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Protease and inflammation

Andy Chevigne, Alain Jacquet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hyeon Jun Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Su Jin Kim, Kyung Ho Lee
The diagnostic criteria for sequential rapidly destructive coxarthrosis remain unclear and this condition is rarely reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, we report a case of an HIV-infected 73-year old female who experienced hip joint destruction. The patient was diagnosed with HIV in 2012 (at age 68 years) and began continuous treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. Twenty-nine months after her HIV diagnosis, the patient experienced osteonecrosis of the right hip and underwent a total hip arthroplasty (THA)...
June 2018: Hip & Pelvis
Mimi Ghosh, Jason Daniels, Maria Pyra, Monika Juzumaite, Mariel Jais, Kerry Murphy, Tonya N Taylor, Seble Kassaye, Lorie Benning, Mardge Cohen, Kathleen Weber
Sexual violence is associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition/transmission in women. Forced sex can result in physical trauma to the reproductive tract as well as severe psychological distress. However, immuno-biological mechanisms linking sexual violence and HIV susceptibility are incompletely understood. Using the Women's Interagency HIV Study repository, a total of 77 women were selected to form 4 groups, stratified by HIV serostatus, in the following categories: 1) no sexual abuse history and low depressive symptom score (below clinically significant cut-off, scores <16) (Control); 2) no sexual abuse history but high depressive symptom score, ≥16 (Depression); 3) chronic sexual abuse exposure and low depressive symptom score (Abuse); 4) chronic sexual abuse exposure and high depressive symptom score (Abuse+Depression)...
2018: PloS One
Takeshi Machida, Natsumi Sakamoto, Yumi Ishida, Minoru Takahashi, Teizo Fujita, Hideharu Sekine
The complement system, composed of the three activation pathways, has both protective and pathogenic roles in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (or lupus), a prototypic autoimmune disease. The classical pathway contributes to the clearance of immune complexes (ICs) and apoptotic cells, whereas the alternative pathway (AP) exacerbates renal inflammation. The role of the lectin pathway (LP) in lupus has remained largely unknown. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases (MASPs), which are associated with humoral pattern recognition molecules (MBL or ficolins), are the enzymatic constituents of the LP and AP...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jennifer Vandooren, Pieter Goeminne, Lise Boon, Estefania Ugarte-Berzal, Vasily Rybakin, Paul Proost, Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar, Ghislain Opdenakker
Antileukoproteinase or secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor is a small protein which protects the mucosal linings against excessive proteolysis, inflammation, and microbial infection. We discovered that gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a secreted zinc-dependent endopeptidase typically found at sites of inflammation, destroys antileukoproteinase by cleavages within both of its two functional domains: the anti-microbial N-terminal and the anti-proteolytic C-terminal domains. Cleaved antileukoproteinase possessed a significantly lower ability to bind lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and a reduced capacity to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE) activity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kengo Sato, Remina Shirai, Maho Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Koichiro Shibata, Taisuke Okano, Yusaku Mori, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor) was recently identified as a novel adipocytokine with insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum vaspin levels are reported either increased or decreased in patients with coronary artery disease. Our translational research was performed to evaluate the expression of vaspin in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions, and its effects on atherogenic responses in human macrophages and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), as well as aortic atherosclerotic lesion development in spontaneously hyperlipidemic Apoe &minus;/&minus; mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jingjing Tang, Jeremy M Frey, Carole L Wilson, Angela Moncada-Pazos, Clémence Levet, Matthew Freeman, Michael E Rosenfeld, E Richard Stanley, Elaine W Raines, Karin E Bornfeldt
Macrophages are prominent cells in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent studies highlight a role for macrophage proliferation post monocyte recruitment in inflammatory conditions. Using an acute peritonitis model, we identify a significant defect in macrophage proliferation in mice lacking leukocyte transmembrane protease ADAM17. The defect is associated with decreased levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) in the peritoneum, and is rescued by intraperitoneal injection of CSF-1...
