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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926934/the-beneficial-effects-of-allicin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-are-comparable-to-losartan
#1
Ehécatl Miguel Ángel García Trejo, Abraham Said Arellano Buendía, Omegar Sánchez Reyes, Fernando Enrique García Arroyo, Raúl Arguello García, María Lilia Loredo Mendoza, Edilia Tapia, Laura Gabriela Sánchez Lozada, Horacio Osorio Alonso
Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926842/pharmacotherapy-with-thymoquinone-improved-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-integrity-and-functional-activity-enhanced-islets-revascularization-and-alleviated-metabolic-and-hepato-renal-disturbances-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#2
Adel Galal El-Shemi, Osama Adnan Kensara, Aiman Alsaegh, Mohammed Hasan Mukhtar
AIMS: This study is aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats, and exploring the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared STZ (65 mg/kg). After disease induction, 42 rats were equally assigned to: controls, STZ-diabetic group, and STZ-diabetic group treated with oral TQ (35 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks...
September 20, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922986/attenuation-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-by-an-indole-based-natural-compound-3-3-diindolylmethane-dim-through-activation-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathways-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#3
Subhadip Hajra, Abhishek Basu, Somnath Singha Roy, Arup Ranjan Patra, Sudin Bhattacharya
The most crucial complication related to doxorubicin (DOX) therapy is nonspecific cytotoxic effect on healthy normal cells. The clinical use of this broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent is restricted due to development of severe form of cardiotoxicity, myelosuppression and genotoxicity which interfere with therapeutic schedule, compromise treatment outcome and may lead to secondary malignancy. 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid formed by the hydrolysis of indolylmethyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin)...
September 18, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906088/bullous-cutaneous-larva-migrans-case-series-and-review-of-atypical-clinical-presentations
#4
Stefano Veraldi, Ermira Çuka, Paolo Pontini, Fabrizio Vaira
Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HRCLM) is caused by the penetration and migration in the epidermis of larvae of Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum. It is characterized by slightly raised and erythematous tracks, located especially on the feet. These tracks may be single or multiple, serpiginous or linear, ramified and intertwined, accompanied by pruritus. Atypical clinical presentations of HRCLM are currently more frequent than in the past. We present six patients with bullous HRCLM and discuss the possible pathogenetic factors...
October 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893045/estimation-of-serum-butyryl-cholinesterase-in-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Keerthi K Nair, Gujjar Vittobarao Pramod, Kanad Chaudhuri, Lingappa Ashok
INTRODUCTION: Oral cancer is a major global threat to public health. It is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in the modern era. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for over 90% of the malignancies involving the oral cavity. The enzyme- Butyryl Cholinesterase (BChE) is proposed to have a role in cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Few studies have been conducted for understanding the significance of serum BChE as a biomarker in oral cancer patients; however literature available is insufficient to arrive at a conclusion...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880088/brain-accumulation-of-ponatinib-and-its-active-metabolite-n-desmethyl-ponatinib-is-limited-by-p-glycoprotein-p-gp-abcb1-and-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-bcrp-abcg2
#6
Anita Kort, Stephanie van Hoppe, Rolf W Sparidans, Els Wagenaar, Jos H Beijnen, Alfred H Schinkel
Ponatinib is an oral BCR-ABL1 inhibitor for treatment of advanced leukemic diseases that carry the Philadelphia chromosome, specifically containing the T315I mutation yielding resistance to previously approved BCR-ABL1 inhibitors. Using in vitro transport assays and knockout mouse models, we investigated whether the multidrug efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 transport ponatinib and whether they, or the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A, affect the oral availability and brain accumulation of ponatinib and its active N-desmethyl metabolite (DMP)...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874476/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-folate-pathway-inhibitors-in-burkholderia-pseudomallei-deviation-from-the-norm
#7
Nicole L Podnecky, Katherine A Rhodes, Takehiko Mima, Heather R Drew, Sunisa Chirakul, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, James M Schupp, Derek S Sarovich, Bart J Currie, Paul Keim, Herbert P Schweizer
The trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole combination, co-trimoxazole, plays a vital role in the treatment of Burkholderia pseudomallei infections. Previous studies demonstrated that the B. pseudomallei BpeEF-OprC efflux pump confers widespread trimethoprim resistance in clinical and environmental isolates, but this is not accompanied by significant resistance to co-trimoxazole. Using the excluded select-agent strain B. pseudomallei Bp82, we now show that in vitro acquired trimethoprim versus co-trimoxazole resistance is mainly mediated by constitutive BpeEF-OprC expression due to bpeT mutations or by BpeEF-OprC overexpression due to bpeS mutations...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856946/spontaneous-hit-syndrome-post-knee-replacement-surgery-with-delayed-recovery-of-thrombocytopenia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Dilli Ram Poudel, Sushil Ghimire, Rashmi Dhital, Daniel A Forman, Theodore E Warkentin
Recently published reports have established a heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)-mimicking thromboembolic disorder without proximate heparin exposure, called spontaneous HIT syndrome. Although the pathophysiology remains unclear, anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies possibly triggered by exposure to knee cartilage glycosaminoglycans or other non-heparin polyanions found on bacterial surfaces and nucleic acids have been postulated. We present a 53-year-old female receiving antithrombotic prophylaxis with aspirin following right total knee replacement surgery (without perioperative or any previous lifetime heparin exposure) who acutely presented with high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) and right great saphenous vein thrombophlebitis on postoperative day (POD) 14; her platelet count at presentation was 13 × 10(9)/L...
