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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199304/adipose-derived-circulating-mirnas-regulate-gene-expression-in-other-tissues
#1
Thomas Thomou, Marcelo A Mori, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masahiro Konishi, Masaji Sakaguchi, Christian Wolfrum, Tata Nageswara Rao, Jonathon N Winnay, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Steven K Grinspoon, Phillip Gorden, C Ronald Kahn
Adipose tissue is a major site of energy storage and has a role in the regulation of metabolism through the release of adipokines. Here we show that mice with an adipose-tissue-specific knockout of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme Dicer (ADicerKO), as well as humans with lipodystrophy, exhibit a substantial decrease in levels of circulating exosomal miRNAs. Transplantation of both white and brown adipose tissue-brown especially-into ADicerKO mice restores the level of numerous circulating miRNAs that are associated with an improvement in glucose tolerance and a reduction in hepatic Fgf21 mRNA and circulating FGF21...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187792/evolution-of-rna-and-dna-guided-antivirus-defense-systems-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-common-ancestry-vs-convergence
#2
REVIEW
Eugene V Koonin
: Complementarity between nucleic acid molecules is central to biological information transfer processes. Apart from the basal processes of replication, transcription and translation, complementarity is also employed by multiple defense and regulatory systems. All cellular life forms possess defense systems against viruses and mobile genetic elements, and in most of them some of the defense mechanisms involve small guide RNAs or DNAs that recognize parasite genomes and trigger their inactivation...
February 10, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186968/xiap-3-untranslated-region-as-a-cerna-promotes-fscn1-function-in-inducing-the-progression-of-breast-cancer-by-binding-endogenous-mir-29a-5p
#3
Qiang Wu, Hong Yan, Si-Qi Tao, Xiao-Nan Wang, Lang Mou, Ping Chen, Xing-Wang Cheng, Wen-Yong Wu, Zheng-Sheng Wu
The non-coding 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of genes play an important role in the regulation of microRNA (miRNA) functions, since it can bind and inactivate multiple miRNAs. Herein, we report that ectopic expression of XIAP 3'UTR increased human breast cancer cells proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion and xenograft tumor growth and suppressed tumor cell death. To investigate this process, we further correlated the genome-wide transcriptional profiling with the gene expression alterations after transfecting XIAP 3'UTR in MCF-7 cells...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179391/the-nuclear-cap-binding-complex-mediates-meiotic-silencing-by-unpaired-dna
#4
Logan M Decker, Hua Xiao, Erin C Boone, Michael M Vierling, Benjamin S Shanker, Shanika L Kingston, Shannon F Boone, Jackson B Haynes, Patrick K T Shiu
In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, cross walls between individual cells are normally incomplete, making the entire fungal network vulnerable to attack by viruses and selfish DNAs. Accordingly, several genome surveillance mechanisms are maintained to help the fungus to combat these repetitive elements. One of these defense mechanisms is known as meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD), which is an RNA silencing system that identifies and silences unpaired genes during meiosis. Utilizing common RNAi proteins such as Dicer and Argonaute, MSUD targets mRNAs homologous to the unpaired sequence to achieve silencing...
February 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174687/dicer-a-new-regulator-of-pluripotency-exit-and-line-1-elements-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
Maxime Bodak, Daniel Cirera-Salinas, Jian Yu, Richard P Ngondo, Constance Ciaudo
A gene regulation network orchestrates processes ensuring the maintenance of cellular identity and genome integrity. Small RNAs generated by the RNAse III DICER have emerged as central players in this network. Moreover, deletion of Dicer in mice leads to early embryonic lethality. To better understand the underlying mechanisms leading to this phenotype, we generated Dicer-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Their detailed characterization revealed an impaired differentiation potential, and incapacity to exit from the pluripotency state...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174021/biogenesis-and-function-of-ago-associated-rnas
#6
REVIEW
Iben Daugaard, Thomas Birkballe Hansen
Numerous sophisticated high-throughput sequencing technologies have been developed over the past decade, and these have enabled the discovery of a diverse catalog of small non-coding (nc)RNA molecules that function as regulatory entities by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently the best-described class of post-transcriptional regulators that follow a specific biogenesis pathway characterized by Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer processing. However, more exotic miRNA-like species that bypass particular steps of the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway continue to emerge, with one of the most recent additions being the agotrons, which escape both Drosha/DGCR8- and Dicer-processing...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167508/hypoxia-causes-down-regulation-of-dicer-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-which-is-required-for-up-regulation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#7
Ahmed Atef Ibrahim, Christian Schmithals, Eric Kowarz, Verena Köberle, Bianca Kakoschky, Thomas Pleli, Otto Kollmar, Scarlett Nitsch, Oliver Waidmann, Fabian Finkelmeier, Stefan Zeuzem, Horst-Werner Korf, Tobias Schmid, Andreas Weigert, Bernd Kronenberger, Rolf Marschalek, Albrecht Piiper
PURPOSE: A role of Dicer, which converts precursor miRNAs to mature miRNAs, in the tumor-promoting effect of hypoxia is currently emerging in some tumor entities. Its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HepG2 and Huh-7 cells were stably transfected with an inducible Dicer expression vector and were exposed to hypoxia/normoxia. HepG2-Dicer xenografts were established in nude mice; hypoxic areas and Dicer were detected in HCC xenografts and HCCs from mice with endogenous hepatocarcinogenesis; epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry or by immunoblotting...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167287/poly-sgrna-sirna-ribonucleoprotein-nanoparticles-for-targeted-gene-disruption
