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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911415/extraction-of-plant-based-capsules-for-microencapsulation-applications
#1
Michael G Potroz, Raghavendra C Mundargi, Jae Hyeon Park, Ee-Lin Tan, Nam-Joon Cho
Microcapsules derived from plant-based spores or pollen provide a robust platform for a diverse range of microencapsulation applications. Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) are obtained when spores or pollen are processed so as to remove the internal sporoplasmic contents. The resulting hollow microcapsules exhibit a high degree of micromeritic uniformity and retain intricate microstructural features related to the particular plant species. Herein, we demonstrate a streamlined process for the production of SECs from Lycopodium clavatum spores and for the loading of hydrophilic compounds into these SECs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901621/perfluorooctanoic-acid-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblast-cells
#2
Eun Mi Choi, Kwang Sik Suh, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Youngmi Kim Pak, Suk Chon
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a stable organic perfluorinated compound, is an emerging persistent organic pollutant, found widely in human and wildlife populations. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to environmental toxicants can be associated with higher risks of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied the cellular toxicology of PFOA in MC3T3-E1osteoblast cells. To examine the effect of PFOA, we measured cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial superoxide, and mitochondrial parameters including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cardiolipin content, and cytochrome c release in MC3T3-E1 cells...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871407/the-role-of-orthobiologics-in-fracture-healing-and-arthrodesis
#3
REVIEW
Sheldon S Lin, Michael G Yeranosian
Nonunion after tibial shaft fracture and hindfoot arthrodesis remains a major problem. Known risk factors include advanced age, immunosuppression, smoking, and diabetes. Several factors must be considered in the fracture healing process. This review evaluates the efficacy of orthobiologics in improving union rates after fracture or arthrodesis. Use of compounds have shown increased cellular proliferation experimentally. Percutaneous autologous bone marrow has shown increased cellular proliferation. Matrix supplementation has shown significant improvements in bone healing...
December 2016: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871226/functional-validation-of-novel-compound-heterozygous-variants-in-b3gat3-resulting-in-severe-osteopenia-and-fractures-expanding-the-disease-phenotype
#4
Florian Job, Shuji Mizumoto, Laurie Smith, Natario Couser, Ashley Brazil, Howard Saal, Melanie Patterson, Margaret I Gibson, Sarah Soden, Neil Miller, Isabelle Thiffault, Carol Saunders, Shuhei Yamada, Katrin Hoffmann, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Emily Farrow
BACKGROUND: A new disease class of syndromes, described as linkeropathies, which are derived from defects in the glycosaminoglycan-linker region as well as glycosaminoglycan-side chains of proteoglycans is increasingly being recognized as a cause of human disease. Proteoglycans are an essential component of the extracellular matrix. Defects in the enzymatic process of proteoglycan synthesis broadly occur due to the incorrect addition of side chains. Previously, homozygous missense variants within the B3GAT3 gene encoding beta 1,3 glucuronyltransferase 3(GlcAT-I) responsible for the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans have been described in 7 individuals...
November 21, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867137/minimally-invasive-internal-fixation-of-distal-femur-fractures
#5
REVIEW
Guy Piétu, Mathieu Ehlinger
Fractures of the distal femur remain a daunting challenge. Since 1970, operative treatment has been recommended. Unfortunately it is fraught with complications, and techniques have been developed to limit incidence of non-union, infection and stiffness. A soft-tissue friendly approach is the key point, with minimally invasive surgery as the ultimate goal: its biological and anatomical advantages have; been demonstrated, but clinical studies have been less convincing, being based on historical series. At present, retrograde nailing and minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (ideally by locking plate) are the two main techniques...
November 17, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856330/metformin-suppresses-adipogenesis-through-both-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-dependent-and-ampk-independent-mechanisms
#6
Suet Ching Chen, Rebecca Brooks, Jessica Houskeeper, Shaun K Bremner, Julia Dunlop, Benoit Viollet, Pamela J Logan, Ian P Salt, S Faisal Ahmed, Stephen J Yarwood
People with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reduced bone mineral density and an increased risk of fractures due to altered mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation in the bone marrow. This leads to a shift in the balance of differentiation away from bone formation (osteogenesis) in favour of fat cell development (adipogenesis). The commonly used anti-diabetic drug, metformin, activates the osteogenic transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which may suppress adipogenesis, leading to improved bone health...
November 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845743/a-structure-identification-and-toxicity-assessment-of-the-degradation-products-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-in-peanut-oil-under-uv-irradiation
#7
Jin Mao, Bing He, Liangxiao Zhang, Peiwu Li, Qi Zhang, Xiaoxia Ding, Wen Zhang
Aflatoxins, a group of extremely hazardous compounds because of their genotoxicity and carcinogenicity to human and animals, are commonly found in many tropical and subtropical regions. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is proven to be an effective method to reduce or detoxify aflatoxins. However, the degradation products of aflatoxins under UV irradiation and their safety or toxicity have not been clear in practical production such as edible oil industry. In this study, the degradation products of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) in peanut oil were analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Thermo Quadrupole Exactive Focus mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQEF-MS/MS)...
