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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550802/mechanism-of-action-of-three-newly-registered-drugs-for-multiple-sclerosis-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Kaja Kasarełło, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Andrzej Członkowski, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of suspected autoimmune origin leading to neurodegeneration. The disease pathomechanism is considered to be primarily based on neuroinflammation directed against myelin antigens caused by autoreactive T cells. MS etiology remains still unknown, which makes it difficult to create an efficient therapy, therefore, MS treatment targets mechanisms involved in disease pathology. In this review, we present the mechanism of action of three newly registered drugs for MS. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an agent presenting a broad spectrum of action...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546114/melaleuca-alternifolia-essential-oil-prevents-alterations-to-purinergic-enzymes-and-ameliorates-the-innate-immune-response-in-silver-catfish-infected-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#2
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Pedro H Doleski, Agueda C de Vargas, Marta M M F Duarte, Thiago Duarte, Aline A Boligon, Daniela B R Leal, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Aeromonas hydrophila infection represents a major impediment to the development of aquaculture, leading to important economic losses. Over the last few years, different methods have been used to counteract and minimize the negative effects of this infection, such as the use of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), that possess a bactericide action against A. hydrophila. The purinergic system develops an important role in the inflammatory response, principally due to involvement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the inflammatory process, as well as by the anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine (Ado), a molecule that is controlled by NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzymes...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537216/regulation-of-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-in-infectious-and-inflammatory-disease-implications-for-biologics-small-molecule-drug-interactions
#3
Pankajini Mallick, Guncha Taneja, Bhagavatula Moorthy, Romi Ghose
Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are primarily down-regulated during infectious and inflammatory diseases, leading to disruption in the metabolism of small molecule drugs (smds), which are increasingly being prescribed therapeutically in combination with biologics for a number of chronic diseases. The biologics may exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effect, which may in turn affect the expression/activity of DMEs. Thus, patients with infectious/inflammatory diseases undergoing biologic/smd treatment can have complex changes in DMEs due to combined effects of the disease and treatment...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509587/link-protein-n-terminal-peptide-and-fullerol-promote-matrix-production-and-decrease-degradation-enzymes-in-rabbit-annulus-cells
#4
Ching-Hua Yeh, Dennis Chen, Bayan Aghdasi, Li Xiao, Mengmeng Ding, Li Jin, Xudong Li
PURPOSE: Intervertebral disc degeneration is a major cause of back pain. Novel therapies for prevention or reversal of disc degeneration are needed. It is desirable for potential therapies to target both inflammation and matrix degeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The combined regenerative potential of link protein N-terminal peptide (LN) and fullerol on annulus fibrosus (AF) cells was evaluated in a 3D culture model. RESULTS: IL-1α-induced AF cell degeneration was counteracted by fullerol, LN, and fullerol + LN, with the latter having the greatest effect on matrix production as evaluated by real-time PCR and GAG assay...
May 16, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499243/diospyros-an-under-utilized-multi-purpose-plant-genus-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Abdur Rauf, Ghias Uddin, Seema Patel, Ajmal Khan, Sobia Ahsan Halim, Saud Bawazeer, Khalid Ahmad, Naveed Muhammad, Mohammad S Mubarak
The genus Diospyros from family Ebenaceae has versatile uses including edible fruits, valuable timber, and ornamental uses. The plant parts of numerous species have been in use as remedies in various folk healing practices, which include therapy for hemorrhage, incontinence, insomnia, hiccough, diarrhea etc. Phytochemical constituents such as terpenoids, ursanes, lupanes, polyphenols, tannins, hydrocarbons, and lipids, benzopyrones, naphthoquinones, oleananes, and taraxeranes have been isolated from different species of this genus...
