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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166261/pressure-injury-risk-factors-in-adult-critical-care-patients-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Jill Cox
Critically ill patients require complex care in a technologically sophisticated environment where they are highly vulnerable to pressure-related injuries. However, pressure injury (PI) development remains a multifactorial phenomenon in critically ill persons; true risk is both pervasive and elusive. The purpose of this comprehensive review of the empirical literature was to examine the risk factors associated with PIs among adult patients admitted to contemporary intensive care units (ICUs). Inclusion criteria stipulated publications were to be peer-reviewed, quantitative studies with a focus on pressure ulcer (PU) risk factors in adult critical care patients published between 2010 and 2016 in which statistical analysis involved multivariate analysis using PU development as the outcome variable...
November 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166113/statistical-mechanics-of-transport-processes-in-active-fluids-equations-of-hydrodynamics
#2
Katherine Klymko, Dibyendu Mandal, Kranthi K Mandadapu
The equations of hydrodynamics including mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, and energy are derived by coarse-graining the microscopic equations of motion for systems consisting of rotary dumbbells driven by internal torques. In deriving the balance of linear momentum, we find that the symmetry of the stress tensor is broken due to the presence of non-zero torques on individual particles. The broken symmetry of the stress tensor induces internal spin in the fluid and leads us to consider the balance of internal angular momentum in addition to the usual moment of momentum...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166080/continuum-balances-from-extended-hamiltonian-dynamics
#3
Giulio G Giusteri, Paolo Podio-Guidugli, Eliot Fried
The classical procedure devised by Irving and Kirkwood in 1950 and completed slightly later by Noll produces counterparts of the basic balance laws of standard continuum mechanics starting from an ordinary Hamiltonian description of the dynamics of a system of material points. Post-1980 molecular dynamics simulations of the time evolution of such systems use extended Hamiltonians such as those introduced by Andersen, Nosé, and Parrinello and Rahman. The additional terms present in these extensions affect the statistical properties of the system so as to capture certain target phenomenologies that would otherwise be beyond reach...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166053/towards-the-irving-kirkwood-limit-of-the-mechanical-stress-tensor
#4
E R Smith, D M Heyes, D Dini
The probability density functions (PDFs) of the local measure of pressure as a function of the sampling volume are computed for a model Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid using the Method of Planes (MOP) and Volume Averaging (VA) techniques. This builds on the study of Heyes, Dini, and Smith [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 104504 (2016)] which only considered the VA method for larger subvolumes. The focus here is typically on much smaller subvolumes than considered previously, which tend to the Irving-Kirkwood limit where the pressure tensor is defined at a point...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165752/the-clinical-effects-of-combined-use-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-at-early-stage-to-cure-severe-respiratory-failure-in-neonates
#5
W Wang, Z-G Li, G Liu, L Xue
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effects of combined use of inhaled nitric oxide at the early stage to cure severe respiratory failure in neonates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 45 cases of neonates with severe respiratory failure, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of XuZhou Children's Hospital from November 2014 to February 2016, were selected as objects of study, namely the iNO treatment group. On the basis of conventional treatment and mechanical ventilation, all of them were treated with the combined use of iNO at the early stage...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165716/targeting-bcr-abl-independent-tki-resistance-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-by-mtor-and-autophagy-inhibition
#6
Rebecca Mitchell, Lisa E M Hopcroft, Pablo Baquero, Elaine K Allan, Kay Hewit, Daniel James, Graham Hamilton, Arunima Mukhopadhyay, Jim O'Prey, Alan Hair, Junia V Melo, Edmond Chan, Kevin M Ryan, Véronique Maguer-Satta, Brian J Druker, Richard E Clark, Subir Mitra, Pawel Herzyk, Franck E Nicolini, Paolo Salomoni, G Vignir Helgason
Background: Imatinib and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) nilotinib and dasatinib have statistically significantly improved the life expectancy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients; however, resistance to TKIs remains a major clinical challenge. Although ponatinib, a third-generation TKI, improves outcomes for patients with BCR-ABL-dependent mechanisms of resistance, including the T315I mutation, a proportion of patients may have or develop BCR-ABL-independent resistance and fail ponatinib treatment...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165713/protein-complex-scaffolding-predicted-as-a-prevalent-function-of-long-non-coding-rnas
#7
Diogo M Ribeiro, Andreas Zanzoni, Andrea Cipriano, Riccardo Delli Ponti, Lionel Spinelli, Monica Ballarino, Irene Bozzoni, Gian Gaetano Tartaglia, Christine Brun
The human transcriptome contains thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Characterizing their function is a current challenge. An emerging concept is that lncRNAs serve as protein scaffolds, forming ribonucleoproteins and bringing proteins in proximity. However, only few scaffolding lncRNAs have been characterized and the prevalence of this function is unknown. Here, we propose the first computational approach aimed at predicting scaffolding lncRNAs at large scale. We predicted the largest human lncRNA-protein interaction network to date using the catRAPID omics algorithm...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165687/investigation-of-the-relationship-between-radiation-dose-and-gene-mutations-and-fusions-in-post-chernobyl-thyroid-cancer
#8
Alexey A Efanov, Alina V Brenner, Tetiana I Bogdanova, Lindsey M Kelly, Pengyuan Liu, Mark P Little, Abigail I Wald, Maureen Hatch, Liudmyla Y Zurnadzy, Marina N Nikiforova, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Mykola D Tronko, Stephen J Chanock, Yuri E Nikiforov
Background: Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-established risk factor for thyroid cancer. However, the genetic mechanisms of radiation-associated carcinogenesis remain not fully understood. Methods: In this study, we used targeted next-generation sequencing and RNA-Seq to study 65 papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) from patients in the Ukrainian-American cohort with measurement-based iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid doses received as a result of the Chernobyl accident...
