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A Taucare-Ríos, W Nentwig, G Bizama, R O Bustamante
The Mediterranean recluse spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Sicariidae) is a cosmopolitan spider that has been introduced in many parts of the world. Its bite can be dangerous to humans. However, the potential distribution of this alien species, which is able to spread fairly quickly with human aid, is completely unknown. Using a combination of global and regional niche models, it is possible to analyse the spread of this species in relation to environmental conditions. This analysis found that the successful spreading of this species varies according to the region invaded...
June 8, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Sabrina de Almeida Lima, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Thais Melo Mendes, Luís F M Figueiredo, Daysiane Oliveira, Ricardo A Machado de Avila, Valéria Pereira Ferrer, Dilza Trevisan-Silva, Silvio S Veiga, João C Minozzo, Evanguedes Kalapothakis, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui
Loxoscelism is the most important form of araneism in South America. The treatment of these accidents uses heterologous antivenoms obtained from immunization of production animals with crude loxoscelic venom. Due to the scarcity of this immunogen, new alternatives for its substitution in antivenom production are of medical interest. In the present work, three linear epitopes for Loxosceles astacin-like protease 1 (LALP-1) (SLGRGCTDFGTILHE, ENNTRTIGPFDYDSIMLYGAY, and KLYKCPPVNPYPGGIRPYVNV) and two for hyaluronidase (LiHYAL) (NGGIPQLGDLKAHLEKSAVDI and ILDKSATGLRIIDWEAWR) from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom were identified by SPOT-synthesis technique...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cristián Navarrete-Dechent, Sergio Álvarez-Véliz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Leopoldo Ferreira DE Oliveira Bernardi, Andreas Wohltmann, Isabela M Lorenzon, Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira
This study reports a symbiotic association between an unknown species of Loxosceles (Araneae: Sicariidae) and the adults of a new species of parasitengone mite that lives on their web in Brazilian caves. This mite is described as Callidosoma cassiculophylla sp. nov. (Parasitengona: Erythraeidae). The symbiotic association is clearly beneficial for the mite, which lives with the spider, and feeds on prey captured by their webs, without any aggressive behavior or expulsion of the mites by the spiders.
October 26, 2017: Zootaxa
L N Lotz
In this paper the present state of knowledge of the genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe, 1832 from the Afrotropical region is discussed. The distribution of nine of the 16 described Afrotropical species of Loxosceles is updated and the status of the types of L. bergeri Strand, 1906b and L. pilosa Purcell, 1908 are discussed. A further four new species from South Africa: L. cederbergensis sp. nov.; L. dejagerae sp. nov.; L. haddadi sp. nov.; L. makapanensis sp. nov.; and three from Namibia: L. griffinae sp...
November 1, 2017: Zootaxa
Andrea Senff-Ribeiro
Proteins from TCTP/HRF family were identified as venom toxins of spiders from different genus. We have found a TCTP toxin in the venom gland of Loxosceles intermedia, a venomous spider very common in South Brazil. TCTP from L. intermedia, named LiTCTP, was cloned, produced in a heterologous prokaryotic system, and the recombinant toxin was biochemically characterized. Our results point that LiTCTP is involved in the inflammatory events of Loxocelism, the clinical signs triggered after Loxosceles sp. bite, which include intense inflammatory reaction at the bite site followed by local necrosis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Rafael Pichardo-Rodriguez, Marcos Saavedra-Velasco, José Antonio Grandez-Urbina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Saber Sadeghi, Meysam Dashan, Mohammad Javad Malek-Hosseini
BACKGROUND: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical importance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan). METHODS: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Hossein Sanaei-Zadeh
Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion ( Hemiscorpius lepturus )...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rute Maria Gonçalves de Andrade, Rogério Bertani
The genus Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1832 has 91 representatives in the New World. Despite medical relevancy, the taxonomy of the genus is poorly understood. South American Loxosceles were divided into four groups of species: laeta, spadicea, gaucho and amazonica; this last one has a single species, Loxosceles amazonica Gertsch, 1967. More recently, the natural occurrence of L. amazonica in the New World has been questioned, due to the strong morphological resemblance and close phylogenetic relationship with Old World species, mainly with Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820)...
