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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610560/prevalence-and-molecular-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-including-methicillin-resistant-strains-isolated-from-bulk-can-milk-and-raw-milk-products-in-pastoral-communities-of-south-west-uganda
#1
Benon B Asiimwe, Rossella Baldan, Alberto Trovato, Daniela M Cirillo
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607765/paediatric-bone-and-joint-infection
#2
REVIEW
Alexios D Iliadis, Manoj Ramachandran
Despite advances in understanding and management, paediatric osteoarticular infections continue to pose diagnostic difficulties for clinicians. Delays in diagnosis can lead to potentially devastating morbidity.No single investigation, including joint aspiration, is sufficiently reliable to diagnose conclusively paediatric bone and joint infection. Diagnosis should be based on a combination of clinical signs, imaging and laboratory investigations. Algorithms should supplement, and not replace, clinical decision making in all cases...
January 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600770/real-time-pcr-to-identify-staphylococci-and-assay-for-virulence-from-blood
#3
Charles E Okolie
The genus Staphylococcus includes pathogenic and non-pathogenic facultative anaerobes. Due to the plethora of virulence factors encoded in its genome, the species Staphylococcus aureus is known to be the most pathogenic. S. aureus strains harboring genes encoding virulence and antibiotic resistance are of public health importance. In clinical samples, however, pathogenic S. aureus is often mixed with putatively less pathogenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), both of which can harbor mecA, the genetic driver for staphylococcal methicillin-resistance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592231/high-burden-of-complicated-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-indigenous-population-of-central-australia-due-to-dominant-panton-valentine-leucocidin-clones-st93-mrsa-and-cc121-mssa
#4
Susan A J Harch, Eleanor MacMorran, Steven Y C Tong, Deborah C Holt, Judith Wilson, Eugene Athan, Saliya Hewagama
BACKGROUND: Superficial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common among the Indigenous population of the desert regions of Central Australia. However, the overall burden of disease and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus complicated SSTIs has yet to be described in this unique population. METHODS: Alice Springs Hospital (ASH) admission data was interrogated to establish the population incidence of SSTIs. A prospective observational study was conducted on a subset of S...
June 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590235/chlorhexidine-whole-body-washing-of-patients-reduces-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-has-a-direct-effect-on-the-distribution-of-the-st5-mrsa-ii-new-york-japan-clone
#5
Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Vanessa Valero-Moreno, Elvira Garza-González
PURPOSE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes the skin of hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To prevent colonization and infection by S. aureus, better disinfection practices are required. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine whole-body washing on hospital-acquired S. aureus infections among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a tertiary hospital in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted over 18 months to evaluate the effect of 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate (CXG) whole-body washing of ICU adult patients on chlorhexidine and antibiotic resistance, biofilm production and clonal distribution of S...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589102/heterogeneous-family-of-cyclomodulins-smart-weapons-that-allow-bacteria-to-hijack-the-eukaryotic-cell-cycle-and-promote-infections
#6
REVIEW
Rachid A El-Aouar Filho, Aurélie Nicolas, Thiago L De Paula Castro, Martine Deplanche, Vasco A De Carvalho Azevedo, Pierre L Goossens, Frédéric Taieb, Gerard Lina, Yves Le Loir, Nadia Berkova
Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587312/molecular-typing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-hyper-ige-syndrome
#7
Inka Sastalla, Kelli W Williams, Erik D Anderson, Ian A Myles, Jensen D Reckhow, Marlene Espinoza-Moraga, Alexandra F Freeman, Sandip K Datta
Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci...