November 12, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833693/e-cigarette-blast-injury-complex-facial-fractures-and-pneumocephalus
#8
Benjamin A Archambeau, Stephanie Young, Carol Lee, Troy Pennington, Christopher Vanderbeek, Dan Miulli, John Culhane, Michael Neeki
Electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are becoming a popular method of recreational nicotine use over recent years. The growth of new brands and devices has been outpacing the FDA's ability to regulate them. As a result, some of these devices fail without warning, most likely from malfunction of the lithium-ion batteries that are in close proximity to volatile compounds within the device. Failures have occurred during both use and storage of the devices or their components. The subsequent injuries from several of these events, including full thickness burns requiring grafting and blast injuries, have been observed at Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, a regional trauma and burn center in southern California...
November 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826127/effects-of-abaloparatide-sc-ba058-on-bone-histology-and-histomorphometry-the-active-phase-3-trial
#9
Carolina Moreira, Lorraine A Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Robert R Recker
There are a number of effective treatments for osteoporosis but most are in the antiresorptive class of compounds. Abaloparatide-SC is a new osteoanabolic agent, which increased bone mineral density and lowered the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures in the phase 3 ACTIVE trial. The objective of this report is to describe the effects of abaloparatide-SC 80μg on bone histology and histomorphometry in iliac crest bone biopsies from this trial in which participants were randomized to receive blinded daily subcutaneous injections of placebo or abaloparatide-SC 80μg/d or open-label teriparatide 20μg/d for 18months...
November 5, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810549/technical-modifications-for-intraoral-quadrangular-le-fort-ii-osteotomy
#10
Clemens Klug, Julia Cede
PURPOSE: The intraoral quadrangular Le Fort II osteotomy (IQLFIIO) represents a reliable surgical method in cases of midfacial deficiency with good functional, esthetic, and stable long-term results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this technical note, we present 3 surgical modifications to previous reports: 1) inferior orbital rim osteotomy by angulated piezosurgical instruments, thereby avoiding the use of chisels in the orbital region; 2) osteosynthetic fixation only laterally at the zygomatic buttress with 2 L-shaped miniplates, thus avoiding paranasal osteosynthesis; and 3) advancement step camouflage in the lateral infraorbital region with a compound mass of autologous bone chips and fibrin glue with the intention to reduce bone block-associated side effects...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796462/novel-mutations-in-serpinf1-result-in-rare-osteogenesis-imperfecta-type-vi
#11
Jian-Yi Wang, Yi Liu, Li-Jie Song, Fang Lv, Xiao-Jie Xu, A San, Jian Wang, Huan-Ming Yang, Zi-Ying Yang, Yan Jiang, Ou Wang, Wei-Bo Xia, Xiao-Ping Xing, Mei Li
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of inherited disorders characterized by recurrent fragile fractures. Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade F, member 1 (SERPINF1) is known to cause a distinct, extremely rare autosomal recessive form of type VI OI. Here we report, for the first time, the detection of SERPINF1 mutations in Chinese OI patients. We designed a novel targeted next-generation sequencing panel of OI-related genes to identify pathogenic mutations, which were confirmed with Sanger sequencing and by co-segregation analysis...
October 28, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790530/a-randomized-controlled-study-to-compare-conventional-and-evidence-based-treatment-protocols-in-fresh-compound-fractures
#12
Kanika Mahajan, Vikas Verma, Girish Kumar Singh, Santosh Kumar, Sachin Avasthi
INTRODUCTION: A recent concept review in Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS) outlines evidence to control peri-operative infections in compound fractures. However, evidence for impact of adopting a protocol combining measures that have some evidence is lacking in literature. The present method of treatment at King George's Medical University (KGMU) is representative of the conventional practice of managing compound fractures in India and is an appropriate control for trial against the Experimental Evidence Based Protocol (EBP)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790257/evaluation-of-the-fractured-surface-of-five-endodontic-rotary-instruments-a-metallurgical-study
#13
Mohsen Aminsobhani, Mohamad Saleh Khalatbari, Naghmeh Meraji, Abdollah Ghorbanzadeh, Ehsan Sadri
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare several metallurgic properties of Neoniti instrument with four other commonly used endodontic rotary files. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Neoniti A1 (25/0.08), RaCe (25/0.06), Mtwo (25/0.06), Twisted file (25/0.06) and ProTaper Next X2 (25/0.06) were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before and after heat treatment at 500(°)C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was also performed on the specimens. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDS) analyses were carried out on randomly selected fractured files...
