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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327554/ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-a-novel-regulator-for-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-phenotypic-modulation-and-vascular-remodeling-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#1
Hongrong Zhang, Li Jiang, Zongduo Guo, Jianjun Zhong, Jingchuan Wu, Junchi He, Han Liu, Zhaohui He, Haitao Wu, Chongjie Cheng, Xiaochuan Sun
Cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic switch is involved in the pathophysiology of vascular injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), whereas the molecular mechanism underlying it remains largely speculative. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) has been implicated to modulate the vascular cells proliferation and vascular homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of PPARβ/δ in VSMC phenotypic switch following SAH. Activation of PPARβ/δ by GW0742 and adenoviruses PPARβ/δ (Ad-PPARβ/δ) significantly inhibited hemoglobin-induced VSMC phenotypic switch...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327179/pterostilbene-prevents-akt-erk-axis-mediated-polymerization-of-surface-fibronectin-on-suspended-lung-cancer-cells-independently-of-apoptosis-and-suppresses-metastasis
#2
Ying-Jan Wang, Jing-Fang Lin, Li-Hsin Cheng, Wen-Tsan Chang, Ying-Hsien Kao, Ming-Min Chang, Bour-Jr Wang, Hung-Chi Cheng
BACKGROUND: Polymeric fibronectin (polyFN) assembled on suspended breast cancer cells is required for metastasis. Conceivably, drugs that target such polyFN may fight against cancer metastasis. While stilbene analogs trigger pro-apoptotic effect on attached cancer cells, whether they prevent polyFN assembly and metastasis of suspended cancer cells via an apoptosis-independent manner remains unexplored. METHODS: We depleted suspended Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells of polyFN by silencing the endogenous FN expression or pterostilbene (PS) to examine whether metastasis of lung cancer cells could thus be suppressed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324760/trpv1-agonism-inhibits-endothelial-cell-inflammation-via-activation-of-enos-no-pathway
#3
Youping Wang, Lin Cui, Hui Xu, Suxiao Liu, Feiyun Zhu, Fengna Yan, Si Shen, Mingjun Zhu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) is found to be expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) and activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Recent studies implicate TRPV1 in attenuating inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether TRPV1 suppresses inflammatory responses of ECs via eNOS/NO pathway. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and renal microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) isolated from deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice were cultured in the presence of capsaicin (CAP, a specific TRPV1 agonist) with or without the specific inhibitor of TRPV1, NOS, or Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation...
March 10, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324247/fulvestrant-plus-targeted-agents-versus-fulvestrant-alone-for-treatment-of-hormone-receptor-positive-advanced-breast-cancer-progressed-on-previous-endocrine-therapy-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Wen-Zhao Lin, Qi-Ni Xu, Hong-Biao Wang, Xu-Yuan Li
To compare the addition of targeted agents to fulvestrant with fulvestrant alone in hormone-receptor positive advanced breast cancer progressed on previous endocrine therapy; a meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials was performed. The PubMed, Embase databases and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for relevant publications reporting randomized controlled trials between January 2000 and June 2016. Progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and toxicity were assessed...
March 21, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323848/7%C3%AE-hydroxycholesterol-induces-monocyte-macrophage-cell-expression-of-interleukin-8-via-c5a-receptor
#5
Hyok-Rae Cho, Yonghae Son, Sun-Mi Kim, Bo-Young Kim, Seong-Kug Eo, Young Chul Park, Koanhoi Kim
We investigated effects of 7-oxygenated cholesterol derivatives present in atherosclerotic lesions, 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7αOHChol), 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7βOHChol), and 7-ketocholesterol (7K), on IL-8 expression. Transcript levels of IL-8 and secretion of its corresponding gene product by monocytes/macrophages were enhanced by treatment with 7αOHChol and, to a lesser extent, 7K, but not by 7βOHChol. The 7-oxygenated cholesterol derivatives, however, did not change transcription of the IL-8 gene in vascular smooth muscle cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323034/co-targeting-of-egfr-and-autophagy-signaling-is-an-emerging-treatment-strategy-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#6
Evangelos Koustas, Michalis V Karamouzis, Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Dimitrios Schizas, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its associated pathway is a critical key regulator of CRC development and progression. The monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab, directed against EGFR, represent a major step forward in the treatment of metastatic Colorectal cancer (mCRC), in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival in several clinical trials. However, the activity of anti-EGFR moAbs appears to be limited to a subset of patients with mCRC. Studies have highlighted that acquired-resistance to anti-EGFR MoAbs biochemically converge into Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways...