June 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Yukihiro Hiramatsu, Daisuke Sakamoto, Tomomitsu Satho, Keiichi Irie, Fumio Miake, Minoru Maeda, Nobuhiro Kashige
BACKGROUND: Lactobacilli show anti-inflammatory effects in the human intestine, and their genomic DNA was identified as one of the anti-inflammatory components. Increased levels of the natural protease inhibitor elafin in the intestine plays an important role in protection against intestinal inflammation. However, there have been no previous reports regarding whether lactobacilli increase elafin levels. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum induces elafin secretion from the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2...
June 11, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
İlhami Gulçin, Parham Taslimi
INTRODUCTION: Sulfonamide compounds are significant class of synthetic bacteriostatic antibiotics still which used today for the therapy of bacterial infections and those caused by other microorganisms. They are also known as sulfa drugs and were the main source of therapy against bacterial infections before the introduction of penicillin in 1941. Additionally, The first sulfonamide section is present inmany clinically used drugs such as diuretics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and antiepileptics...
June 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Shun-Chin Yang, Po-Jen Chen, Shih-Hsin Chang, Yu-Ting Weng, Fang-Rong Chang, Kuang-Yi Chang, Chun-Yu Chen, Ting-I Kao, Tsong-Long Hwang
Neutrophils play a significant role in inflammatory tissue injury. Activated neutrophils produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), release proteases, and form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), significantly affecting the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. We examined the therapeutic effects of luteolin, a flavone found in many plants, in neutrophilic inflammation and on acute inflammatory arthritis. Luteolin significantly inhibited superoxide anion generation, ROS production, and NET formation in human neutrophils...
June 5, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
L L K Leung, J Morser
Two basic carboxypeptidases, carboxypeptidase B2 (CPB2) and carboxypeptidase N (CPN) are present in plasma. CPN is constitutively active, while CPB2 circulates as a precursor, procarboxypeptidase B2 (proCPB2) that needs to be activated by the thrombin/thrombomodulin complex or plasmin bound to glycosaminoglycans. The substrate specificity of CPB2 and CPN are similar, removing C-terminal basic amino acids from bioactive peptides and proteins, thereby inactivating them. The complement cascade is a cascade of proteases and cofactors activated by pathogens or dead cells divided into two phases with the second phase only triggered if sufficient C3b is present...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Nurit P Azouz, Mario A Ynga-Durand, Julie M Caldwell, Ayushi Jain, Mark Rochman, Demetria M Fischesser, Leanne M Ray, Mary C Bedard, Melissa K Mingler, Carmy Forney, Matthew Eilerman, Jonathan T Kuhl, Hua He, Jocelyn M Biagini Myers, Vincent A Mukkada, Philip E Putnam, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Leah C Kottyan, Ting Wen, Lisa J Martin, Marc E Rothenberg
Loss of barrier integrity has an important role in eliciting type 2 immune responses, yet the molecular events that initiate and connect this with allergic inflammation remain unclear. We reveal an endogenous, homeostatic mechanism that controls barrier function and inflammatory responses in esophageal allergic inflammation. We show that a serine protease inhibitor, SPINK7 (serine peptidase inhibitor, kazal type 7), is part of the differentiation program of human esophageal epithelium and that SPINK7 depletion occurs in a human allergic, esophageal condition termed eosinophilic esophagitis...
June 6, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
M Duro, M C Manso, S Barreira, I Rebelo, R Medeiros, C Almeida
The objective of this study was to investigate the factors underlying the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in HIV-infected patients. Two hundred and sixty-six clinical cases were selected for a retrospective study. The sample was classified using the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines and the identification of risk or protective factors associated with MetS evaluated via multivariate logistic or multinomial regressions. HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with MetS tend to be older, overweight, or obese (85% have a BMI ≥ 25), with a waist circumference > 90 cm (96...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Mathijs G A Broeren, Irene Di Ceglie, Miranda B Bennink, Peter L E M van Lent, Wim B van den Berg, Marije I Koenders, Esmeralda N Blaney Davidson, Peter M van der Kraan, Fons A J van de Loo
Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 (TSG-6) has anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects in mouse models of inflammatory arthritis. Because cartilage damage and inflammation are also observed in osteoarthritis (OA), we determined the effect of viral overexpression of TSG-6 in experimental osteoarthritis. Methods: Bone marrow-derived cells were differentiated to multinucleated osteoclasts in the presence of recombinant TSG-6 or after transduction with a lentiviral TSG-6 expression vector...