September 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838249/filgotinib-for-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
REVIEW
Peter C Taylor, Maha Abdul Azeez, Serafim Kiriakidis
Biologics were the first targeted therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), having in common high clinical efficacy. Being proteins, they are administered parenterally. The first oral targeted small molecules approved for RA are competitive inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK) enzyme family which mediate signalling for a cytokine subset important in RA pathogenesis. Areas covered: Several JAK inhibitors have been developed with differing selectivity for the four JAK enzymes with a view to generating oral, multi-cytokine inhibitors...
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835272/anti-inflammatory-and-immunomodulatory-mechanisms-of-atorvastatin-in-a-murine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Xin Xu, Weiwei Gao, Shiqi Cheng, Dongpei Yin, Fei Li, Yingang Wu, Dongdong Sun, Shuai Zhou, Dong Wang, Yongqiang Zhang, Rongcai Jiang, Jianning Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury mechanism that has dual beneficial and detrimental roles in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compelling data indicate that statins, a group of lipid-lowering drugs, also have extensive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Among statins, atorvastatin has been demonstrated as a neuroprotective agent in experimental TBI; however, there is a lack of evidence regarding its effects on neuroinflammation during the acute phase of TBI...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828381/paracetamol-in-patent-ductus-arteriosus-treatment-efficacious-and-safe
#11
REVIEW
Flaminia Bardanzellu, Paola Neroni, Angelica Dessì, Vassilios Fanos
In preterm infants, failure or delay in spontaneous closure of Ductus Arteriosus (DA), resulting in the condition of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA), represents a significant issue. A prolonged situation of PDA can be associated with several short- and long-term complications. Despite years of researches and clinical experience on PDA management, unresolved questions about the treatment and heterogeneity of clinical practices in different centers still remain, in particular regarding timing and modality of intervention...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814828/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-oral-agents-for-the-treatment-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Guarnera, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In the therapeutic scenario of disease-modifying therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the introduction of oral agents, starting in 2010 with fingolimod, has been a huge step forward in therapeutic options due to the easier administration route. Three oral drugs fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, which are clinically approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in this work. Results of Phase III clinical trials and their extension studies showed that the three oral agents significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate - a superior efficacy compared to placebo...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809383/increasing-symptoms-in-irritable-bowel-symptoms-with-ingestion-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-are-mitigated-by-%C3%AE-galactosidase-treatment
#13
C J Tuck, K M Taylor, P R Gibson, J S Barrett, J G Muir
OBJECTIVES: Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are dietary FODMAPs (fermentable carbohydrates) associated with triggering gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial aimed to assess whether oral α-galactosidase co-ingestion with foods high in GOS and low in other FODMAPs would reduce symptoms. METHODS: Patients meeting the Rome III criteria for IBS who were hydrogen-producers on breath testing were recruited...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803392/attitudes-of-individuals-with-gaucher-disease-toward-substrate-reduction-therapies
#14
Victoria F Wagner, Hope Northrup, S Shahrukh Hashmi, Joanne M Nguyen, Mary Kay Koenig, Jessica M Davis
Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disorder. Previously, treatment for GD was limited to intravenous enzyme replacement therapies (ERTs). More recently, oral substrate reduction therapies (SRTs) were approved for treatment of GD. Although both therapies alleviate disease symptoms, attitudes toward SRTs and patient perceptions of health while using SRT have not been well established. Electronic surveys were administered to adults with GD and asked about treatment history, attitudes toward SRTs, and perception of health while using SRTs as compared to ERTs, if applicable to the participant...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796151/potential-development-of-tumor-targeted-oral-anti-cancer-prodrugs-amino-acid-and-dipeptide-monoester-prodrugs-of-gemcitabine
#15
Yasuhiro Tsume, Adam J Drelich, David E Smith, Gordon L Amidon
One of the main obstacles for cancer therapies is to deliver medicines effectively to target sites. Since stroma cells are developed around tumors, chemotherapeutic agents have to go through stroma cells in order to reach tumors. As a method to improve drug delivery to the tumor site, a prodrug approach for gemcitabine was adopted. Amino acid and dipeptide monoester prodrugs of gemcitabine were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to thymidine phosphorylase and cytidine deaminase, antiproliferative activity, and uptake/permeability in HFF cells as a surrogate to stroma cells were determined and compared to their parent drug, gemcitabine...
