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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542524/ectopically-expressed-slc34a2a-sense-antisense-transcripts-cause-a-cerebellar-phenotype-in-zebrafish-embryos-depending-on-rna-complementarity-and-dicer
#1
Monica J Piatek, Victoria Henderson, Amy Fearn, Bill Chaudhry, Andreas Werner
Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are complementary to protein coding genes and potentially regulate their expression. Despite widespread occurrence of NATs in the genomes of higher eukaryotes, their biological role and mechanism of action is poorly understood. Zebrafish embryos offer a unique model system to study sense-antisense transcript interplay at whole organism level. Here, we investigate putative antisense transcript-mediated mechanisms by ectopically co-expressing the complementary transcripts during early zebrafish development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542329/novel-agoshrna-molecules-for-silencing-of-the-ccr5-co-receptor-for-hiv-1-infection
#2
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
Allogeneic transplantation of blood stem cells from a CCR5-Δ32 homozygous donor to an HIV-infected individual, the "Berlin patient", led to a cure. Since then there has been a search for approaches that mimic this intervention in a gene therapy setting. RNA interference (RNAi) has evolved as a powerful tool to regulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner and can be used to inactivate the CCR5 mRNA. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules can impair CCR5 expression, but these molecules may cause unintended side effects and they will not be processed in cells that lack Dicer, such as monocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542273/expression-profile-of-epstein-barr-virus-and-human-adenovirus-small-rnas-in-tonsillar-b-and-t-lymphocytes
#3
Farzaneh Assadian, Wael Kamel, Göran Laurell, Catharina Svensson, Tanel Punga, Göran Akusjärvi
We have used high-throughput small RNA sequencing to characterize viral small RNA expression in purified tonsillar B and T lymphocytes isolated from patients tested positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human adenovirus (HAdV) infections, respectively. In the small set of patients analyzed, the expression profile of EBV and HAdV miRNAs could not distinguish between patients diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy or chronic/recurrent tonsillitis. The EBV miR-BART expression profile among the patients diagnosed with tonsillar diseases resembles most closely the pattern seen in EBV+ tumors (Latency II/I)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542144/dicer-and-micrornas-protect-adult-dopamine-neurons
#4
Piotr Chmielarz, Julia Konovalova, Syeda Sadia Najam, Heike Alter, Timo Petteri Piepponen, Holger Erfle, Kai C Sonntag, Günther Schütz, Ilya A Vinnikov, Andrii Domanskyi
MicroRNAs (miRs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression implicated in neuronal development, differentiation, aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Several miRs have been linked to PD-associated genes, apoptosis and stress response pathways, suggesting that deregulation of miRs may contribute to the development of the neurodegenerative phenotype. Here, we investigate the cell-autonomous role of miR processing RNAse Dicer in the functional maintenance of adult dopamine (DA) neurons...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540674/microrna-expression-protein-participants-in-microrna-regulation
#5
Valeria M King, Glen M Borchert
MiRNAs are ~20 nt small RNAs that regulate networks of proteins using a seed region of nucleotides 2-8 to complement the 3' UTR of target mRNAs. The biogenesis and function of miRNAs as translational repressors is facilitated by protein counterparts that process primary and precursor miRNAs to maturity (Drosha/DCGR8 and Dicer/TRBP respectively) and incorporate miRNAs into the protein complex RISC to recognize and repress target mRNAs (RISC proteins: Ago/TRBP1/TRBP2/DICER). Similarly, siRNAs through comparable mechanisms are loaded into the protein complex RITS to heterochromatin formation of DNA and suppress transcription of particular genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539638/salmonella-produce-microrna-like-rna-fragment-sal-1-in-the-infected-cells-to-facilitate-intracellular-survival
#6
Hongwei Gu, Chihao Zhao, Tianfu Zhang, Hongwei Liang, Xiao-Ming Wang, Yi Pan, Xi Chen, Quan Zhao, Donghai Li, Fenyong Liu, Chen-Yu Zhang, Ke Zen
Salmonella have developed a sophisticated machinery to evade immune clearance and promote survival in the infected cells. Previous studies were mostly focused on either bacteria itself or host cells, the interaction mechanism of host-pathogen awaits further exploration. In the present study, we show that Salmonella can exploit mammalian cell non-classical microRNA processing machinery to further process bacterial small non-coding RNAs into microRNA-like fragments. Sal-1, one such fragment with the highest copy number in the infected cells, is derived from Salmonella 5'-leader of the ribosomal RNA transcript and has a 'stem' structure-containing precursor...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537916/shaping-chromatin-with-dicer
#7
EDITORIAL
Shalaka Chitale, Holger Richly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522832/the-fragment-hmga2-sh-3p20-from-hmga2-mrna-3-utr-promotes-the-growth-of-hepatoma-cells-by-upregulating-hmga2