May 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494028/rosemary-supplementation-rosmarinus-oficinallis-l-attenuates-cardiac-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-in-rats
#6
Bruna Paola Murino Rafacho, Priscila Portugal Dos Santos, Andréa de Freitas Gonçalves, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Katashi Okoshi, Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci, Paula S Azevedo, Leonardo Antonio Mamede Zornoff, Marcos Ferreira Minicucci, Xiang-Dong Wang, Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary intervention on adverse cardiac remodeling after MI has significant clinical relevance. Rosemary leaves are a natural product with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on morphology and ventricular function after MI is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine the effect of the dietary supplementation of rosemary leaves on cardiac remodeling after MI, male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups after sham procedure or experimental induced MI: 1) Sham group fed standard chow (SR0, n = 23); 2) Sham group fed standard chow supplemented with 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490965/protective-effects-of-fennel-oil-extract-against-sodium-valproate-induced-hepatorenal-damage-in-albino-rats
#7
Wael M Al-Amoudi
Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae) is commonly known as fennel. This herb is well-known worldwide and traditionally used as curative herbal therapy for the treatment of epileptic disease, seizurescarminative, digestive, lactogogue, diuretic, treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of present study is to investigate the possible effect of fennel oil against the toxicity of Sodium-Valproic (SVP) in albino rats. In order to assess the protection of fennel oil on SVP induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity, male albino rats were treated with 1 ml/kg b...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486256/one-year-clinical-outcomes-in-an-ibd-cohort-who-have-previously-had-anti-tnfa-trough-and-antibody-levels-assessed
#8
Donal Tighe, Barry Hall, Shivashini Kirthi Jeyarajah, Sinead Smith, Niall Breslin, Barbara Ryan, Deirdre McNamara
BACKGROUND: Loss of response (LOR) is a big concern for anti-TNFa therapies in inflammatory bowel disease. Immunomonitoring may be useful to optimize response rates and overcome secondary LOR. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study of a group of patients with inflammatory bowel disease on infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) who had anti-TNFa trough and antibody levels measured, during maintenance phase of treatment. Anti-TNFa trough and antibody levels were measured using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques...
May 5, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479732/effect-of-a-novel-ashwagandha-based-herbomineral-formulation-on-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-expression-in-mouse-splenocyte-cells-a-potential-immunomodulator
#9
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
BACKGROUND: Herbomineral formulations are momentous in an audience of worldwide by virtue of their holistic approach to life. These formulations are widely used as complementary therapies in immunocompromised patients including cancer. Still, there is the need of cost-effective and safe herbomineral-based formulation that can modulate immune response by the regulation of cytokines cascades. OBJECTIVE: Current study, we investigated immunomodulatory effect of TEBEH in LPS-induced cytokines expression levels in mouse splenocytes in vitro...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450863/the-proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-controls-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-breakdown-and-restores-immune-regulation-in-autoimmune-diabetes
#10
Giada Mondanelli, Elisa Albini, Maria T Pallotta, Claudia Volpi, Lucienne Chatenoud, Chantal Kuhn, Francesca Fallarino, Davide Matino, Maria L Belladonna, Roberta Bianchi, Carmine Vacca, Silvio Bicciato, Louis Boon, Giovanni Ricci, Ursula Grohmann, Paolo Puccetti, Ciriana Orabona
Bortezomib (BTZ) is a first-in-class proteasome inhibitor approved for the therapy of multiple myeloma that also displays unique regulatory activities on immune cells. The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a tryptophan metabolizing enzyme exerting potent immunoregulatory effects when expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells capable of promoting either immunity or tolerance. We previously demonstrated that, in inflammatory conditions, IDO1 is subjected to proteasomal degradation in DCs, turning these cells from immunoregulatory to immunostimulatory...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427563/neuroinflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-preventive-and-therapeutic-potential-of-polyphenolic-nutraceuticals
#11
Yousef Sawikr, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ilaria Peluso, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Gjumrakch Aliev, Anupam Bishayee
Brain inflammation, characterized by increased microglia and astrocyte activation, increases during aging and is a key feature of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, neuronal death and synaptic impairment, induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, are at least in part mediated by microglia and astrocyte activation. Glial activation results in the sustained production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, giving rise to a chronic inflammatory process. Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system and are involved in the neuroinflammation...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423042/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-enhances-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-in-human-synovial-fibroblasts-by-inhibiting-microrna-519b-synthesis
#12
Shu-Jui Kuo, Wei-Hung Yang, Shan-Chi Liu, Chun-Hao Tsai, Horng-Chaung Hsu, Chih-Hsin Tang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is manifested by synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction that is directly linked to synovitis, joint swelling and pain. In the light of the role of synovium in the pathogenesis and the symptoms of OA, synovium-targeted therapy is a promising strategy to mitigate the symptoms and progression of OA. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a secreted homodimeric protein, possesses unique and potent anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties in many cell types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419155/culture-expanded-allogenic-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-cartilage-degeneration-in-an-experimental-rat-osteoarthritis-model
#13
Li Mei, Bojiang Shen, Peixue Ling, Shaoying Liu, Jiajun Xue, Fuyan Liu, Huarong Shao, Jianying Chen, Aibin Ma, Xia Liu
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412905/therapeutic-potential-of-heme-oxygenase-1-carbon-monoxide-system-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Yuanyuan Cheng, Jianhui Rong
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury causes the dysfunctions of different major organs, leading to morbidity and mortality on the global scale. Among a battery of therapeutic targets, the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system has been evaluated for the development of new therapies against I/R injury. The enzyme HO-1 catalyzes the degradation of heme into three biologically active end products, namely biliverdin/bilirubin, CO and ferrous ion. Interestingly, CO is one of a few bioactive gaseous molecules with the capability of regulating inflammation, cell survival and growth...