#8
Jong Seong Ha, Jae Sung Lee, Jaepil Jeong, Hejin Kim, Juyoung Byun, Sang Ah Kim, Hee Jae Lee, Hak Suk Chung, Jong Bum Lee, Dae-Ro Ahn
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) can be used for the specific disruption of a target gene to permanently suppress the expression of the protein encoded by the target gene. Efficient delivery of the system to an intracellular target site should be achieved to utilize the tremendous potential of the genome-editing tool in biomedical applications such as the knock-out of disease-related genes and the correction of defect genes. Here, we devise polymeric CRISPR/Cas9 system based on poly-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) nanoparticles consisting of polymeric sgRNA, siRNA, and Cas9 endonuclease in order to improve the delivery efficiency...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160423/polymeric-delivery-of-sirna-against-integrin-%C3%AE-1-cd29-to-reduce-attachment-and-migration-of-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Daniel Nisakar Meenakshi Sundaram, Cezary Kucharski, Manoj B Parmar, Remant Bahadur Kc, Hasan Uludağ
Cell surface integrins, which play important roles in the survival, proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells, are a viable target for treatment of metastatic breast cancer. This line of therapy still remains challenging due to the lack of proper identification and validation of effective targets as well as the lack of suitable therapeutic agents for treatment. The focus is on one such molecular target for this purpose, namely integrin-β1, and effective lowering of integrin-β1 levels on a breast cancer model (MDA-MB-231 cells) is achieved by delivering a dicer-substrate short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin-β1 with lipid-modified low molecular weight polyethylenimine polymers...
February 3, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159509/human-pericardial-fluid-contains-exosomes-enriched-with-cardiovascular-expressed-micrornas-and-promotes-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#10
Cristina Beltrami, Marie Besnier, Saran Shantikumar, Andrew I U Shearn, Cha Rajakaruna, Abas Laftah, Fausto Sessa, Gaia Spinetti, Enrico Petretto, Gianni D Angelini, Costanza Emanueli
The pericardial fluid (PF) is contained in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart. MicroRNA (miRNA) exchange via exosomes (endogenous nanoparticles) contributes to cell-to-cell communication. We investigated the hypotheses that the PF is enriched with miRNAs secreted by the heart and that it mediates vascular responses through exosome exchange of miRNAs. The study was developed using leftover material from aortic valve surgery. We found that in comparison with peripheral plasma, the PF contains exosomes enriched with miRNAs co-expressed in patients' myocardium and vasculature...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148824/biochemical-and-genetic-functional-dissection-of-the-p38-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing
#11
Taichiro Iki, Marie-Aude Tschopp, Olivier Voinnet
Phytoviruses encode viral suppressors of RNA-silencing (VSRs) to counteract the plant antiviral silencing response, which relies on virus-derived small interfering (si)RNAs processed by Dicer RNaseIII enzymes and subsequently loaded into ARGONAUTE (AGO) effector proteins. Here, a tobacco cell-free system was engineered to recapitulate the key steps of antiviral RNA-silencing and, in particular, the most upstream double-stranded (ds)RNA processing reaction, not kinetically investigated thus far in the context of plant VSR studies...
February 1, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148795/hepatitis-b-virus-encoded-mirna-controls-viral-replication
#12
Xi Yang, Hongfeng Li, Huahui Sun, Hongxia Fan, Yaqi Hu, Min Liu, Xin Li, Hua Tang
: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded non-coding functional RNAs. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with virions and subviral forms of particles that lack a core. It was not known whether HBV encodes miRNAs. Here, we identified an HBV-encoded miRNA (called HBV-miR-3) by deep sequencing and northern blot. HBV-miR-3 is located at nts 373-393 of the HBV genome and was generated from 3.5Kb, 2,4Kb and 2.1Kb HBV in classic miRNA biogenesis (Drosha-Dicer dependent) manner...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146558/genome-wide-exonic-small-interference-rna-mediated-gene-silencing-regulates-sexual-reproduction-in-the-homothallic-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#13
Hokyoung Son, Ae Ran Park, Jae Yun Lim, Chanseok Shin, Yin-Won Lee
Various ascomycete fungi possess sex-specific molecular mechanisms, such as repeat-induced point mutations, meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, and unusual adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, for genome defense or gene regulation. Using a combined analysis of functional genetics and deep sequencing of small noncoding RNA (sRNA), mRNA, and the degradome, we found that the sex-specifically induced exonic small interference RNA (ex-siRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism has an important role in fine-tuning the transcriptome during ascospore formation in the head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137615/regulation-of-mir-29b-1-a-transcription-and-identification-of-target-mrnas-in-cho-k1-cells
#14
Penn Muluhngwi, Kirsten Richardson, Joshua Napier, Eric C Rouchka, Justin L Mott, Carolyn M Klinge
miR-29b and miR-29a transcript levels were reported to increase in exponentially growing CHO-K1 cells. Here, we examine the regulation of miR-29b-1/a in CHO-K1 cells. We observed that 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) increased pri-miR-29b-1 and pri-miR-29a transcription in CHO-K1 cells by activating endogenous estrogen receptor α (ERα). DICER, an established, bona fide target of miR-29b-1/a, was shown to be regulated by 4-OHT in CHO-K1 cells. We showed that miR-29b-1 and miR-29a serve a repressive role in cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation in CHO-K1 cells...
