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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046030/-immunopathology-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Nora Ernestina Martínez-Aguilar, María Eugenia Vargas-Camaño, Rogelio Ramsés Hernández-Pliego, Genny Margarita Chaia-Semerena, María Rosario Pérez-Chavira
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable condition that has a complex pathophysiology and an even more complex immunopathological process. The purpose of this review was to analyze COPD immunopathological aspects, which was addressed by undertaking a literature search for the most relevant documents indexed in the PubMed database over the last 10 years. Different conclusions could be drawn: in COPD immunopathology there are immune and non-immune inflammatory changes with oxidative stress imbalance, there are alterations in the protease/anti-protease ratio caused by direct and indirect genetic and epigenetic-environmental defects; COPD produces irreversible tissue damage and chronic inflammation with tissue repair alteration, which induces chronic obstruction of the airway, bronchitis and systemic damage...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044290/protease-activated-receptor-par-4-an-inducible-switch-between-thrombosis-and-vascular-inflammation
#2
Anke C Fender, Bernhard H Rauch, Tobias Geisler, Karsten Schrör
Thrombin triggers activation of platelets through protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and PAR-4. Both receptors are widely expressed and exert multiple platelet-independent functions. PAR signalling contributes to healing responses after injury, by promoting cytokine activity and cellular growth and mobility. Uncontrolled PAR activation, however, can prevent timely resolution of inflammation, enhance thrombogenic endothelial function and drive adverse remodelling. The specific role of PAR-4 in thromboinflammatory vascular disease has been largely underestimated, given the relatively limited expression of PAR-4 in non-platelet cells under healthy conditions...
October 10, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043001/effect-of-pingchuan-guben-decoction-on-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-results-from-a-randomized-comparative-effectiveness-research-trial
#3
Cheng-Liang Qian, Rong Fan
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is known to be a systemic low-grade ongoing inflammation exerting major health and economic burden worldwide. Complementary and alternative medicines, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine, are widely used for the treatment of patients with COPD. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of Pingchuan Guben decoction on patients with COPD through a double-blinded, open-labeled, randomized controlled trial. A total of 86 patients were randomly assigned to two groups, with 43 patients in the intervention group and 43 cases in the control group...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042497/a-single-dual-function-enzyme-controls-the-production-of-inflammatory-nod-agonist-peptidoglycan-fragments-by-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#4
Jonathan D Lenz, Kathleen T Hackett, Joseph P Dillard
Neisseria gonorrhoeae gonococcus (GC) is a Gram-negative betaproteobacterium and causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. During growth, GC releases lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments, which contribute significantly to the inflammatory damage observed during human infection. In ascending infection of human Fallopian tubes, inflammation leads to increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and sterility. Of the PG fragments released by GC, most are disaccharide peptide monomers, and of those, 80% have tripeptide stems despite the observation that tetrapeptide stems make up 80% of the assembled cell wall...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040829/soybean-derived-bowman-birk-inhibitor-bbi-blocks-hiv-entry-into-macrophages
#5
Tong-Cui Ma, Le Guo, Run-Hong Zhou, Xu Wang, Jin-Biao Liu, Jie-Liang Li, Yu Zhou, Wei Hou, Wen-Zhe Ho
Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a soybean-derived protease inhibitor that has anti-inflammation and anti-HIV effect. Here, we further investigated the anti-HIV action of BBI in macrophages, focusing on its effect on viral entry. We found that BBI could significantly block HIV entry into macrophages. Investigation of the mechanism(s) of the BBI action on HIV inhibition showed that BBI down-regulated the expression of CD4 receptor (as much as 80%) and induced the production of the CC chemokines (up to 60 folds at protein level) in macrophages...
