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compound fracture

Stephanie M Riley, Danika C Ahoor, Julia Regnery, Tzahi Y Cath
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in oil and gas (O&G) produced water and fracturing flowback was characterized and quantified by multiple analytical techniques throughout a hybrid biological-physical treatment process. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of DOM by liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy, demonstrated increasing removal of all groups of DOM throughout the treatment train, with most removal occurring during biological pretreatment and some subsequent removal achieved during membrane treatment...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sohrab S Virk, Frank M Phillips, Safdar N Khan
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a critical compound for endochondral bone formation and is used as a bone graft substitute to promote spinal fusion and fracture healing. We sought to identify rate, type, and applications of use of BMP in spinal fusion surgery during 2005 to 2015. The Medicare 5% national sample (SAF5) database and the Humana Orthopaedics database (HORTHO) were searched for patients who underwent spinal fusion with BMP. Rate of use over time and influence of geographic region and payer type on utilization of BMP during 2005 to 2015 were analyzed...
September 11, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
Julien Maire, Antoine Joubert, Delphine Kaifas, Thomas Invernizzi, Julien Marduel, Stéfan Colombano, David Cazaux, Cédric Marion, Pierre-Yves Klein, Alain Dumestre, Nicolas Fatin-Rouge
Immiscible mobilization and foam flushing were assessed as low surfactant consuming technologies, for the enhanced recovery of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) residual at a site contaminated by heavy chlorinated compounds. Preliminary experiments in well-controlled conditions demonstrated the phenomena involved in these remediation technologies and their limitations. Furthermore, we characterized the technologies according to by their surfactant consumption (per kg of DNAPL recovered) and the final DNAPL saturation reached...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xiao Chen, Xin Zhi, Liehu Cao, Weizong Weng, Panpan Pan, Honggang Hu, Chao Liu, Qingjie Zhao, Qirong Zhou, Jin Cui, Jiacan Su
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (POMP) is a public health problem characterized by decreased bone density and increased fracture risk. Over-activated osteoclastogenesis plays a vital role in POMP. Here we developed a novel bioactive compound MASM (M19) based on sophocarpine. Although it showed no significant effects on osteogenesis and adipogenesis for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro, it could significantly inhibit RANKL/M-CSF induced osteoclastogenesis through suppressing NF-κB, MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways in vitro and ameliorate bone loss in ovariectomized mice in vivo...
September 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Marta Ávila, Natalia Gómez-Torres, David Delgado, Pilar Gaya, Sonia Garde
High pressure (HP) offers potential industrial applications in cheese preservation, but it is essential to provide knowledge concerning their effects on the ripening process and sensory characteristics. In this study, we investigated the effect of different HP treatments (200-500MPa at 14°C for 10min on day 7) on proteolysis, texture, colour, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of semi-hard raw ewe milk cheese. HP treatments did not affect pH or dry matter values of 60-day-old cheeses. Treatments at pressure levels up to 400MPa led to significant (P<0...
October 2017: Food Research International
Allen M Shapiro, Claire R Tiedeman, Thomas E Imbrigiotta, Daniel J Goode, Paul A Hsieh, Pierre J Lacombe, Mary F DeFlaun, Scott R Drew, Gary P Curtis
A mass balance is formulated to evaluate the mobilization of chlorinated ethene compounds (CE) from the rock matrix of a fractured mudstone aquifer under pre- and postbioremediation conditions. The analysis relies on a sparse number of monitoring locations and is constrained by a detailed description of the groundwater flow regime. Groundwater flow modeling developed under the site characterization identified groundwater fluxes to formulate the CE mass balance in the rock volume exposed to the injected remediation amendments...
September 5, 2017: Ground Water
Sook Young Sim, Hyun Gi Kim, Soo Han Yoon, Jong Wook Choi, Sung Min Cho
PURPOSE: Diastatic skull fractures (DSFs) in children are difficult to detect in skull x-rays before they develop into growing skull fractures, and therefore little information is available on this topic. However, recent advances in 3 dimensional CT (3DCT) imaging technology enable more accurate diagnoses of almost all forms of skull fractures. The present study was undertaken to document the clinical characteristics of DSFs in children and to determine whether 3DCT enhances diagnostic accuracy...
August 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Ryojun Takeda, Masaki Takagi, Hiroyuki Shinohara, Hiroshi Futagawa, Satoshi Narumi, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Gen Nishimura, Hiroshi Yoshihashi
Geroderma osteodysplastica (GO) is a subtype of cutis laxa syndrome characterized by congenital wrinkly skin, a prematurely aged face, extremely short stature, and osteoporosis leading to recurrent fractures. GO exhibits an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in GORAB, which encodes a protein important for Golgi-related transport. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations in the GORAB in a GO patient. The patient was a 14-year-old Japanese boy...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Fengjiang Wang, Ying Huang, Zhijie Zhang, Chao Yan
Sn-Bi solder with different Bi content can realize a low-to-medium-to-high soldering process. To obtain the effect of Bi content in Sn-Bi solder on the microstructure of solder, interfacial behaviors in solder joints with Cu and the joints strength, five Sn-Bi solders including Sn-5Bi and Sn-15Bi solid solution, Sn-30Bi and Sn-45Bi hypoeutectic and Sn-58Bi eutectic were selected in this work. The microstructure, interfacial reaction under soldering and subsequent aging and the shear properties of Sn-Bi solder joints were studied...