January 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130963/corrigendum-to-glutaminase-2-stabilizes-dicer-to-repress-snail-and-metastasis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-383-2016-282-294
#15
Tsang-Chih Kuo, Chi-Kuan Chen, Kuo-Tai Hua, Pei Yu, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Min-Wei Chen, Yung-Ming Jeng, Ming-Hsien Chien, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Michael Hsiao, Min-Liang Kuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130299/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-dicer-and-argonaute-genes-involved-in-rna-interference-in-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#16
Huimin Meng, Zhangxun Wang, Yulong Wang, Hong Zhu, Bo Huang
RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism that plays an important role in gene regulation in a number of eukaryotic organisms. Two core components, Dicer and Argonaute, are central in the RNAi machinery. However, the physiological roles of Dicer and Argonaute in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii remained unclear. Here, the roles of genes encoding Dicers (Mrdcl1 and Mrdcl2) and Argonautes (Mrago1 and Mrago2) in M.robertsii were investigated. The results showed that the Dicer protein MrDCL2 and Argonaute protein MrAGO1 are the major components of the RNAi process occurring in M...
January 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125794/development-of-novel-small-hairpin-rnas-that-do-not-require-processing-by-dicer-or-ago2
#17
Shin-Ichiro Ohno, Karen Itano, Yuichirou Harada, Koutaro Asada, Keiki Oikawa, Mikie Kashiwazako, Hikaru Okuyama, Katsuyoshi Kumagai, Masakatsu Takanashi, Katsuko Sudo, Norihiko Ikeda, Masahiko Kuroda
The innate cytokine response to nucleic acid is the most challenging problem confronting the practical use of nucleic acid medicine. The degree of stimulation of the innate cytokine response strongly depends on the length of the nucleic acid. In this study, we developed a 30-nucleotide single-strand RNA, termed "guide hairpin RNA (ghRNA, ghR)", that has a physiological function similar to that of miRNA and siRNA. The ghR caused no innate cytokine response either in vitro or in vivo. In addition, its structure does not contain a passenger strand seed sequence, reducing the unwanted gene repression relative to existing short RNA reagents...
July 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123063/lipid-flippases-promote-antiviral-silencing-and-the-biogenesis-of-viral-and-host-sirnas-in-arabidopsis
#18
Zhongxin Guo, Jinfeng Lu, Xianbing Wang, Binhui Zhan, Wanxiang Li, Shou-Wei Ding
Dicer-mediated processing of virus-specific dsRNA into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants and animals initiates a specific antiviral defense by RNA interference (RNAi). In this study, we developed a forward genetic screen for the identification of host factors required for antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis thaliana Using whole-genome sequencing and a computational pipeline, we identified aminophospholipid transporting ATPase 2 (ALA2) and the related ALA1 in the type IV subfamily of P-type ATPases as key components of antiviral RNAi...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119452/microrna-375-is-induced-in-cisplatin-nephrotoxicity-to-repress-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1-beta
#19
Jielu Hao, Qiang Lou, Qingqing Wei, Shuqin Mei, Lin Li, Qing-Sheng Mi, Changlin Mei, Zheng Dong
Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of cisplatin-mediated chemotherapy in cancer patients. The pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains largely unclear, making it difficult to design effective renoprotective approaches. Here, we have examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We show that cisplatin nephrotoxicity was not affected by overall depletion of both beneficial and detrimental miRNAs from kidney proximal tubular cells in mice in which the miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer had been conditionally knocked out...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116790/proteomics-analyses-of-prostate-cancer-cells-reveals-cellular-pathways-associated-with-androgen-resistance
#20
Naseruddin Höti, Punit Shah, Yingwei Hu, Shuang Yang, Hui Zhang
While significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, each year tens of thousands of men still die from prostate cancer in the United States. Thus greater understanding of cellular pathways and molecular basis of prostate cancer progression in the development of androgen resistance is needed to treat these lethal phenotypes. To dissect the mechanism of androgen resistance, we utilize a proteomics approach to study the development of androgen resistance in LNCaP prostate cancer cells...
January 23, 2017: Proteomics
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