October 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040203/the-temporal-response-and-mechanism-of-action-of-tranexamic-acid-in-endothelial-glycocalyx-degradation
#6
Mark E Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati, Lawrence N Diebel
BACKGROUND: The endothelial glycocalyx (GCX) plays an important role in vascular barrier function. Damage to the GCX occurs due to a variety of causes including hypoxia, ischemia-reperfusion, stress related sympathoadrenal activation, and inflammation. Tranexamic acid (TXA) may prevent GCX degradation. The therapeutic window for TXA administration and the mechanism of action has been under review. Membrane-anchored proteases (sheddases) are key components in endothelial cell biology including the regulation of vascular permeability...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039444/vaspin-protects-against-lps%C3%A2-induced-ards-by-inhibiting-inflammation-apoptosis-and-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-via-the-akt-gsk%C3%A2-3%C3%AE-pathway
#7
Di Qi, Daoxin Wang, Chunrong Zhang, Xumao Tang, Jing He, Yan Zhao, Wang Deng, Xinyu Deng
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by uncontrolled extravasation of protein‑rich fluids, which is caused by disruption and dysfunction of the barrier of pulmonary endothelial cells (ECs). Visceral adipose tissue‑derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a novel adipokine with pleiotropic properties, which has been reported to exert beneficial effects against obesity‑associated systemic vascular diseases; however, its effects on ARDS remain unknown. In the present study, mice were subjected to systemic administration of adenoviral vector expressing vaspin (Ad‑vaspin) to examine its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced ARDS in vivo...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038008/fibrinogen-cleavage-products-and-tlr4-promote-the-generation-of-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-2-pd-l2-dendritic-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#8
Minkyoung Cho, Jeong-Eun Lee, Hoyong Lim, Hyun-Woo Shin, Roza Khalmuratova, Garam Choi, Hyuk Soon Kim, Wahn Soo Choi, Young-Jun Park, Inbo Shim, Byung-Seok Kim, Chang-Yuil Kang, Jae-Ouk Kim, Shinya Tanaka, Masato Kubo, Yeonseok Chung
BACKGROUND: Inhaled protease allergens preferentially trigger Th2-mediated inflammation in allergic asthma. The role of dendritic cells (DCs) on the induction of Th2 cell responses in allergic asthma has been well documented; however, the mechanism by which protease allergens induce Th2-favorable DCs in the airway remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine a subset of DCs responsible for Th2 cell responses in allergic asthma and the mechanism by which protease allergens induce the DC subset in the airway...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030007/pretreatment-of-a-matrix-metalloproteases-inhibitor-and-aprotinin-attenuated-the-development-of-acute-pancreatitis-induced-lung-injury-in-rat-model
#9
Kuang-En Chu, Yao Fong, David Wang, Chao Fuh Chen, Diana Yu-Wung Yeh
OBJECTIVE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most common extra-pancreatic complications of acute pancreatitis. In this study, we examined the protective effect of protease inhibitor aprotinin and a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPi) on pulmonary inflammation in rats with severe pancreatitis-associated ALI. METHOD: A rat model of acute pancreatitis (AP) was established by injecting sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDOC) into the pancreatic duct. Pharmacological interventions included pretreatment with a protease inhibitor aprotinin (10mg/kg) and a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPi, 100g/kg)...
October 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028807/ulcerative-colitis-crohn-s-disease-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-have-different-profiles-of-extracellular-matrix-turnover-which-also-reflects-disease-activity-in-crohn-s-disease
#10
Joachim Høg Mortensen, Tina Manon-Jensen, Michael Dam Jensen, Per Hägglund, Lone Gabriels Klinge, Jens Kjeldsen, Aleksander Krag, Morten Asser Karsdal, Anne-Christine Bay-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024417/human-cd8-emra-t-cells-display-a-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype-regulated-by-p38-mapk
#11
Lauren A Callender, Elizabeth C Carroll, Robert W J Beal, Emma S Chambers, Sussan Nourshargh, Arne N Akbar, Sian M Henson
Cellular senescence is accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We show here that primary human senescent CD8(+) T cells also display a SASP comprising chemokines, cytokines and extracellular matrix remodelling proteases that are unique to this subset and contribute to age-associated inflammation. We found the CD8(+) CD45RA(+) CD27(-) EMRA subset to be the most heterogeneous, with a population aligning with the naïve T cells and another with a closer association to the effector memory subset...
October 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018286/complement-protein-c3-suppresses-axon-growth-and-promotes-neuron-loss
#12
Sheri L Peterson, Hal X Nguyen, Oscar A Mendez, Aileen J Anderson
The inflammatory response to spinal cord injury (SCI) involves localization and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells and proteins, including the complement cascade. Complement C3 is important for the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of complement activation, and its cleavage products C3a and C3b mediate several functions in the context of inflammation, but little is known about the potential functions of C3 on regeneration and survival of injured neurons after SCI. We report that 6 weeks after dorsal hemisection with peripheral conditioning lesion, C3(-/-) mice demonstrated a 2-fold increase in sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord in comparison to wildtype C3(+/+) mice...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994126/staphylococcus-aureus-v8-protease-disrupts-the-integrity-of-the-airway-epithelial-barrier-and-impairs-il-6-production-in-vitro
#13
Jae Murphy, Mahnaz Ramezanpour, Natalia Stach, Grzegorz Dubin, Alkis James Psaltis, Peter-John Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection is known to contribute to the severity and recalcitrance of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and its secreted products have been shown to alter the airway barrier. Extracellular proteases secreted by S. aureus are thought to be important in epithelial infection and immune evasion; however, their effect on airway mucosal barrier function is not known. METHODS: To investigate the impact of extracellular proteases on airway epithelial integrity, the purified S...