November 18, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165288/treatment-related-noncontiguous-radiologic-changes-in-children-with-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-treated-with-expanded-irradiation-fields-and-antiangiogenic-therapy
#9
Zoltan Patay, Thomas E Merchant, Rosa Nguyen, Christopher R Pierson, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Alberto Broniscer
PURPOSE: We previously reported the cases of 3 children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) in whom noncontiguous treatment-related abnormalities (NCTRAs) developed in the brain after expanded-field radiation therapy (RT). To investigate the occurrence and putative mechanism of NCTRAs, we reviewed brain magnetic resonance imaging studies of patients with DIPG treated in 2 consecutive phase I clinical trials (trials 1 and 2). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The 55 children included in these trials received small-molecule inhibitors: vandetanib in trial 1 (n=32; mean age 6...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164685/vastus-intermedius-versus-vastus-lateralis-fascicle-behaviors-during-maximal-concentric-and-eccentric-contractions
#10
Ryosuke Ando, Kazunori Nosaka, Aya Tomita, Kohei Watanabe, Anthony J Blazevich, Hiroshi Akima
Vastus intermedius (VI) plays a major role in knee extension, but its fascicle behaviors during dynamic contractions are not well understood. The present study aimed to compare VI and vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle behaviors during singular maximal concentric and eccentric contractions. Thirteen men (27.1 ± 3.4 y) performed maximal isokinetic concentric contractions through knee joint angles of 105° to 35° (0° = full extension) and eccentric contractions from 35° to 105° at an angular velocity of 30°/s...
November 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164641/five-criteria-for-using-a-surrogate-endpoint-to-predict-treatment-effect-based-on-data-from-multiple-previous-trials
#11
Stuart G Baker
A surrogate endpoint in a randomized clinical trial is an endpoint that occurs after randomization and before the true, clinically meaningful, endpoint that yields conclusions about the effect of treatment on true endpoint. A surrogate endpoint can accelerate the evaluation of new treatments but at the risk of misleading conclusions. Therefore, criteria are needed for deciding whether to use a surrogate endpoint in a new trial. For the meta-analytic setting of multiple previous trials, each with the same pair of surrogate and true endpoints, this article formulates 5 criteria for using a surrogate endpoint in a new trial to predict the effect of treatment on the true endpoint in the new trial...
November 21, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164574/mechanism-of-as2o3-induces-apoptosis-of-glioma-u87-cells
#12
G-B Wang, J-H Liu, J Hu, K Xue
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced apoptosis of glioma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: U87 cells were treated by different concentrations of As2O3 (8 μmol/L, 6 μmol/L, 4 μmol/L, 2 μmol/L, 1 μmol/L and 0.5 μmol/L) for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the appropriate dosage and time were screened. Transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to stain cells, followed by an investigation on the apoptosis of cells...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163429/relationship-between-gingival-crevicular-fluid-microbiota-and-cytokine-profile-in-periodontal-host-homeostasis
#13
Jianye Zhou, Yiqing Yao, Kangli Jiao, Jumei Zhang, Xin Zheng, Fang Wu, Xiaopan Hu, Junping Li, Zhanhai Yu, Gaosen Zhang, Nan Jiang, Zhiqiang Li
As potential biomarkers in periodontitis, microbiome, and cytokines have recently been extensively investigated, but combined analyses of the variations between the microbial structure and cytokine composition are rare. The present study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the combined profile of microbiome and cytokines in individuals with or without periodontitis. The microbiome and cytokine composition in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from 16 patients and 15 controls from Jishi Shan (Gansu, China) were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing and RayBio Quantibody Arrays...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163117/deep-learning-predicts-correlation-between-a-functional-signature-of-higher-visual-areas-and-sparse-firing-of-neurons
#14
Chengxu Zhuang, Yulong Wang, Daniel Yamins, Xiaolin Hu
Visual information in the visual cortex is processed in a hierarchical manner. Recent studies show that higher visual areas, such as V2, V3, and V4, respond more vigorously to images with naturalistic higher-order statistics than to images lacking them. This property is a functional signature of higher areas, as it is much weaker or even absent in the primary visual cortex (V1). However, the mechanism underlying this signature remains elusive. We studied this problem using computational models. In several typical hierarchical visual models including the AlexNet, VggNet, and SHMAX, this signature was found to be prominent in higher layers but much weaker in lower layers...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162866/trophic-and-tectonic-limits-to-the-global-increase-of-marine-invertebrate-diversity