March 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322787/aurka-promotes-cancer-metastasis-by-regulating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stem-cell-properties-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Chenlin Chen, Guangyuan Song, Jue Xiang, Hongcheng Zhang, Shaoyun Zhao, Yinchu Zhan
AURKA (aurora kinase A) has been confirmed as an oncogene in cancer development; however, its role and underlying mechanisms in the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. In this study, We found that AURKA was up-regulated in HCC tissues and correlated with pathological stage and distant metastasis. Further found that AURKA was involved in the cancer metastases after radiation in HCC. While overexpression of AURKA induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) behaviors though PI3K/AKT pathway, silencing AURKA suppressed radiation-enhanced cell invasiveness of HCC...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322778/down-regulation-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-and-mapk-through-estrogen-receptor-mediated-cell-cycle-arrest-in-human-breast-cancer-induced-by-gold-nanoparticle-tagged-toxin-protein-nkct1
#8
Tanmoy Bhowmik, Antony Gomes
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether gold nanoparticles conjugated cytotoxic protein NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) acted through the estrogen receptor mediated pathway in MCF-7 cells and to establish the MAPK and PI3k/Akt signal transduction pathway. METHODS: Apoptosis was done by flow cytometry. BrdU incorporation and nuclear proliferating antigen was measured by flow cytometry. Wound healing assay along with matrigel chamber invasion and migration was done...
March 17, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322459/effects-of-microrna-19b-on-the-proliferation-apoptosis-and-migration-of-wilms-tumor-cells-via-the-pten-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#9
Ge-Liang Liu, Han-Jie Yang, Bo Liu, Tian Liu
Wilms' tumor (WT) is a most common renal cancer that occurs among children, and microRNA-19b (miR-19b) usually participates in various human cancers. Importantly, the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in cell apoptosis, growth and proliferation. Thus, our present study aims to investigate the effect of miR-19b on the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway during WT cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. WT tissues and adjacent normal tissues from WT patients were collected. qRT-PCR was applied to detect miR-19b expression in both the WT tissues and the adjacent normal tissues, immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the protein expressions of PTEN, P13K and p-Akt, SK-NEP-1 cells were divided into the blank, negative control (NC), miR-19b mimics and miR-19b inhibitors groups...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321769/n-propargyl-caffeamide-paca-ameliorates-dopaminergic-neuronal-loss-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-in-mpp-induced-neurons-via-promoting-the-conversion-of-prongf-to-ngf
#10
Dan Luo, Jia Zhao, Yuanyuan Cheng, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Jianhui Rong
Insufficient production of nerve growth factor (NGF) is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently discovered that caffeic acid derivative N-propargyl caffeamide (PACA) not only potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but also attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity in neuronal culture. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PACA could increase NGF levels against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in a mouse PD model. We induced parkinsonism in mice by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP for seven consecutive days...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321180/multiple-kinases-involved-in-the-nicotinic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca3-area
#11
JianGang Wang, XiaoLong He, Fangli Guo, XiangLin Cheng, Yali Wang, XiaoFang Wang, ZhiWei Feng, Martin Vreugdenhil, ChengBiao Lu
Neuronal synchronization at gamma band frequency (20-80 Hz, γ oscillations) is closely associated with higher brain function, such as learning, memory and attention. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and modulate hippocampal γ oscillations, but the intracellular mechanism underlying such modulation remains elusive. We explored multiple kinases by which nicotine can modulate γ oscillations induced by kainate in rat hippocampal area CA3 in vitro. We found that inhibitors of cyclic AMP dependent kinase (protein kinase A, PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptors, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), each individually could prevent the γ oscillation-enhancing effect of 1 μM nicotine, whereas none of them affected baseline γ oscillation strength...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320516/l-f001-a-novel-multifunctional-rock-inhibitor-suppresses-neuroinflammation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-involvement-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition-and-nrf2-pathway-activation
#12
Jingkao Chen, Wei Yin, Yalin Tu, Shengnan Wang, Xiaohong Yang, Qiuhe Chen, Xiao Zhang, Yifan Han, Rongbiao Pi
Microglia and astrocytes are largely responsible for inflammatory injury in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence has indicated that Rho kinase (ROCK) plays an important role in the regulation of neuroinflammation. Previously, we synthesized a new chemical entity L-F001 and proved its potential inhibitory effects on ROCK and oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms of L-F001 in vitro and in vivo. L-F001 remarkably suppressed lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-elevated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necreactive oxygen speciesis factor-α (TNF-α) in microglial BV-2 cells and in cultured astrocytes...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320338/the-allosteric-akt-inhibitor-mk2206-shows-a-synergistic-interaction-with-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-in-glioblastoma-spheroid-cultures
#13
Ravi S Narayan, Carlos A Fedrigo, Eelke Brands, Rogier Dik, Lukas J A Stalpers, Brigitta G Baumert, Ben J Slotman, Bart A Westerman, Godefridus J Peters, Peter Sminia
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, invasive and deadly primary type of malignant brain tumor. The Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) pathway is highly active in GBM and has been associated with increased survival and resistance to therapy. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of AKT inhibition in combination with the current standard of care which consists of irradiation and temozolomide (TMZ) on human malignant glioma cells growing adherent and as multicellular spheroids in vitro...
