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adipocytokine AND adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029093/electronegative-low-density-lipoprotein-l5-induces-adipose-tissue-inflammation-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Liang-Yin Ke, Hua-Chen Chan, Hsiu-Chuan Chan, Franklin Chikodi Udo Kalu, Hsiang-Chun Lee, I-Ling Lin, Shih-Jie Jhuo, Wen-Ter Lai, Chen-Rong Tsao, Tatsuya Sawamura, Richard A Dixon, Chu-Huang Chen, Chih-Sheng Chu, Shyi-Jang Shin
Context: Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) L5 is a naturally occurring, atherogenic entity found at elevated levels in the plasma of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the absence of elevated plasma LDL levels. Objective: To investigate the role of L5 in the mechanism of adipose tissue inflammation associated with MetS. Patients/Setting: Plasma LDL isolated from MetS patients (n=29) and controls (n=29) with similar plasma LDL levels was separated into 5 subfractions, L1-L5, with increasing electronegativity...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888981/hypoxia-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-suppresses-adiponectin-expression-via-the-perk-and-ire1-unfolded-protein-response
#2
Qian Guo, Sanli Jin, Hailong Hu, Ying Zhou, Yuheng Yan, He Zong, Yu Wang, Hongjuan He, Yuri Oh, Chuanpeng Liu, Ning Gu
Adiponectin, an adipocytokine produced by adipocytes, functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic substance, while also enhancing insulin sensitivity. Patients or model animals with obesity or diabetes typically present attenuated expression of adiponectin. Moreover, obesity and diabetes are often accompanied with hypoxia in adipose tissue, which may result in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as well as low expression of adiponectin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) involved in the low expression of adiponectin induced by hypoxia...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851613/characterization-of-the-visfatin-gene-and-its-expression-pattern-and-effect-on-3t3-l1-adipocyte-differentiation-in-chickens
#3
Zhuanjian Li, Yongcai Wang, Xiaoxiao Tian, Pengfei Shang, Hong Chen, Xiangtao Kang, Yadong Tian, Ruili Han
Visfatin is a newly identified adipocytokine that plays an important role in the determination of fat traits. In this study, we investigated the characterization of visfatin and the relationship between gene expression and chicken development to provide a theoretical basis for studying visfatin functions. The main results are summarized as follows: The 1482-bp full coding sequence of the visfatin gene of silky fowl was obtained and found to encode 493 amino acids. This gene contains 26 phosphorylation sites and a conserved domain of the NAPRTase family but no signal peptide sequence...
October 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815517/autophagy-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#4
Zhipeng Tao, Longhua Liu, Louise D Zheng, Zhiyong Cheng
Adipose tissue regulates metabolic homeostasis by acting as an endocrine organ and energy reservoir. Adipose tissue development and functional maintenance are dependent on adipocyte differentiation, in which autophagy plays an important role. It has been shown that autophagy deficiency dampens adipocyte differentiation, compromises adipose tissue development, dysregulates adipocytokine secretion, and even causes sudden death in young animals. Therefore, accurate assessment of autophagy in adipocyte is critical for the study of adipose biology or pathology of metabolic diseases...
August 17, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724410/identification-and-characterization-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-from-castrated-and-intact-full-sib-pair-huainan-male-pigs
#5
Jing Wang, Liushuai Hua, Junfeng Chen, Jiaqing Zhang, Xianxiao Bai, Binwen Gao, Congjun Li, Zhihai Shi, Weidong Sheng, Yuan Gao, Baosong Xing
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate adipose tissue metabolism, however, their function on testosterone deficiency related obesity in humans is less understood. For this research, intact and castrated male pigs are the best model animal because of their similar proportional organ sizes, cardiovascular systems and metabolic features. RESULTS: We identified lncRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by deep RNA-sequencing using the intact and castrated Huainan male pigs...