#8
Yuan Wang, Fuquan Chen, Zhe Yang, Man Zhao, Shuqin Zhang, Yuen Gao, Jinyan Feng, Guang Yang, Weiying Zhang, Lihong Ye, Xiaodong Zhang
High mobility group A2 (HMGA2) plays a crucial role in the development of cancer. However, the mechanism by which HMGA2 promotes the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we explore the hypothesis that HMGA2 may enhance the growth of hepatoma cells through a fragment based on the secondary structure of HMGA2 mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR). Bioinformatics analysis showed that HMGA2 mRNA displayed a hairpin structure within its 3'UTR, termed HMGA2-sh. Mechanistically, RNA immunoprecipitation assays showed that the microprocessor Drosha or DGCR8 interacted with HMGA2 mRNA in hepatoma cells...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518140/a-mirna-101-3p-bim-axis-as-a-determinant-of-serum-deprivation-induced-endothelial-cell-apoptosis
#9
Ji-Hee Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Joohwan Kim, Seunghwan Choi, Wonjin Park, Kwon-Soo Ha, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jongseon Choe, Moo-Ho Won, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Serum deprivation or withdrawal induces apoptosis in endothelial cells, resulting in endothelial cell dysfunction that is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, there is still limited information on the role of miRNA in serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. Here we found that serum deprivation increased caspase-dependent apoptosis through miRNA-101-3p downregulation, without altering expression of its host gene RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase-like 1, which was highly correlated with suppressed expression levels of Dicer and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), indicating that miR-101-3p is post-transcriptionally elevated in serum-deprived conditions...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515299/a-diverse-range-of-novel-rna-viruses-in-geographically-distinct-honey-bee-populations
#10
Emily J Remnant, Mang Shi, Gabriele Buchmann, Tjeerd Blacquière, Edward C Holmes, Madeleine Beekman, Alyson Ashe
Understanding the diversity and consequences of viruses present in honey bees is critical to maintain pollinator health and manage the spread of disease. The viral landscape of honey bees (Apis mellifera) has changed dramatically since the emergence of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which increased the spread of virulent variants of viruses such as Deformed wing virus. Previous genomic studies have focused on colonies suffering from Varroa and virulent viruses, which could mask other viral species present in honey bees, resulting in a distorted view of viral diversity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507276/dicer-protein-levels-elevated-by-mild-hyperthermia-promote-a-pro-survival-phenotype
#11
Anand S Devasthanam, Thomas B Tomasi
Cellular exposure to mild stress (39.5°C-41.5°C) induces thermotolerance, rendering cells resistant to a subsequent heat shock (>42°C) insult. We found that mild hyperthermia at 39.5°C leads to elevations in dicer, a protein well-known for its role in microRNA processing and for its role in cellular stress responses. However, whether elevated dicer protein levels play a role in sustaining a thermotolerant phenotype has, to our knowledge, not been reported. Here we demonstrate that elevated dicer protein is linked to a thermotolerant phenotype in the cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa and in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), and demonstrate that dicer plays a role in mediating PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation...
April 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504560/small-rna-functions-are-required-for-growth-and-development-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#12
Vidhyavathi Raman, Stacey A Simon, Feray Demirci, Mayumi Nakano, Blake C Meyers, Nicole M Donofrio
RNA interference (RNAi) is conserved in eukaryotic organisms, and it has been well studied in many animal and plant species and some fungal species, yet it is not well studied in fungal plant pathogens. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we examined small RNA (sRNA) and their biogenesis in the context of growth and pathogenicity. Through genetic and genomic analyses, we demonstrate that loss of a single gene encoding Dicer, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, or Argonaute reduces sRNA levels. These three proteins are required for the biogenesis of sRNA-matching genome-wide regions (coding regions, repeats, and intergenic regions)...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499456/role-of-micrornas-in-premature-ovarian-insufficiency
#13
REVIEW
Ying Guo, Junyan Sun, Dongmei Lai
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a typical disorder of amenorrhea lasting for a minimum of 4 months. The typical characteristics comprised of declined estrogen and raised serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in women <40-year-old, primarily originating from iatrogenic factors, karyotypic abnormalities, and genetic factors. However, the etiology of POI remains unknown in approximately 90% of cases. POI could lead to infertility, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disorder, and cognitive dysfunction...