March 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320092/inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-promotes-autophagy-of-articular-chondrocytes-and-attenuates-inflammatory-response-in-rats-with-osteoarthritis
#14
Jian-Feng Xue, Zhong-Min Shi, Jian Zou, Xiao-Lin Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the relationship between PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and autophagy of articular chondrocytes in rats with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Rat articular chondrocytes were isolated and cultured, and then induced by protein inhibitors of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Chondrocytes were assigned into blank group, IL-1β induction group (IL-1β group), PI3K inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (PI3Ki+IL-1β group), AKT inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (AKTi+IL-1β group) and mTOR inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (mTORi+IL-1β group)...
March 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315323/increased-serotonin-signaling-contributes-to-the-warburg-effect-in-pancreatic-tumor-cells-under-metabolic-stress-and-promotes-growth-of-pancreatic-tumors-in-mice
#15
Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Li, Fang-Yuan Dong, Jian-Yu Yang, De-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Hui Wang, Min-Wei Yang, Xue-Liang Fu, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Xiu-Feng Pang, Yan-Miao Huo, Jiao Li, Jun-Feng Zhang, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Wen-Xin Qin, Jian-Ren Gu, Yong-Wei Sun, Zhi-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors. METHODS: We measured the levels of proteins that regulate 5-HT synthesis, packaging, and degradation in pancreata from Kras(G12D/+); Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx1-Cre; (KPC) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, as well as in PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 human PDAC samples...
March 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315173/ricolinostat-a-selective-hdac6-inhibitor-shows-anti-lymphoma-cell-activity-alone-and-in-combination-with-bendamustine
#16
Maria Cosenza, Monica Civallero, Luigi Marcheselli, Stefano Sacchi, Samantha Pozzi
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have emerged as a new class of anticancer agents, targeting the biological process including cell cycle and apoptosis. We investigated and explained the anticancer effects of an HDAC6 inhibitor, ricolinostat alone and in combination with bendamustine in lymphoma cell lines. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, Bcl-2 protein expression, cell cycle progression and tubuline expression were determined by flow cytometry...
March 17, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314838/a-phase-i-study-of-abiraterone-acetate-combined-with-bez235-a-dual-pi3k-mtor-inhibitor-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#17
Xiao X Wei, Andrew C Hsieh, Won Kim, Terence Friedlander, Amy M Lin, Mirela Louttit, Charles J Ryan
LESSONS LEARNED: The combination of standard dose abiraterone acetate and BEZ235, a pan-class I PI3K and mTORC1/2 inhibitor, was poorly tolerated in men with progressive mCRPC.Although the clinical development of BEZ235 has been discontinued in prostate cancer, agents that more selectively target PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling may have a more favorable therapeutic index and should continue to be explored. BACKGROUND: Androgen receptor (AR) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling are two commonly perturbed pathways in prostate cancer...
March 17, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306514/park2-depletion-connects-energy-and-oxidative-stress-to-pi3k-akt-activation-via-pten-s-nitrosylation
#18
Amit Gupta, Sara Anjomani-Virmouni, Nikos Koundouros, Maria Dimitriadi, Rayman Choo-Wing, Adamo Valle, Yuxiang Zheng, Yu-Hsin Chiu, Sameer Agnihotri, Gelareh Zadeh, John M Asara, Dimitrios Anastasiou, Mark J Arends, Lewis C Cantley, George Poulogiannis
PARK2 is a gene implicated in disease states with opposing responses in cell fate determination, yet its contribution in pro-survival signaling is largely unknown. Here we show that PARK2 is altered in over a third of all human cancers, and its depletion results in enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) activation and increased vulnerability to PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors. PARK2 depletion contributes to AMPK-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species, and a concomitant increase in oxidized nitric oxide levels, thereby promoting the inhibition of PTEN by S-nitrosylation and ubiquitination...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303030/formyl-peptide-receptors-promotes-neural-differentiation-in-mouse-neural-stem-cells-by-ros-generation-and-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling
#19
Liang Zhang, Guan Wang, Xingxing Chen, Xin Xue, Qiaonan Guo, Mingyong Liu, Jianhua Zhao
This study aimed to determine whether formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) regulated the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). FPRs promote the migration of NSCs both in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of FPRs during differentiation of NSCs is unknown. Analysis by Western blot showed significantly increased expression of FPR1 and FPR2 during differentiation of NSCs. The activation of FPRs promotes NSCs to differentiate into neurons with more primary neurites and branch points and longer neurites per cell...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301631/androgen-receptor-function-and-androgen-receptor-targeted-therapies-in-breast-cancer-a-review
#20
Miho Kono, Takeo Fujii, Bora Lim, Meghan Sri Karuturi, Debasish Tripathy, Naoto T Ueno
Importance: The androgen receptor (AR) pathway is emerging as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. To date, AR-targeted drugs have been approved only for treatment of prostate cancer; however, AR-targeted treatment for breast cancer is an area of active investigation. Through review of preclinical studies, retrospective clinical studies, and clinical trials, we examined the biology of AR and AR-related pathways, the potential for AR-targeted therapies in breast cancer, and potential biomarkers for AR-targeted treatments...
March 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
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