July 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700686/renin-inhibition-improves-metabolic-syndrome-and-reduces-angiotensin-ii-levels-and-oxidative-stress-in-visceral-fat-tissues-in-fructose-fed-rats
#6
Chu-Lin Chou, Heng Lin, Jin-Shuen Chen, Te-Chao Fang
Renin-angiotensin system in visceral fat plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats. However, the effects of renin inhibition on visceral adiposity in metabolic syndrome are not fully investigated. We investigated the effects of renin inhibition on visceral adiposity in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups for 8-week experiments: Group Con (standard chow diet), Group Fru (high-fructose diet; 60% fructose), Group FruA (high-fructose diet and concurrent aliskiren treatment; 100 mg/kg body weight [BW] per day), and Group FruB (high-fructose diet and subsequent, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696138/adipoq-adiponectin-induces-cytotoxic-autophagy-in-breast-cancer-cells-through-stk11-lkb1-mediated-activation-of-the-ampk-ulk1-axis
#7
Seung J Chung, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju, Arumugam Nagalingam, Nethaji Muniraj, Panjamurthy Kuppusamy, Alyssa Walker, Juhyung Woo, Balázs Győrffy, Ed Gabrielson, Neeraj K Saxena, Dipali Sharma
ADIPOQ/adiponectin, an adipocytokine secreted by adipocytes in the breast tumor microenvironment, negatively regulates cancer cell growth hence increased levels of ADIPOQ/adiponectin are associated with decreased breast cancer growth. However, its mechanisms of action remain largely elusive. We report that ADIPOQ/adiponectin induces a robust accumulation of autophagosomes, increases MAP1LC3B-II/LC3B-II and decreases SQSTM1/p62 in breast cancer cells. ADIPOQ/adiponectin-treated cells and xenografts exhibit increased expression of autophagy-related proteins...
August 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#8
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635626/adiponectin-a-therapeutic-target-for-obesity-diabetes-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Arunkumar E Achari, Sushil K Jain
Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, whose reduction plays a central role in obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to adipocytes, other cell types, such as skeletal and cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells, can also produce this adipocytokine. Adiponectin effects are mediated by adiponectin receptors, which occur as two isoforms (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Adiponectin has direct actions in liver, skeletal muscle, and the vasculature...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585205/adipose-tissue-hypoxia-in-obesity-and-its-impact-on-preadipocytes-and-macrophages-hypoxia-hypothesis
#10
REVIEW
Atilla Engin
Obese subjects exhibit lower adipose tissue oxygen consumption in accordance with the lower adipose tissue blood flow. Thus, compared with lean subjects, obese subjects have 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF expression together with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) activity also requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and target of rapamycin (TOR)-mediated signaling. HIF-1alpha is an important signaling molecule for hypoxia to induce the inflammatory responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508719/kahweol-inhibits-adipogenesis-of-3t3-l1-adipocytes-through-downregulation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#11
Jin Soo Kim, Seul Gi Lee, Young Jin Kang, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Ju-Ock Nam
Kahweol, a compound from Coffea arabica, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumour properties. However, an anti-adipogenic effect has not yet been reported. In this study, we have shown that kahweol has an anti-adipogenic effect on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kahweol significantly inhibited the differentiation of intracellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, without being cytotoxic. It also downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related gene, including an adipocytokine, adiponectin. This anti-adipogenic effect stems from an ability to inhibit key adipogenic regulators, including PPARγ and C/EBPα...
May 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447033/prokineticin-is-a-new-linker-between-obesity-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Canan G Nebigil
Obesity is a fast growing epidemic event worldwide. Fatness is associated with a number of comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although obesity can be heredity in 30-70% cases, the environmental contributions also play an important role in the increasing prevalence of obesity. The relationship between development of obesity and CVD is poorly characterized. Obesity and CVD can also be resulted from a common mechanism such as metabolic, inflammatory, and neurohormonal changes. Prokineticins are defined as cytokines (immunoregulatory proteins), adipokines (adipocyte-secreted hormone), angiogenic (increasing vessel formation), or aneroxic (lowering food intake) hormones...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414093/imbalance-in-leptin-adiponectin-levels-and-leptin-receptor-expression-as-chief-contributors-to-triple-negative-breast-cancer-progression-in-northeast-india
#13
Rizwana Sultana, Amal Ch Kataki, Bibhuti Bhusan Borthakur, Tarun K Basumatary, Sujoy Bose
BACKGROUND: Triple-Negative breast cancer (TNBC), accounts for a large percentage of breast cancer cases in India including Northeast India. TNBC has an unclear molecular aetiology and hence limited targeted therapies. Human breast is comprised of glandular, ductal, connective, and adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes. The adipocytes apart from being energy storage depots, are also active sources of adipocytokines and/or adipokines. The role of adipokines in breast cancer including TNBC has been sporadically documented...