August 9, 2017: Materials
Jessica D Rogers, Imma Ferrer, Shantal S Tummings, Angela R Bielefeldt, Joseph N Ryan
The rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas development has raised concerns about the potential contamination of aquifers; however, the groundwater fate and transport of hydraulic fracturing fluid compounds and mixtures remains a significant data gap. Degradation kinetics of five hydraulic fracturing compounds (2-propanol, ethylene glycol, propargyl alcohol, 2-butoxyethanol, and 2-ethylhexanol) in the absence and presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde were investigated under a range of redox conditions using sediment-groundwater microcosms and flow-through columns...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jinfeng Nie, Mingxing Liu, Fang Wang, Yonghao Zhao, Yusheng Li, Yang Cao, Yuntian Zhu
Al(1060)/Mg(AZ31)/Al(1060) multilayered composite was successfully produced using an accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process for up to four cycles at an elevated temperature (400 °C). The microstructure evolution of the composites and the bonding characteristics at the interfaces between Al and Mg layers with increasing ARB cycles were characterized through optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the grains of Al and Mg layers were significantly refined and Al₃Mg₂ and Al12 Mg17 intermetallic compound layers formed at the Al/Mg bonding interfaces...
November 23, 2016: Materials
Dongwei Hou, Guoping Zhang, Rohit Raj Pant, Jack S Shen, Mingming Liu, Hao Luo
Ternary clay-based composite material (TCC), composed of lime, clay and sand, and usually modified with sticky rice and other organic compounds as additives, was widely used historically in Chinese construction and buildings due to its high mechanical performance. In this study, to gain an insight into the micromechanical mechanism of this cementitious material, the nanomechanical properties and volume fraction of mechanically different phases of the binder matrix are derived from the analysis of grid nanoindentation tests...
October 26, 2016: Materials
Xinhua Chen, Guoping Bei
Advanced engineering and functional ceramics are sensitive to damage cracks, which delay the wide applications of these materials in various fields. Ceramic composites with enhanced fracture toughness may trigger a paradigm for design and application of the brittle components. This paper reviews the toughening mechanisms for the nanolayered MAX phase ceramics. The main toughening mechanisms for these ternary compounds were controlled by particle toughening, phase-transformation toughening and fiber-reinforced toughening, as well as texture toughening...
March 30, 2017: Materials
Christina Lovato, E Michael Lewiecki
Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease with serious consequences due to osteoporotic fractures and high costs to society for post-fracture care. Most patients at high risk for fracture are not receiving care to reduce fracture risk. The osteoporosis treatment gap has reached crisis proportions. Strategies to reduce the treatment gap include systematic methods for identifying and treating high risk patients, better education of patients and healthcare providers, better use of currently available drugs, and development of new drugs to treat osteoporosis...
August 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Zhi Dou, Zhifang Zhou, Qiaona Guo, Xiaohui Lu
  In this work, the spreading and dilution (mixing) processes of the miscible compound were analyzed numerically by three-dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) at a pore scale in a non-uniform flow field. The authors proposed an aperture-related dilution index to quantify the local dilution process in the different aperture regions. The results showed that the fluctuation of the compound spreading caused by the flow fluctuation depended on both the aqueous diffusivity and the frequency of the flow fluctuation...
August 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Miguel A Ramirez, Emilie V Cheung, Anand M Murthi
Despite recent technologic advances, total elbow arthroplasty has complication rates higher than that of total joint arthroplasty in other joints. With new antirheumatic treatments, the population receiving total elbow arthroplasty has shifted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to those with posttraumatic arthritis, further compounding the high complication rate. The most common reasons for revision include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, and component failure. Common mechanisms of total elbow arthroplasty failure include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, component failure, and instability...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Nicholas Meszaros, Bikram Subedi, Tristan Stamets, Naima Shifa
There is a growing concern over the contamination of surface water and the associated environmental and public health consequences from the recent proliferation of hydraulic fracturing in the USA. Petroleum hydrocarbon-derived contaminants of concern [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] and various dissolved cations and anions were spatially determined in surface waters around 15 coalbed methane fracking wells in Sullivan County, IN, USA. At least one BTEX compound was detected in 69% of sampling sites (n = 13) and 23% of sampling sites were found to be contaminated with all of the BTEX compounds...
July 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fernanda de Cássia Papaiz Gonçalves, Marina Amaral, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges, Luiz Fernando Martins Gonçalves, Tarcisio José de Arruda Paes-Junior
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Complete-arch implant-supported prostheses without a framework have a high risk of failure: a straightforward and inexpensive reinforcement material, such as nylon mesh, could improve their longevity. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate a nylon-silica mesh compound on the fracture strength of acrylic resin and the fracture load of complete-arch implant-supported prostheses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four complete mandibular arch implant-supported prostheses were divided into 2 groups according to cantilever length (molar and premolar) and subdivided into another 2 subgroups according to the presence or absence of reinforcing mesh...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Jenna L Luek, Michael Gonsior
High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
Richard C Petersen
Clinicians have been aware that posterior dental particulate-filled composites (PFCs) have many placement disadvantages and indeed fail clinically at an average rate faster than amalgam alloys. Secondary caries is most commonly identified as the chief failure mechanism for both dental PFCs and amalgam. In terms of a solution, fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) above critical length (Lc) can provide mechanical property safety factors with compound molding packing qualities to reduce many problems associated with dental PFCs...
February 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
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