June 6, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575438/molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-children-with-periorbital-or-orbital-cellulitis
#8
Catherine E Foster, Elizabeth Yarotsky, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan, Kristina G Hulten
Background.: Periorbital and orbital cellulitis cause significant pediatric morbidity. Here, we define the clinical features of and characterize isolates from children with periorbital or orbital cellulitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston. Methods.: Patients were identified from a prospective S aureus study database from January 2002 to July 2015. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukSF-PV [pvl]) genes were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553271/molecular-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#9
Haishen Kong, Fei Yu, Weili Zhang, Xuefen Li, Hongxia Wang
Analysis of the genotypic characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is essential for the control and treatment of diseases caused by this important pathogen. In this study, MRSA isolates obtained from a tertiary caret hospital in China were subjected to spa typing, SCCmec typing, multiple locus sequence typing (MLST), and PCR targeting of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The disk diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to 10 non-beta-lactam antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552322/prevalence-of-skin-infections-caused-by-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-japan-particularly-in-ishigaki-okinawa
#10
Shunsuke Takadama, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Sae Aoki, Megumi Akashi, Takeaki Wajima, Masami Ikeda, Atsushi Mochida, Fumiko Shimoe, Kumiko Kimura, Yasushi Matsuzaki, Daisuke Sawamura, Yoichi Inaba, Tomohiro Oishi, Osamu Nemoto, Naoko Baba, Norihisa Noguchi
The prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 clone, which is designated as the ST8-staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec type IV (ST8-IV) lineage, is a major public health concern worldwide. Thus, to elucidate the prevalence and characteristics of pvl-positive community-onset MRSA in Japan, we conducted a molecular epidemiological analysis for 854 S. aureus isolates obtained from outpatients with skin infections during 2013 and 2014...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533831/molecular-characterisation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolated-at-a-large-referral-hospital-in-zambia
#11
Mulemba Tillika Samutela, Annie Kalonda, James Mwansa, Chileshe Lukwesa-Musyani, John Mwaba, Enoch Mulowa Mumbula, Darlington Mwenya, Edgar Simulundu, Geoffrey Kwenda
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is globally recognized as an important public health problem. Whereas comprehensive molecular typing data of MRSA strains is available, particularly in Europe, North America and Australia, similar information is very limited in sub-Saharan Africa including Zambia. METHODS: In this study, thirty two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, collected at a large referral hospital in Lusaka, Zambia between June 2009 and December 2012 were analysed by Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), Staphylococcus protein A gene typing (spa) and detection of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes (pvl)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522992/molecular-characterization-of-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-young-children-in-southern-mozambique-2001-2009
#12
Delfino Vubil, Marcelino Garrine, Ulla Ruffing, Sozinho Acácio, Betuel Sigaúque, Pedro L Alonso, Lutz von Müller, Mathias Herrmann, Inácio Mandomando
Background: The emergence of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections is increasingly recognized as life threating problem worldwide. In Manhiça district, southern Mozambique, S. aureus is the leading cause of community-acquired bacteremia in neonates. Methods: Eighty-four S. aureus isolates from children less than 5 years admitted to Manhiça District Hospital from 2001 to 2009 were randomly selected and genetically characterized by DNA microarray and spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by VITEK 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515479/acquisition-of-virulence-factors-in-livestock-associated-mrsa-lysogenic-conversion-of-cc398-strains-by-virulence-gene-containing-phages
#13
Britta Kraushaar, Jens Andre Hammerl, Marina Kienöl, Marie Luise Heinig, Nina Sperling, Mai Dinh Thanh, Jochen Reetz, Claudia Jäckel, Alexandra Fetsch, Stefan Hertwig
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains belonging to the clonal complex 398 (CC398) are highly prevalent in livestock and companion animals but may also cause serious infections in humans. CC398 strains in livestock usually do not possess well-known virulence factors that can be frequently found in other MRSA sequence types (ST). Since many staphylococcal virulence genes are residing on the genomes of temperate phages, the question arises why livestock-associated (LA-) CC398 strains are only rarely infected by those phages...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504817/biofilm-formation-in-catheter-related-infections-by-panton-valentine-leukocidin-producing-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Giorgio Silva-Santana, Kátia C Lenzi-Almeida, Vânia G S Lopes, Fábio Aguiar-Alves
The use of invasive techniques, such as intravascular catheter insertion, and the formation of biofilms in several devices by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have contributed to the increased number of septic patients, morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the virulence of strains through catheter colonization and identification of microbial biofilm, as well as pathological changes on the colonized skin. An experimental biofilm formation model utilized catheter fragments implanted subcutaneously in 25 Swiss mice...