May 12, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487701/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-small-rna-biogenesis-purveyors-reveal-their-role-in-regulation-of-biotic-stress-responses-in-three-legume-crops
#14
Vanika Garg, Gaurav Agarwal, Lekha T Pazhamala, Spurthi N Nayak, Himabindu Kudapa, Aamir W Khan, Dadakhalandar Doddamani, Mamta Sharma, P B Kavi Kishor, Rajeev K Varshney
Biotic stress in legume crops is one of the major threats to crop yield and productivity. Being sessile organisms, plants have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to combat different stresses imposed on them. One such mechanism, deciphered in the last decade, is small RNA (sRNA) mediated defense in plants. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as one of the major players in gene expression regulation in plants during developmental stages and under stress conditions. They are known to act both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486664/microrna-21-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-the-oocyte-secreted-factor-induced-suppression-of-cumulus-cell-apoptosis%C3%A2
#15
Xiao Han, Rui Xue, Hong-Jie Yuan, Tian-Yang Wang, Juan Lin, Jie Zhang, Bo Liang, Jing-He Tan
It is known that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) are more resistant to apoptosis than other compartments of the antral follicle. However, although oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) have been found to be involved in suppressing bovine CC apoptosis, little is known about the intra-cellular mechanisms by which OSFs render CCs resistant to apoptosis. Here we show that coculture with mouse or pig cumulus-denuded oocytes, culture with recombinant mouse growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) or culture in pig oocyte-conditioned medium (POCM) significantly inhibited CC apoptosis of mouse oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs)...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473628/molecular-mechanisms-of-dicer-endonuclease-and-enzymatic-activity
#16
REVIEW
Min-Sun Song, John J Rossi
The enzyme Dicer is best known for its role as a riboendonuclease in the small RNA pathway. In this canonical role, Dicer is a critical regulator of the biogenesis of microRNA and small interfering RNA, as well as a growing number of additional small RNAs derived from various sources. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Dicer's endonuclease role extends beyond the generation of small RNAs; it is also involved in processing additional endogenous and exogenous substrates, and is becoming increasingly implicated in regulating a variety of other cellular processes, outside of its endonuclease function...
May 4, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456307/rna-interference-of-dicer-1-and-argonaute-1-increasing-the-sensitivity-of-aphis-gossypii-glover-hemiptera-aphididae-to-plant-allelochemical
#17
Kangsheng Ma, Fen Li, Pingzhuo Liang, Xuewei Chen, Ying Liu, Qiuling Tang, Xiwu Gao
Plant allelochemicals are a group of important defensive agents of plants, which have been documented to be deleterious to insect herbivores. In the present study, we found that the expression level of Dicer-1 was significantly increased when Aphis gossypii adults fed on plant allelochemicals (tannic acid and gossypol) incorporated artificial diets. Consider that miRNAs play great regulatory roles in various biological processes, this suggested that miRNAs may be related to the regulation of enzymes involved in metabolism of plant allelochemicals in A...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455401/roles-of-dicer-like-proteins-2-and-4-in-intra-and-intercellular-antiviral-silencing
#18
Cheng Qin, Bin Li, Yaya Fan, Xian Zhang, Zhiming Yu, Eugene Ryabov, Mei Zhao, Hui Wang, Nongnong Shi, Pengcheng Zhang, Stephen Jackson, Mahmut Tör, Qi Cheng, Yule Liu, Philippe Gallusci, Yiguo Hong
RNA silencing is an innate antiviral mechanism conserved in organisms across kingdoms. Such cellular defense involves DICER or DICER-LIKEs (DCLs) that process viral RNAs into small interfering (vsi)RNAs. Plants encode four DCLs which play diverse roles in cell-autonomous virus-induced RNA silencing (known as VIGS) against viral invasion. However, intracellular VIGS can spread between cells, and the genetic basis and involvement of vsiRNAs in non-cell autonomous VIGS remains poorly understood. Here using GFP as a reporter gene together with a suite of DCL RNAi transgenic lines, we show that in addition to well-established activities of DCLs in intracellular VIGS and vsiRNA biogenesis, DCL4 inhibits intercellular VIGS whilst DCL2 is required, likely along with DCL2-processed/dependent vsiRNAs and their precursor RNAs, for efficient VIGS trafficking from epidermal to adjacent cells...
April 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448850/perturbation-of-drosha-and-dicer-expression-by-human-papillomavirus-16-oncoproteins
#19
Mallory E Harden, Karl Munger
Many tumors, including cervical carcinoma, show dysregulated expression of the microRNA processing machinery, specifically DROSHA and DICER. Some cervical cancers exhibit chromosome 5p amplifications and DROSHA is the most significantly upregulated transcript and is observed in all tumors with 5p gain. DROSHA and DICER mRNA levels, however, are higher in HPV positive cancer lines than in an HPV negative cervical carcinoma line. We show that high-risk HPV E6/E7 expression in HPV negative C33A cervical carcinoma cells and primary human epithelial cell causes increased expression of DROSHA and DICER mRNA and protein...
July 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448529/a-genome-wide-analysis-of-the-rna-guided-silencing-pathway-in-coffee-reveals-insights-into-its-regulatory-mechanisms
#20
Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum, Pâmela Marinho Rezende, Thales Henrique Cherubino Ribeiro, Raphael Ricon de Oliveira, Thaís Cunha de Sousa Cardoso, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Antonio Chalfun-Junior
microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL) in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover...
2017: PloS One
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