August 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774709/treatment-with-antioxidants-ameliorates-oxidative-damage-in-a-mouse-model-of-propionic-acidemia
#16
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Esmeralda Alonso-Barroso, Belén Pérez, Michael P Murphy, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of propionic acidemia (PA), a life threatening disease caused by the deficiency of propionyl CoA-carboxylase, in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, odd-number chain fatty acids and cholesterol. Patients develop multisystemic complications including seizures, extrapyramidal symptoms, basal ganglia deterioration, pancreatitis and cardiomyopathy. The accumulation of toxic metabolites results in mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage, all of which have been documented in patients' samples and in a hypomorphic mouse model...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774699/pulmonary-and-sinus-fungal-diseases-in-non-immunocompromised-patients
#17
REVIEW
David W Denning, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The human respiratory tract is exposed daily to airborne fungi, fungal enzymes, and secondary metabolites. The endemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and occasionally Aspergillus fumigatus, are primary pulmonary pathogens of otherwise healthy people. Such infections resolve in most people, and only a few infections lead to disease. However, many fungi are directly allergenic by colonising the respiratory tract or indirectly through contact with cell wall constituents and proteases, causing or exacerbating allergic disease...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774334/inhibitory-effects-of-ponciri-fructus-on-testosterone-induced-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-rats
#18
Woo-Young Jeon, Ohn Soon Kim, Chang-Seob Seo, Seong Eun Jin, Jung-Ae Kim, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Yong-Ung Kim, Mee-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is non-cancerous condition of enlargement of the prostate, a common occurrence in older men. The immature fruits of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Rafinesque (Rutaceae), Ponciri Fructus are widely used in traditional oriental medicine for the therapy of various diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of a Ponciri Fructus extract (PFE) on the development of BPH in a in a rat model of BPH induced by testosterone propionate (TP)...
August 3, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764284/efficacy-of-bromelain-along-with-trypsin-rutoside-trihydrate-enzymes-and-diclofenac-sodium-combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-tmj-osteoarthritis-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#19
S Jayachandran, Priyanka Khobre
INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder characterized by chronic inflammatory response of cartilage and articular surface involving Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ). Pain as one of the major symptom of osteoarthritis affects the quality of life and is usually managed by Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac sodium. Bromelain, trypsin and rutoside trihydrate formulation can be used to treat this disease because of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756410/reduction-of-podocyte-globotriaosylceramide-content-in-adult-male-patients-with-fabry-disease-with-amenable-gla-mutations-following-6-months-of-migalastat-treatment
#20
Michael Mauer, Alexey Sokolovskiy, Jay A Barth, Jeffrey P Castelli, Hadis N Williams, Elfrida R Benjamin, Behzad Najafian
OBJECTIVE: Deficiency of α-galactosidase A (αGal-A) in Fabry disease leads to the accumulation mainly of globotriaosylceramide (GL3) in multiple renal cell types. Glomerular podocytes are relatively resistant to clearance of GL3 inclusions by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Migalastat, an orally bioavailable small molecule capable of chaperoning misfolded αGal-A to lysosomes, is approved in the European Union for the long-term treatment of patients with Fabry disease and amenable GLA (α-galactosidase A enzyme) mutations...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
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