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Protease and inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211191/cigarette-smoking-increases-bronchial-mucosal-il-17a-expression-in-asthmatics-which-acts-in-concert-with-environmental-aeroallergens-to-engender-neutrophilic-inflammation
#1
Leonard Quok Chean Siew, Shih-Ying Wu, Sun Ying, Christopher John Corrigan
BACKGROUND: Mild asthmatics who smoke cigarettes may develop unstable disease and neutrophilic infiltration of the airways, features more usually associated with severe asthmatic disease. The mechanisms giving rise to this response remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To address the hypothesis that smoking increases bronchial mucosal production of IL-17A which acts on bronchial epithelial cells directly and in concert with other environmental stimuli to induce the production of IL-6 and neutrophil chemotaxins...
February 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208246/combined-proteome-and-eicosanoid-profiling-approach-for-revealing-implications-of-human-fibroblasts-in-chronic-inflammation
#2
Ammar Tahir, Andrea Bileck, Besnik Muqaku, Laura Niederstaetter, Dominique Kreutz, Rupert L Mayer, Denise Wolrab, Samuel M Meier, Astrid Slany, Christopher Gerner
During inflammation, proteins and lipids act in a concerted fashion, calling for combined analyses. Fibroblasts are powerful mediators of chronic inflammation. However, little is known about eicosanoid formation by human fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the formation of the most relevant inflammation mediators including proteins and lipids in human fibroblasts upon inflammatory stimulation and subsequent treatment with dexamethasone, a powerful antiphlogistic drug. Label-free quantification was applied for proteome profiling, while an in-house established data-dependent analysis method based on high-resolution mass spectrometry was applied for eicosadomics...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207191/cysteine-proteases-in-atherosclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Tommy Weiss Sadan, Israel Gotsman, Galia Blum
Atherosclerosis predisposes patients to cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Instigation of vascular injury is triggered by retention of lipids and inflammatory cells in the vascular endothelium. Whereas these vascular lesions develop in young adults and are mostly considered harmless, over time persistent inflammatory and remodeling processes will ultimately damage the arterial wall and cause a thrombotic event due to exposure of tissue factors into the lumen. Evidence from human tissues and pre-clinical animal models have clearly established the role of cathepsin cysteine proteases in the development and progression of vascular lesions...
February 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204821/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-induce-il-1%C3%AE-production-by-macrophages-in-combination-with-lipopolysaccharide
#4
Zhongshuang Hu, Taisuke Murakami, Hiroshi Tamura, Johannes Reich, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Toshiaki Iba, Yoko Tabe, Isao Nagaoka
Upon exposure to invading microorganisms, neutrophils undergo NETosis, a recently identified type of programmed cell death, and release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are described as an antimicrobial mechanism, based on the fact that NETs can trap microorganisms and exhibit bactericidal activity through the action of NET‑associated components. In contrast, the components of NETs have been recognized as damage‑associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), which trigger inflammatory signals to induce cell death, inflammation and organ failure...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202081/use-of-ethanol-extracts-of-terminalia-chebula-to-prevent-periodontal-disease-induced-by-dental-plaque-bacteria
#5
Jongsung Lee, Youn Hwa Nho, Seok Kyun Yun, Young Sun Hwang
BACKGROUND: The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption...
February 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198394/cockroach-protease-allergen-induces-allergic-airway-inflammation-via-epithelial-cell-activation
#6
Sagar L Kale, Komal Agrawal, Shailendra Nath Gaur, Naveen Arora
Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198362/covalent-assembly-of-nanoparticles-as-a-peptidase-degradable-platform-for-molecular-mri
#7
Francisco Perez-Balderas, Sander I van Kasteren, Alaa A A Aljabali, Kim Wals, Sébastien Serres, Andrew Jefferson, Manuel Sarmiento Soto, Alexandre A Khrapitchev, James R Larkin, Claire Bristow, Seung Seo Lee, Guillaume Bort, Filippo De Simone, Sandra J Campbell, Robin P Choudhury, Daniel C Anthony, Nicola R Sibson, Benjamin G Davis
Ligand-conjugated microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) have the potential to provide high sensitivity contrast for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the accumulation and persistence of non-biodegradable micron-sized particles in liver and spleen precludes their clinical use and limits the translational potential of MPIO-based contrast agents. Here we show that ligand-targeted MPIO derived from multiple iron oxide nanoparticles may be coupled covalently through peptide linkers that are designed to be cleaved by intracellular macrophage proteases...