#15
Pedro Cermeño, Michael J Benton, Óscar Paz, Christian Vérard
The marine invertebrate fossil record provides the most comprehensive history of how the diversity of animal life has evolved through time. One of the main features of this record is a modest rise in diversity over nearly a half-billion years. The long-standing view is that ecological interactions such as resource competition and predation set upper limits to global diversity, which, in the absence of external perturbations, is maintained indefinitely at equilibrium. However, the effect of mechanisms associated with the history of the seafloor, and their influence on the creation and destruction of marine benthic habitats, has not been explored...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162517/elevated-plasma-8-iso-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-levels-in-human-smokers-originate-primarily-from-enzymatic-instead-of-non-enzymatic-lipid-peroxidation
#16
Thomas J van T Erve, Fred B Lih, Maria B Kadiiska, Leesa J Deterding, Ronald P Mason
It is widely accepted that free radicals in tobacco smoke lead to oxidative stress and generate the popular lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). However, 8-iso-PGF2α can simultaneously be produced in vivo by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) induced by inflammation. This inflammation-dependent mechanism has never been considered as a source of elevated 8-iso-PGF2α in tobacco smokers. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of chemical- and PGHS-dependent 8-iso-PGF2α formation in the plasma of tobacco smokers and non-smokers...
November 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162232/chemomics-based-marker-compounds-mining-and-mimetic-processing-for-exploring-chemical-mechanisms-in-traditional-processing-of-herbal-medicines-a-continuous-study-on-rehmanniae-radix
#17
Li Zhou, Jin-Di Xu, Shan-Shan Zhou, Hong Shen, Qian Mao, Ming Kong, Ye-Ting Zou, Ya-Yun Xu, Jun Xu, Song-Lin Li
Exploring processing chemistry, in particular the chemical transformation mechanisms involved, is a key step to elucidate the scientific basis in traditional processing of herbal medicines. Previously, taking Rehmanniae Radix (RR) as a case study, the holistic chemome (secondary metabolome and glycome) difference between raw and processed RR was revealed by integrating hyphenated chromatographic techniques-based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics. Nevertheless, the complex chemical transformation mechanisms underpinning the holistic chemome variation in RR processing remain to be extensively clarified...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161667/pre-hospital-frailty-and-hospital-outcomes-in-adults-with-acute-respiratory-failure-requiring-mechanical-ventilation
#18
Aluko A Hope, Oriade Adeoye, Elizabeth H Chuang, S J Hsieh, Hayley B Gershengorn, Michelle N Gong
PURPOSE: We aimed to estimate the independent effect of pre-hospital frailty (PHF) on hospital mortality and prolonged hospital length of stay (pLOS) while adjusting for other patient level factors. METHODS: This is a cohort study of hospitalized adults with acute respiratory failure (ARF) who required invasive mechanical ventilation for ≥24h in 2013. We used inpatient/outpatient claims from a list of diagnoses from the year before index hospital admission to define PHF...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161335/shoulder-complaints-in-wheelchair-athletes-a-systematic-review
#19
Omar W Heyward, Riemer J K Vegter, Sonja de Groot, Lucas H V van der Woude
BACKGROUND: In recent years the popularity of disabled sports and competition among disabled athletes has grown considerably. With this rise in exposure of, and participation in wheelchair sports comes an increase in related stressors, including musculoskeletal load. External mechanical loading may increase the risk of shoulder complaints. The objective of this literature review was to 1) identify and describe the prevalence and/or incidence of shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes in the literature, to 2) examine the factors and underlying mechanisms that could be potentially involved, and 3) provide some insights into the development of preventative measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161297/prognostic-performance-of-mr-pro-adrenomedullin-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department-compared-to-clinical-severity-scores-psi-and-curb
#20
Jacopo Maria Legramante, Maria Mastropasqua, Beniamino Susi, Ottavia Porzio, Marta Mazza, Grazia Miranda Agrippino, Cartesio D Agostini, Antonella Brandi, Germano Giovagnoli, Vito Nicola Di Lecce, Sergio Bernardini, Marilena Minieri
AIM: (i) evaluate the performance of MR-pro-ADM in reflecting the outcome and risk for CAP patients in the emergency department, and (ii) compare the prognostic performance of MR-pro-ADM with that of clinical scores PSI and CURB65. METHODS: Observational prospective, single-center study in patients with suspected community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Eighty one patients underwent full clinical and laboratory assessment as by protocol, and were followed up a 28 days...
2017: PloS One
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