contribute to HCC risk and survival. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA processing genes may be associated with HCC susceptibility and prognosis. The study aims to verify whether this hypothesis is right or not. METHODS: We first genotyped the selected three SNPs in miRNA processing genes (RAN rs3803012 A > G, HIWI rs10773771 T > C, and DICER rs1057035 T > C) in 312 HCC patients and 320 cancer-free controls using the TaqMan assay, and evaluated the associations of the three SNPs with HCC risk...
September 27, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Ming Wang, Arne Weiberg, Feng-Mao Lin, Bart P H J Thomma, Hsien-Da Huang, Hailing Jin
Aggressive fungal pathogens such as Botrytis and Verticillium spp. cause severe crop losses worldwide. We recently discovered that Botrytis cinerea delivers small RNAs (Bc-sRNAs) into plant cells to silence host immunity genes. Such sRNA effectors are mostly produced by Botrytis cinerea Dicer-like protein 1 (Bc-DCL1) and Bc-DCL2. Here we show that expressing sRNAs that target Bc-DCL1 and Bc-DCL2 in Arabidopsis and tomato silences Bc-DCL genes and attenuates fungal pathogenicity and growth, exemplifying bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and sRNA trafficking between plants and fungi...
2016: Nature Plants
Ken Asada, Emanuele Canestrari, Zain Paroo
Despite immense promise, development of microRNA (miRNA) therapeutics remains limited by pharmacodynamic challenges that have hindered progress of related oligonucleotide-based technologies. Recent discovery of enzymes that mediate miRNA metabolism represent potential pharmacological targets for directing miRNA function, circumventing barriers associated with oligonucleotides. We previously identified the Translin/Trax (TN/TX) ribonuclease complex as a pre-miRNA degrading enzyme that competes with pre-miRNA processing by Dicer...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Andreas Brandl, Patrick Daum, Sven Brenner, Sebastian R Schulz, Desmond Yat-Hin Yap, Michael R Bösl, Jürgen Wittmann, Wolfgang Schuh, Hans-Martin Jäck
microRNAs (miRNAs) are important posttranscriptional regulators during hematopoietic lineage commitment and lymphocyte development. Mature miRNAs are processed from primary miRNA transcripts in two steps by the microprocessor complex, consisting of Drosha and its partner DiGeorge Critical Region 8 (DGCR8), and the RNAse III enzyme, Dicer. Conditional ablations of Drosha and Dicer have established the importance of both RNAses in B- and T-cell development. Here, we show that a cre-mediated B-cell specific deletion of DGCR8 in mice results in a nearly complete maturation block at the transition from the pro-B to the pre-B cell stage, and a failure to upregulate Ig μ heavy chain expression in pro-B cells...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
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