February 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194569/the-role-of-inflammation-in-cardiovascular-outcome
#8
REVIEW
Fabrizio Montecucco, Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Alessandra Vecchiè, Franco Dallegri, Federico Carbone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to update the pathophysiological role of innate immune response in the cardiovascular (CV) disease outcomes, particularly focusing on coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammatory processes comprised with the innate immunity reaction are believed to actively trigger CV disease development and final clinical events. For instance, by releasing proteases and neutrophil extracellular traps, neutrophil recruitment and activation might strongly influence atherosclerotic plaque stability...
March 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192517/neutrophils-and-neutrophil-serine-proteases-are-increased-in-the-spleens-of-estrogen-treated-c57bl-6-mice-and-several-strains-of-spontaneous-lupus-prone-mice
#9
Rujuan Dai, Catharine Cowan, Bettina Heid, Deena Khan, Zhihong Liang, Christine T N Pham, S Ansar Ahmed
Estrogen, a natural immunomodulator, regulates the development and function of diverse immune cell types. There is now renewed attention on neutrophils and neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) such as neutrophil elastase (NE), proteinase 3 (PR3), and cathepsin G (CG) in inflammation and autoimmunity. In this study, we found that although estrogen treatment significantly reduced total splenocytes number, it markedly increased the splenic neutrophil absolute numbers in estrogen-treated C57BL/6 (B6) mice when compared to placebo controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191895/erratum-espl-is-a-bacterial-cysteine-protease-effector-that-cleaves-rhim-proteins-to-block-necroptosis-and-inflammation
#10
Jaclyn S Pearson, Cristina Giogha, Sabrina Mühlen, Ueli Nachbur, Chi L L Pham, Ying Zhang, Joanne M Hildebrand, Clare V Oates, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Danielle Ingle, Laura F Dagley, Aleksandra Bankovacki, Emma J Petrie, Gunnar N Schroeder, Valerie F Crepin, Gad Frankel, Seth L Masters, James Vince, James M Murphy, Margaret Sunde, Andrew I Webb, John Silke, Elizabeth L Hartland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181448/efficacy-of-bubaline-fibrin-glue-on-full-thickness-pinch-and-punch-skin-grafting-in-a-pig
#11
Krittee Dejyong, Theerayuth Kaewamatawong, Pasakorn Brikshavana, Sumit Durongphongtorn
Fibrin glue, which is formed from the action of thrombin (a serine protease) on fibrinogen, has been developed for use as an adhesive to increase the success of skin graft surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate if bubaline fibrin glue would promote skin graft survival in pigs. The grafting was divided into two steps. First, granulation wound preparation was performed in a healthy swine by creating four full-skin depth wounds (3 × 12 cm(2)) at the dorsal part of the loin area on each side...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170292/heparanase-mediates-intestinal-inflammation-and-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis
#12
Song Chen, Ying He, Ziwei Hu, Siyu Lu, Xiaohan Yin, Xiaochun Ma, Chuanzhu Lv, Guiyun Jin
Heparanase, a heparan sulfate (HS)-specific endoglycosidase, plays an important role in inflammation and mediates acute pulmonary and renal injuries during sepsis. To explore its role in septic intestinal injury, a non-anticoagulant heparanase inhibitor, N-desulfated/re- N-acetylated heparin (NAH), was administrated to a mouse sepsis model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunohistochemical staining revealed massive shedding of HS from the intestinal mucosal surfaces after CLP, and effective inhibition of heparanase by NAH was confirmed by markedly reduced HS shedding...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169915/vaginal-estrogen-a-dual-edged-sword-in-postoperative-healing-of-the-vaginal-wall
#13
Christopher M Ripperda, Pedro Antonio Maldonado, Jesus F Acevedo, Patrick W Keller, Yucel Akgul, John M Shelton, Ruth Ann Word
OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. METHODS: Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43)...
February 6, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164246/immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-emphysema-insights-from-mouse-models
#14
REVIEW
John M Craig, Alan L Scott, Wayne Mitzner
The cellular mechanisms that result in the initiation and progression of emphysema are clearly complex. A growing body of human data combined with discoveries from mouse models utilizing cigarette smoke exposure or protease administration have improved our understanding of emphysema development by implicating specific cell types that may be important for the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most important aspects of emphysematous damage appear to be oxidative or protease stress and sustained macrophage activation and infiltration of other immune cells leading to epithelial damage and cell death...