2018: PeerJ
Christian Schoergenhofer, Michael Schwameis, Georg Gelbenegger, Nina Buchtele, Barbara Thaler, Marion Mussbacher, Gernot Schabbauer, Johann Wojta, Petra Jilma-Stohlawetz, Bernd Jilma
The protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is critically involved in the co-activation of coagulation and inflammatory responses. Vorapaxar is a reversible, orally active, low molecular weight, competitive antagonist of PAR-1.We investigated the effects of PAR-1 inhibition by vorapaxar on the inflammatory response, the activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis and endothelium during experimental endotoxemia. In this randomized, double blind, crossover trial, 16 healthy volunteers received a bolus infusion of 2 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ± placebo/vorapaxar with a washout period of 8 weeks...
June 4, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Ehrhardt Proksch
The pH plays an important physiological role in nature and humans. pH varies from 1 to 8 in human organs with tight regulation in blood and epithelia of barrier organs. The physiological pH of the stratum corneum is 4.1-5.8 and several mechanisms contribute to its formation: filaggrin degradation, fatty acid content, sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) activation and melanosome release. First, the acidic pH of the stratum corneum was considered to present an antimicrobial barrier preventing colonization (e.g. by Staphylococcus aureus and Malassezia)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Leopold Eckhart, Erwin Tschachler
The function of the skin as a barrier to the environment is mainly achieved by the outermost layers of the epidermis. In the granular layer, epidermal keratinoytes undergo the last steps of their terminal differentiation program resulting in cornification. The coordinated conversion of living keratinocytes into corneocytes, the building blocks of the cornified layer, represents a unique form of programmed cell death. Recent studies have identified numerous genes that are specifically expressed in terminally differentiated keratinocytes and, surprisingly, this genetic program does not only include mediators of cornification but also suppressors of pyroptosis, another mode of programmed cell death...
June 4, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Yu Bao, Simone Marini, Takeyuki Tamura, Mayumi Kamada, Shingo Maegawa, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Jiangning Song, Tatsuya Akutsu
As one of the few irreversible protein posttranslational modifications, proteolytic cleavage is involved in nearly all aspects of cellular activities, ranging from gene regulation to cell life-cycle regulation. Among the various protease-specific types of proteolytic cleavage, cleavages by casapses/granzyme B are considered as essential in the initiation and execution of programmed cell death and inflammation processes. Although a number of substrates for both types of proteolytic cleavage have been experimentally identified, the complete repertoire of caspases and granzyme B substrates remains to be fully characterized...
May 31, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Dejan Tomljenovic, Tomislav Baudoin, Zeljka Bukovec Megla, Goran Geber, Glenis Scadding, Livije Kalogjera
Epidemiological studies show female predominance in the prevalence of non- allergic rhinitis (NAR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Experimental studies show female patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) demonstrate higher levels of sensitivity to irritants and airway hyperresponsiveness than males. Bronchial asthma shows female predominance in post-puberty patients, and gender interaction with severe asthma endotypes. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine and chronic cough, syndromes, which are commonly related to neurokinin substance P (SP) in the literature, also show strong female predominance...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Jingyuan Sun, Hongping Deng, Zhen Zhou, Xiaoxing Xiong, Ling Gao
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was previously ascribed to weaken defective medial arterial/adventitial layers, for example, smooth muscle/fibroblast cells. Therefore, besides surgical repair, medications targeting the medial layer to strengthen the aortic wall are the most feasible treatment strategy for AAA. However, so far, it is unclear whether such drugs have any beneficial effect on AAA prognosis, rate of aneurysm growth, rupture, or survival. Notably, clinical studies have shown that AAA is highly associated with endothelial dysfunction in the aged population...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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