October 10, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993090/possible-role-of-rivaroxaban-in-attenuating-pressure-overload-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-fibrillation
#14
Hidekazu Kondo, Ichitaro Abe, Akira Fukui, Shotaro Saito, Miho Miyoshi, Kohei Aoki, Tetsuji Shinohara, Yasushi Teshima, Kunio Yufu, Naohiko Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Coagulation factor Xa (FXa) promotes thrombus formation and exacerbates inflammation via activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2. We tested the hypothesis of whether administration of direct oral anticoagulant, rivaroxaban, would attenuate transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced atrial inflammatory fibrosis and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF) in mice. METHODS: Ten-week-old male CL57/B6 mice were divided into a sham-operation (CNT) group and TAC-surgery group...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987943/a-standardized-extract-of-butea-monosperma-lam-flowers-suppresses-the-il-1%C3%AE-induced-expression-of-il-6-and-matrix-metalloproteases-by-activating-autophagy-in-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes
#15
Mohammad Y Ansari, Nazir M Khan, Tariq M Haqqi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of joint dysfunction, disability and poor quality of life in the affected population. The underlying mechanism of joint dysfunction involves increased oxidative stress, inflammation, high levels of cartilage extracellular matrix degrading proteases and decline in autophagy-a mechanism of cellular defense. There is no disease modifying therapies currently available for OA. Different parts of the Butea monosperma (Lam.) plant have widely been used in the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine system for the treatment of various human diseases including inflammatory conditions...
October 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972134/live-imaging-reveals-distinct-modes-of-neutrophil-and-macrophage-migration-within-interstitial-tissues
#16
Francisco Barros-Becker, Pui-Ying Lam, Robert Fisher, Anna Huttenlocher
Cell motility is required for diverse processes during immunity and inflammation. Classically, leukocyte motility is defined as an amoeboid type of migration, however some leukocytes, like macrophages, also employ a more mesenchymal mode. Here, we sought to characterize the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil and macrophage migration in vivo using dual real time imaging of leukocyte motility within interstitial tissues in zebrafish larvae. Neutrophils displayed a rounded morphology and rapid protease independent motility, lacked defined paxillin punctae and had persistent rearward polarization of stable F-actin and the microtubule network...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972095/interaction-of-neutrophils-with-macrophages-promotes-il-1%C3%AE-maturation-and-contributes-to-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Ai Sadatomo, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Homare Ito, Tadayoshi Karasawa, Hiroaki Kimura, Sachiko Watanabe, Yoshiko Mizushina, Jun Nakamura, Ryo Kamata, Tadashi Kasahara, Hisanaga Horie, Naohiro Sata, Masafumi Takahashi
Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-1β plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury; however, the mechanism by which I/R triggers IL-1β production in the liver remains unclear. Recent data have shown that neutrophils contribute to hepatic I/R injury independently of the inflammasomes regulating IL-1β maturation. Thus, we investigated the role of neutrophils in IL-1β maturation and tissue injury in a murine model of hepatic I/R. IL-1β was released from the I/R liver and its deficiency reduced reactive oxygen species generation, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses, such as inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine expression, thereby resulting in reduced tissue injury...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966616/factor-xii-driven-inflammatory-reactions-with-implications-for-anaphylaxis
#18
REVIEW
Lysann Bender, Henri Weidmann, Stefan Rose-John, Thomas Renné, Andy T Long
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction. It is triggered by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators from mast cells and basophils in response to immunologic or non-immunologic mechanisms. Mediators that are released upon mast cell activation include the highly sulfated polysaccharide and inorganic polymer heparin and polyphosphate (polyP), respectively. Heparin and polyP supply a negative surface for factor XII (FXII) activation, a serine protease that drives contact system-mediated coagulation and inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960398/nasal-protein-profiles-in-work-related-asthma-caused-by-different-exposures
#19
Hille Suojalehto, Irmeli Lindström, Henrik Wolff, Anne Puustinen
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of work-related asthma are incompletely delineated. Nasal cell samples may be informative about processes in the lower airways. Our aim was to determine the nasal protein expression profiles of work-related asthma caused by different kind of exposures. METHODS: We collected nasal brush samples from 82 non-smoking participants, including healthy controls and work-related asthma patients exposed to 1) protein allergens, 2) isocyanates, and 3) welding fumes the day after relevant exposure...
September 28, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959204/protease-activated-receptor-2-deficiency-attenuates-atherosclerotic-lesion-progression-and-instability-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#20
Pengfei Zuo, Zhi Zuo, Yueyue Zheng, Xin Wang, Qianxing Zhou, Long Chen, Genshan Ma
Inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. Accumulating evidence suggests that protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 contributes to the pathophysiology of chronic inflammation on the vasculature. To directly examine the role of PAR-2 in atherosclerosis, we generated apolipoprotein E/PAR-2 double-deficient mice. Mice were fed with high-fat diet for 12 weeks starting at ages of 6 weeks. PAR-2 deficiency attenuated atherosclerotic lesion progression with reduced total lesion area, reduced percentage of stenosis and reduced total necrotic core area...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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