February 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160627/interleukin-11-driven-gastric-tumourigenesis-is-independent-of-trans-signalling
#15
Jesse J Balic, Christoph Garbers, Stefan Rose-John, Liang Yu, Brendan J Jenkins
Deregulated gp130-dependent STAT3 signalling by the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin (IL)-11 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC), the third most common cancer worldwide. While the IL-11-gp130-STAT3 signalling axis has traditionally been thought to exclusively use the membrane-bound IL-11 receptor (mIL-11R), recent evidence suggests that mIL-11R can be proteolytically cleaved to generate a soluble form (sIL-11R) which can elicit trans-signalling. Since the role of IL-11 trans-signalling in disease pathogenesis is unknown, here we have employed the IL-11-driven gp130(F/F) spontaneous model of GC to determine whether IL-11 trans-signalling promotes gastric tumourigenesis...
February 1, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158223/fibroblast-activation-protein-is-dispensable-in-the-anti-influenza-immune-response-in-mice
#16
Sioh-Yang Tan, Sumaiya Chowdhury, Natasa Polak, Mark D Gorrell, Wolfgang Weninger
Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) is a unique dual peptidase of the S9B serine protease family, being capable of both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. FAP is expressed at low level in healthy adult organs including the pancreas, cervix, uterus, submaxillary gland and the skin, and highly upregulated in embryogenesis, chronic inflammation and tissue remodelling. It is also expressed by cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts in more than 90% of epithelial tumours. FAP has enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions in the growth, immunosuppression, invasion and cell signalling of tumour cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154009/caspase-6-undergoes-a-distinct-helix-strand-interconversion-upon-substrate-binding
#17
Kevin B Dagbay, Nicolas Bolik-Coulon, Sergey N Savinov, Jeanne A Hardy
Caspases are cysteine aspartate proteases that are major players in key cellular processes, including apoptosis and inflammation. Specifically, caspase-6 has also been implicated in playing a unique and critical role in neurodegeneration: however structural similarities between caspase-6 and other caspases have hampered precise targeting of caspase-6. All caspases can exist in a canonical conformation, in which the substrate binds atop a beta-strand platform in the 130's region. This caspase-6 region can also adopt a helical conformation that has not been seen in any other caspases...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146220/par-2-expression-in-the-gingival-crevicular-fluid-reflects-chronic-periodontitis-severity
#18
Henrique Fukushima, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio Alves, Verônica Franco de Carvalho, Lucas Macedo Batitucci Ambrósio, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos Eichler, Maria Helena Catelli de Carvalho, Luciana Saraiva, Marinella Holzhausen
Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity...
January 26, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144586/interaction-of-bacteroides-fragilis-toxin-with-outer-membrane-vesicles-reveals-new-mechanism-of-its-secretion-and-delivery
#19
Natalya B Zakharzhevskaya, Vladimir B Tsvetkov, Anna A Vanyushkina, Anna M Varizhuk, Daria V Rakitina, Victor V Podgorsky, Innokentii E Vishnyakov, Daria D Kharlampieva, Valentin A Manuvera, Fedor V Lisitsyn, Elena A Gushina, Vassili N Lazarev, Vadim M Govorun
The only recognized virulence factor of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) that accompanies bloodstream infections is the zinc-dependent non-lethal metalloprotease B. fragilis toxin (BFT). The isolated toxin stimulates intestinal secretion, resulting in epithelial damage and necrosis. Numerous publications have focused on the interrelation of BFT with intestinal inflammation and colorectal neoplasia, but nothing is known about the mechanism of its secretion and delivery to host cells. However, recent studies of gram-negative bacteria have shown that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) could be an essential mechanism for the spread of a large number of virulence factors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144242/complement-in-pancreatic-disease-perpetrator-or-savior
#20
REVIEW
Lucas Bettac, Stephanie Denk, Thomas Seufferlein, Markus Huber-Lang
The complement system is a major pillar of the humoral innate immune system. As a first line of defense against pathogens, it mediates early inflammatory response and links different branches of humoral and cellular immunity. Disorders affecting the exocrine pancreas, such as acute pancreatitis, potentially lead to a life-threatening systemic inflammatory response with aberrant activation of complement and coagulation cascades. Pancreatic proteases can activate key effectors of the complement system, which in turn drive local and systemic inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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