December 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504494/staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-and-its-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-in-children-in-high-altitude-areas-of-southwestern-china
#15
Zongrong Gong, Min Shu, Qing Xia, Shan Tan, Wei Zhou, Yu Zhu, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUND/AIM: To describe the epidemiological profile of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains, its antibiotic resistance and mecA and Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes presence, in school children residing in high altitude areas of Southwestern China. METHODS: The cross sectional study screened nasal swabs taken from students for S.aureus. PCR was performed to identify mecA and PVL genes. RESULTS: Of the total 314 children 5...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473827/prevalence-virulence-genes-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genetic-diversity-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-retail-aquatic-products-in-china
#16
Dongli Rong, Qingping Wu, Mingfang Xu, Jumei Zhang, Shubo Yu
Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes severe blood and tissue infections or even fatal illnesses. Although S. aureus has been extensively studied in livestock and poultry foods in China, limited information has been reported in aquatic products. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to characterize S. aureus in aquatic products purchased from retail markets in China. In total, 320 aquatic food samples were collected from 32 provincial capitals in China...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471400/epidemiology-and-management-of-acute-haematogenous-osteomyelitis-in-a-tertiary-paediatric-center
#17
Elena Chiappini, Caterina Camposampiero, Simone Lazzeri, Giuseppe Indolfi, Maurizio De Martino, Luisa Galli
Background: Paediatric acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM) is a serious disease requiring early diagnosis and treatment. To review the clinical presentation, management and organisms responsible for AHOM, and to explore risk factors for complicated AHOM, a large cohort referring to a single center over a 6-year period was evaluated. Methods: Data from children with AHOM, hospitalized between 2010 and 2015, and aged > 1 month, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: 121 children (median age 4...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457548/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-staphylococcus-spp-isolated-from-cheese-processing-plants
#18
Marjory Xavier Rodrigues, Nathália Cristina Cirone Silva, Júlia Hellmeister Trevilin, Melina Mary Bravo Cruzado, Tsai Siu Mui, Fábio Rodrigo Sanches Duarte, Carmen J Contreras Castillo, Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca, Ernani Porto
The aim of this research paper was to characterize coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci from raw milk, Minas cheese, and production lines of Minas cheese processing. One hundred isolates from 3 different cheese producers were characterized using molecular approaches, such as PCR, molecular typing, and DNA sequencing. Staphylococcus aureus (88% of the isolates) was the most abundant followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus warneri. Among the 22 enterotoxin genes tested, the most frequent was seh (62% of the isolates), followed by selx and ser...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455832/structure-and-function-of-the-two-component-cytotoxins-of-staphylococcus-aureus-learnings-for-designing-novel-therapeutics
#19
Adriana Badarau, Nikolina Trstenjak, Eszter Nagy
Staphylococcus aureus can produce up to five different bi-component cytotoxins: two gamma-hemolysins HlgAB and HlgCB, and leukocidins SF-PV (Panton Valentine leukocidin), ED (LukED) and GH (LukGH, also called LukAB). Their major function in S. aureus pathogenesis is to evade innate immunity by attacking phagocytic cells and to support bacterial growth by lysing red blood cells. The five cytotoxins display different levels of amino acid sequence conservation (30-82%), but all form a remarkably similar beta-barrel type pore structure (greatly resembling the mono-component toxin alpha-hemolysin) that inserts into the target cell membrane leading to necrotic cell death...
April 29, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442219/virulence-potential-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-buruli-ulcer-patients
#20
Nana Ama Amissah, Monika A Chlebowicz, Anthony Ablordey, Caitlin S Tetteh, Isaac Prah, Tjip S van der Werf, Alex W Friedrich, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Ymkje Stienstra, John W Rossen
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU wounds may also be colonized with other microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from BU patients. Previously sequenced genomes of 21 S. aureus isolates from BU patients were screened for the presence of virulence genes. The results show that all S. aureus isolates harbored on their core genomes genes for known virulence factors like α-hemolysin, and the α- and β-phenol soluble modulins...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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