2016: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789416/compound-heterozygous-variants-in-nbas-as-a-cause-of-atypical-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#14
M Balasubramanian, J Hurst, S Brown, N J Bishop, P Arundel, C DeVile, R C Pollitt, L Crooks, D Longman, J F Caceres, F Shackley, S Connolly, J H Payne, A C Offiah, D Hughes, M J Parker, W Hide, T M Skerry
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), the commonest inherited bone fragility disorder, affects 1 in 15,000 live births resulting in frequent fractures and reduced mobility, with significant impact on quality of life. Early diagnosis is important, as therapeutic advances can lead to improved clinical outcome and patient benefit. REPORT: Whole exome sequencing in patients with OI identified, in two patients with a multi-system phenotype, compound heterozygous variants in NBAS (neuroblastoma amplified sequence)...
January 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783932/unconventional-oil-and-gas-development-and-risk-of-childhood-leukemia-assessing-the-evidence
#15
Elise G Elliott, Pauline Trinh, Xiaomei Ma, Brian P Leaderer, Mary H Ward, Nicole C Deziel
The widespread distribution of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) wells and other facilities in the United States potentially exposes millions of people to air and water pollutants, including known or suspected carcinogens. Childhood leukemia is a particular concern because of the disease severity, vulnerable population, and short disease latency. A comprehensive review of carcinogens and leukemogens associated with UO&G development is not available and could inform future exposure monitoring studies and human health assessments...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780513/management-of-humeral-fracture-nonunion-in-severe-osteoporosis-by-a-combination-of-locking-plating-and-intramedullary-fibular-grafting
#16
Shabir-Ahmed Dhar, Mohammed-Farooq Butt, Tahir-Ahmed Dar, Reyaz-Ahmed Dar, Zameer Ali
Nonunion of the humerus in a severely osteoporotic bone is a likely event especially if the fracture is transverse. The management of such a combination is a challenge. Most of the conventional fixation methods are unlikely to succeed as the bone failure precedes implant failure in osteoporosis. The challenge is further compounded in severe osteoporosis when the cortical thickness is affected more severely. We used a combination of an intramedullary fibula with a locking plate in 5 cases. The results show that it may be a good combination in such situations as the bone strength is augmented and the plate pullout is less likely...
October 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762305/novel-mutations-in-fkbp10-in-chinese-patients-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-and-their-treatment-with-zoledronic-acid
#17
Xiao-Jie Xu, Fang Lv, Yi Liu, Jian-Yi Wang, Dou-Dou Ma, Asan, Jia-Wei Wang, Li-Jie Song, Yan Jiang, Ou Wang, Wei-Bo Xia, Xiao-Ping Xing, Mei Li
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of hereditary disorders characterized by decreased bone mass and increased fracture risk. The majority of OI cases have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and are usually caused by mutations in genes encoding type I collagen. OI cases of autosomal recessive inheritance are rare, and OI type XI is attributable to mutation of the FKBP10 gene. Here, we used next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing to detect mutations in FKBP10 and to analyze their relation to the phenotypes of OI type XI in three Chinese patients...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752192/complications-of-the-use-of-trans-osseous-wire-osteosynthesis-in-the-managementof-compound-unfavorable-and-non-comminuted-mandibular-angle-fractures
#18
Charles E Anyanechi, Otasowie D Osunde, Birch D Saheeb
OBJECTIVE: To analyze cases of compound, unfavorable and non-comminuted mandibular angle fractures treated by trans-osseous wiring, presenting postoperative complications, in a low resource center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 13-year retrospective study of 1,324 fractures in 1,317 subjects. The predictor variables were age, gender, aetiology, time lag between injury and treatment, and concomitant mandibular and mid-facial fractures. The outcome variable was the development of complication(s) after treatment...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743793/identifying-chemicals-of-concern-in-hydraulic-fracturing-fluids-used-for-oil-production
#19
William T Stringfellow, Mary Kay Camarillo, Jeremy K Domen, Whitney L Sandelin, Charuleka Varadharajan, Preston D Jordan, Matthew T Reagan, Heather Cooley, Matthew G Heberger, Jens T Birkholzer
Chemical additives used for hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing of oil reservoirs were reviewed and priority chemicals of concern needing further environmental risk assessment, treatment demonstration, or evaluation of occupational hazards were identified. We evaluated chemical additives used for well stimulation in California, the third largest oil producing state in the USA, by the mass and frequency of use, as well as toxicity. The most frequently used chemical additives in oil development were gelling agents, cross-linkers, breakers, clay control agents, iron and scale control agents, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and various impurities and product stabilizers used as part of commercial mixtures...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704396/advanced-glycation-end-products-diabetes-and-bone-strength
#20
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamamoto, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Diabetic patients have a higher fracture risk than expected by their bone mineral density (BMD). Poor bone quality is the most suitable and explainable cause for the elevated fracture risk in this population. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are diverse compounds generated via a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amine residues, physically affect the properties of the bone material, one of a component of bone quality, through their accumulation in the bone collagen fibers. On the other hand, these compounds biologically act as agonists for these receptors for AGEs (RAGE) and suppress bone metabolism...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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