July 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405802/vasculo-protective-effect-of-bms-309403-is-independent-of-its-specific-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4
#14
Yuta Okamura, Kosuke Otani, Akihiro Sekiguchi, Taisuke Kogane, Chiharu Kakuda, Yuzaburo Sakamoto, Tomoko Kodama, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 is an adipocytokine mainly expressed in adipocyte and macrophage. Blood FABP4 is related not only to metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis but also increased blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that FABP4 plays roles in pathogenesis of hypertension development including proliferation, migration, and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as well as contractile reactivity. FABP4 alone had no influence on proliferation, migration, and inflammation of rat mesenteric arterial SMCs, while it significantly enhanced smooth muscle contraction and increases of systolic blood pressure (SBP) induced by noradrenaline (NA)...
April 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263744/gpr120-in-adipocytes-has-differential-roles-in-the-production-of-pro-inflammatory-adipocytokines
#15
Arif Ul Hasan, Koji Ohmori, Takeshi Hashimoto, Kazuyo Kamitori, Fuminori Yamaguchi, Takahisa Noma, Junsuke Igarashi, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Masaaki Tokuda, Akira Nishiyama, Masakazu Kohno
How nutritional excess leads to inflammatory responses in metabolic syndrome is not well characterized. Here, we evaluated the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid specific G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) activation on inflammatory pathways in adipocytes, and the influence of this process on macrophage migration. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we found that agonizing GPR120 using its synthetic ligand, GSK137647, attenuated both basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258671/the-role-of-chemerin-in-human-disease
#16
REVIEW
Magdalena Stojek
Adipose tissue is not merely a storage depot of triacylglycerols but also a major endocrine organ. Its cells, including adipocytes, synthesize and secrete a range of biologically active molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines that display the properties of cytokines are often called adipocytokines. In recent years there has been increasing interest in a new adipokine called chemerin. Chemerin is a protein synthesized mostly by the adipose tissue and the liver as inactive pre‑pro‑chemerin. After the intracellular hydrolytic cutting off of the 20‑amino‑acid N‑terminal polypeptide, it is secreted into the bloodstream as inactive pro‑chemerin...
February 15, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239164/adipocyte-c1qtnf5-expression-is-bmi-dependently-related-to-early-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-and-systemic-ctrp5-serum-levels-in-obese-children
#17
J T Schwartze, K Landgraf, U Spielau, D Rockstroh, D Löffler, J Kratzsch, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The recently identified adipocytokine C1QTNF5 (encodes for CTRP5) has been demonstrated to inhibit pro-metabolic insulin signaling in adipocytes. We hypothesized that adipocyte C1QTNF5 expression in subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (AT) would correlate with the degree of obesity, systemic CTRP5 serum levels, and early AT and metabolic dysfunction in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sc AT samples were obtained from 33 healthy Caucasian lean children aged 10...
June 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186107/blubber-transcriptome-response-to-acute-stress-axis-activation-involves-transient-changes-in-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-a-fasting-adapted-marine-mammal
#18
J I Khudyakov, C D Champagne, L M Meneghetti, D E Crocker
Stress can compromise an animal's ability to conserve metabolic stores and participate in energy-demanding activities that are critical for fitness. Understanding how wild animals, especially those already experiencing physiological extremes (e.g. fasting), regulate stress responses is critical for evaluating the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on physiology and fitness, key challenges for conservation. However, studies of stress in wildlife are often limited to baseline endocrine measurements and few have investigated stress effects in fasting-adapted species...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115795/the-role-of-tissue-macrophage-mediated-inflammation-on-nafld-pathogenesis-and-its-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Anna Alisi, Guido Carpino, Felipe L Oliveira, Nadia Panera, Valerio Nobili, Eugenio Gaudio
The obese phenotype is characterized by a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation that contributes to the development of comorbidities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In fact, NAFLD is often associated with adipocyte enlargement and consequent macrophage recruitment and inflammation. Macrophage polarization is often associated with the proinflammatory state in adipose tissue. In particular, an increase of M1 macrophages number or of M1/M2 ratio triggers the production and secretion of various proinflammatory signals (i...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027219/cancer-risk-after-fat-transfer-a-multicenter-case-cohort-study
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Terence M Myckatyn, I Janelle Wagner, Babak J Mehrara, Melissa A Crosby, Julie E Park, Bahjat F Qaqish, Dominic T Moore, Evan L Busch, Amanda K Silva, Surinder Kaur, David W Ollila, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: Fat transfer is an increasingly popular method for refining postmastectomy breast reconstructions. However, concern persists that fat transfer may promote disease recurrence. Adipocytes are derived from adipose-derived stem cells and express adipocytokines that can facilitate active breast cancer cells in laboratory models. The authors sought to evaluate the association between fat transfer to the reconstructed breast and cancer recurrence in patients diagnosed with local or regional invasive breast cancers...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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