April 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401316/the-orally-active-noncompetitive-ampar-antagonist-perampanel-attenuates-focal-cerebral-ischemia-injury-in-rats
#15
Hong-Xia Niu, Jun-Zhe Wang, Dong-Liang Wang, Jun-Jie Miao, Hua Li, Zhi-Gang Liu, Xing Yuan, Wei Liu, Jing-Ru Zhou
Inhibition of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) is a potential target of therapy for ischemic stroke. Perampanel is a potent noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor (AMPAR) antagonist with good oral bioavailability and favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we investigated the potential protective effects of perampanel against focal cerebral ischemia in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. Oral administration with perampanel significantly reduced MCAO-induced brain edema, brain infarct volume, and neuronal apoptosis...
April 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393026/effect-of-bevacizumab-on-the-expression-of-fibrosis-related-inflammatory-mediators-in-arpe-19-cells
#16
San-Jun Chu, Zhao-Hua Zhang, Min Wang, Hai-Feng Xu
AIM: To investigate the effect of anti-vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) agents on the expression of fibrosis-related inflammatory mediators under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and to further clarify the mechanism underlying fibrosis after anti-VEGF therapy. METHODS: Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. For hypoxia treatment, CoCl2 at 200 µmol/L was added to the media. ARPE-19 cells were treated as following: 1) control group: no treatment; 2) bevacizumab group: bevacizumab at 0...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338108/vkorc1-1639-g-a-polymorphism-and-the-risk-of-non-variceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#17
Ioana Groza, Dana Matei, Marcel Tantau, Adrian P Trifa, Sorin Crisan, Stefan C Vesa, Corina Bocsan, Anca D Buzoianu, Monica Acalovschi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The mutations in the gene that encodes vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) enzyme are responsible for low levels of vitamin K. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of the VKORC1 -1639 G> A polymorphism is a risk factor for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients without concomitant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. METHODS: This case-control study comprised 163 consecutive patients diagnosed with UGIB and 178 controls, in whom the diagnosis of UGIB was excluded...
March 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333655/biochemical-and-electrocardiographic-studies-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-gallic-acid-in-cyclophosphamide-induced-cardiorenal-dysfunction
#18
Omolola Rachel Ogunsanwo, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga, Adebowale Bernard Saba
Background Cardiac toxicity is one of the life-threatening complications of cancer therapy. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is an alkylating agent with potent antineoplastic and immunosuppressive properties and possibly the most widely used antineoplastic agent. Chronic cardiotoxicity associated with CYP is characterized by progressive heart failure developing from weeks to years after therapy. Methods In this study, rats were administered with (60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg) alone or in combination with single intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg) administration of CYP for 7 days...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325148/the-potent-inhibitory-effect-of-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-m2000-as-a-novel-nsaid-with-immunosuppressive-property-on-anti-cyclic-citrullinated-peptide-antibodies-rheumatoid-factor-and-anti-dsdna-antibodies-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Hossein Ahmadi, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Mohammad Javad Fattahi, Anis Barati, Bernd H A Rehm, Hidenori Matsou, Abbas Mirshafiey
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) on anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-double strand DNA (anti-dsDNA) and acute phase reactants in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: The study included 40 patients with RA who had an inadequate response to conventional therapy (identifier: IRCT2014011213739N2). The patients were permitted to continue the conventional therapy excluding NSAIDs...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323898/perfluorocarbon-reduces-cell-damage-from-blast-injury-by-inhibiting-signal-paths-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-and-bcl-2-bax-signaling-pathway-in-a549-cells
#20
Zhaorui Zhang, Zhixin Liang, Huaidong Li, Chunsun Li, Zhen Yang, Yanqin Li, Danyang She, Lu Cao, Wenjie Wang, Changlin Liu, Liangan Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Blast lung injury is a common type of blast injury and has very high mortality. Therefore, research to identify medical therapies for blast injury is important. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs and has anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether PFC reduces damage to A549 cells caused by blast injury and to elucidate its possible mechanisms of action. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A549 alveolar epithelial cells exposed to blast waves were treated with and without PFC...
2017: PloS One
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