2017: ZooKeys
Dilza Trevisan-Silva, Aline V Bednaski, Juliana S G Fischer, Silvio S Veiga, Nuno Bandeira, Adrian Guthals, Fabricio K Marchini, Felipe V Leprevost, Valmir C Barbosa, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Paulo C Carvalho
Venoms are a rich source for the discovery of molecules with biotechnological applications, but their analysis is challenging even for state-of-the-art proteomics. Here we report on a large-scale proteomic assessment of the venom of Loxosceles intermedia, the so-called brown spider. Venom was extracted from 200 spiders and fractioned into two aliquots relative to a 10 kDa cutoff mass. Each of these was further fractioned and digested with trypsin (4 h), trypsin (18 h), pepsin (18 h), and chymotrypsin (18 h), then analyzed by MudPIT on an LTQ-Orbitrap XL ETD mass spectrometer fragmenting precursors by CID, HCD, and ETD...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Data
R Cullen, P Hasbún, M P Piquer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Daniel A Fukuda, Maria C Caporrino, Katia C Barbaro, Maisa S Della-Casa, Eliana L Faquim-Mauro, Geraldo S Magalhaes
Spider envenomation, from the genus Loxosceles , is frequently reported as a cause of necrotic lesions in humans around the world. Among the many components found in the venom of Loxosceles genus, phospholipases D (PLDs) are the most investigated, since they can cause a massive inflammatory response, dermonecrosis, hemolysis and platelet aggregation, among other effects. Even though the PLDs induce strong platelet aggregation, there are no studies showing how the PLDs interact with platelets to promote this effect...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
Victor Manuel Calbiague, Jesus Olivares, Erick Olivares, Oliver Schmachtenberg
Spiders of the family Sicariidae pose a serious threat to affected populations, and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) is considered the most venomous species. Development of nontoxic olfaction-based spider repellents or traps is hindered by a current lack of knowledge regarding olfactory system function in arachnids. In the present study, general plant odorants and conspecific odors were tested for behavioral responses in L. laeta. Although general odorants triggered neither attraction nor aversion, conspecific odor of the opposite sex caused aversion in females, and attraction in males...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jamie R Robinson, Vanessa E Kennedy, Youssef Doss, Lisa Bastarache, Joshua Denny, Jeremy L Warner
OBJECTIVE: Systemic loxoscelism is a rare illness resulting from the bite of the recluse spider and, in its most severe form, can lead to widespread hemolysis, coagulopathy, and death. We aim to describe the clinical features and outcomes of the largest known cohort of individuals with moderate to severe loxoscelism. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, cross sectional study from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2015, at a tertiary-care academic medical center, to determine individuals with clinical records consistent with moderate to severe loxoscelism...
2017: PloS One
Wolfgang Nentwig, Paolo Pantini, Richard S Vetter
Loxosceles rufescens is a circum-Mediterranean spider species, potentially harmful to humans. Its native area covers the Mediterranean Basin and Near East. Easily spread with transported goods, it is meanwhile an alien and invasive species to nearly all other continents and many islands. This species occurs in semi-arid steppe-like habitats, typically under stones and in cavities, which enables it to settle inside buildings when invading the synanthropic environment. This review analyses the literature of L...
June 15, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
José M Rojas, Tomás Arán-Sekul, Emmanuel Cortés, Romina Jaldín, Kely Ordenes, Patricio R Orrego, Jorge González, Jorge E Araya, Alejandro Catalán
Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD) from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD) and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration...
April 5, 2017: Toxins
Lhiri H A L Shimokawa-Falcão, Maria C Caporrino, Katia C Barbaro, Maisa S Della-Casa, Geraldo S Magalhães
Many animal toxins may target the same molecules that need to be controlled in certain pathologies; therefore, some toxins have led to the formulation of drugs that are presently used, and many other drugs are still under development. Nevertheless, collecting sufficient toxins from the original source might be a limiting factor in studying their biological activities. Thus, molecular biology techniques have been applied in order to obtain large amounts of recombinant toxins into Escherichia coli . However, most animal toxins are difficult to express in this system, which results in insoluble, misfolded, or unstable proteins...
February 27, 2017: Toxins
Cinthya Kimori Okamoto, Carmen W van den Berg, Mizuno Masashi, Rute M Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Denise V Tambourgi
Envenomation by Loxosceles spider can result in two clinical manifestations: cutaneous and systemic loxoscelism, the latter of which includes renal failure. Although incidence of renal failure is low, it is the main cause of death, occurring mainly in children. The sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) is the main component in Loxosceles spider venom responsible for local and systemic manifestations. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity of L. intermedia venom and SMase D on kidney cells, using both In vitro and in vivo models, and the possible involvement of endogenous metalloproteinases (MMP)...
March 2, 2017: Toxins
Daniele Chaves-Moreira, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Martins Wille, Luiza Helena Gremski, Olga Meiri Chaim, Silvio Sanches Veiga
Brown spiders are venomous arthropods that use their venom for predation and defense. In humans, bites of these animals provoke injuries including dermonecrosis with gravitational spread of lesions, hematological abnormalities and impaired renal function. The signs and symptoms observed following a brown spider bite are called loxoscelism. Brown spider venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched in low molecular mass proteins (4-40 kDa). Characterization of the venom confirmed the presence of three highly expressed protein classes: phospholipases D, metalloproteases (astacins) and insecticidal peptides (knottins)...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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