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Genetics of infective endocarditis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943151/genomic-characterization-phylogenetic-analysis-and-identification-of-virulence-factors-in-aerococcus-sanguinicola-and-aerococcus-urinae-strains-isolated-from-infection-episodes
#1
Derya Carkaci, Katrine Højholt, Xiaohui Chen Nielsen, Rimtas Dargis, Simon Rasmussen, Ole Skovgaard, Kurt Fuursted, Paal Skytt Andersen, Marc Stegger, Jens Jørgen Christensen
Aerococcus sanguinicola and Aerococcus urinae are emerging pathogens in clinical settings mostly being causative agents of urinary tract infections (UTIs), urogenic sepsis and more seldomly complicated infective endocarditis (IE). Limited knowledge exists concerning the pathogenicity of these two species. Eight clinical A. sanguinicola (isolated from 2009 to 2015) and 40 clinical A. urinae (isolated from 1984 to 2015) strains from episodes of UTIs, bacteremia, and IE were whole-genome sequenced (WGS) to analyze genomic diversity and characterization of virulence genes involved in the bacterial pathogenicity...
September 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917497/comparison-of-outcome-of-possible-versus-definite-infective-endocarditis-involving-prosthetic-or-bioprosthetic-heart-valves
#2
MULTICENTER STUDY
Laurent Fauchier, Lauriane Pericart, Thierry Bourguignon, Thibaud Genet, Arnaud Bisson, Anne Bernard, Louis Bernard, Dominique Babuty
The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with definite and possible infective endocarditis (IE) involving prosthetic heart valve, and to identify prognostic factors for long-term mortality, using data from an unselected cohort of consecutive patients. We studied data from 133 consecutive patients with IE involving prosthetic heart valve seen in an academic institution between 1990 and 2012. Patients were classified according to the modified Duke criteria for IE: patients with possible IE (n = 47, 35%) and patients with definite IE (n = 86, 65%)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826581/uncommon-causes-of-cerebral-microbleeds
#3
REVIEW
Nariman Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Varun Chandi Pulakanti, Ramin Zand
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. METHODS: We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. RESULTS: CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea...
October 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818910/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-clinical-isolate-of-streptococcus-mutans-strain-hm
#4
Yoshio Kondo, Haruka Nishimata, Kiyoshi Hidaka, Tomoyuki Hasuwa, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Taku Fujiwara, Tomonori Hoshino
We report the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans strain HM isolated from a 4-year-old girl with infective endocarditis. The genomics information will provide information on the genetic diversity and virulence potential of S. mutans strain HM.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790435/emergence-of-a-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-stg62647-lineage-associated-with-severe-clinical-manifestations
#5
Oddvar Oppegaard, Haima Mylvaganam, Steinar Skrede, Paul Christoffer Lindemann, Bård Reiakvam Kittang
Increasing incidence rates of invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) infections have been reported worldwide, but the evolutionary mechanisms underlying this development remain elusive. Through prospective surveillance of invasive SDSE infections in western Norway, we observed the emergence of a novel and virulent SDSE genotype, stG62647. This emm-type, rarely encountered as a cause of invasive disease during 1999-2012, emerged in 2013 as the predominant SDSE-genotype. The stG62647-infections were associated with an aggressive clinical course, including the occurrence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing soft-tissue infections and endocarditis...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729207/first-two-cases-of-severe-multifocal-infections-caused-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-switzerland-characterization-of-an-atypical-non-k1-k2-serotype-strain-causing-liver-abscess-and-endocarditis
#6
Baharak Babouee Flury, Valentina Donà, Niccolò Buetti, Hansjakob Furrer, Andrea Endimiani
BACKGROUND: We describe the first two multifocal invasive infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae recently observed in Switzerland. METHODS: Phenotypic (MIC assays and string test) and molecular analyses (PCR/Sequencing for bla, virulence factor genes and whole genome sequencing for one strain) were performed to characterize the causative K. pneumoniae isolates. RESULTS: Both K. pneumoniae isolates (Kp1 and Kp2) were pan-susceptible to antibiotics and produced narrow-spectrum SHV β-lactamases...
September 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722567/bartonella-infection-in-hematophagous-insectivorous-and-phytophagous-bat-populations-of-central-mexico-and-the-yucatan-peninsula
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Matthew J Stuckey, Bruno B Chomel, Guillermo Galvez-Romero, José Ignacio Olave-Leyva, Cirani Obregón-Morales, Hayde Moreno-Sandoval, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Mónica Salas-Rojas, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién
Although emerging nonviral pathogens remain relatively understudied in bat populations, there is an increasing focus on identifying bat-associated bartonellae around the world. Many novel Bartonella strains have been described from both bats and their arthropod ectoparasites, including Bartonella mayotimonensis, a zoonotic agent of human endocarditis. This cross-sectional study was designed to describe novel Bartonella strains isolated from bats sampled in Mexico and evaluate factors potentially associated with infection...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691456/genetic-correlation-between-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-periodontal-disease-the-role-of-sex-and-il-10
#8
L Azzi, S Rania, F Spadari, R Vinci, M Manfredini, F Croveri, A Boggio, L Tettamanti, A Tagliabue, J Silvestre-Rangil, C Bellintani
The chronic stimulation of the immune system due to the presence of bacterial antigens within periodontal tissues has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, like diabetes mellitus, infective endocarditis or cardiovascular atherosclerosis. The current study aims at evaluating the correlation between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Periodontal Disease (PD) with special attention to genetic polymorphisms in cytokine expression. A total number of 34 patients affected by RA were recruited. Each of them underwent haematochemical analysis and data were collected for Rheumatoid Factor (RF), Anti-Citrullinated Protein’s Antibody (CCP) and HLA-BDR1...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670302/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-from-mineral-water-and-spring-water-in-china
#9
Lei Wei, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Weipeng Guo, Moutong Chen, Liang Xue, Juan Wang, Lianying Ma
Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen which is frequently detected in mineral water and spring water for human consumption and causes human urinary tract infections, endocarditis and neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of E. faecalis from mineral water and spring water in China. Of 314 water samples collected from January 2013 to January 2014, 48 samples (15.3%) were contaminated E. faecalis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659664/inherited-variation-in-cytokine-acute-phase-response-and-calcium-metabolism-genes-affects-susceptibility-to-infective-endocarditis
#10
Anastasia V Ponasenko, Anton G Kutikhin, Maria V Khutornaya, Natalia V Rutkovskaya, Natalia V Kondyukova, Yuri N Odarenko, Yana V Kazachek, Anna V Tsepokina, Leonid S Barbarash, Arseniy E Yuzhalin
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659548/pathogenicity-of-enterococci
#11
REVIEW
Yasuyoshi Ike
Enterococci belong to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of a wide variety of animals from insects and to human, and the commensal organism in humans and animals. The commensal/probiotic role of enterococci has evolved through thousands of years in mutual coexistence. Enterococcus have many favorable traits that have been appreciated in food fermentation and preservation, and many serve as probiotics to promote health. While lactobacillus have been shown to confer numerous benefits on and often regarded as health bringing organisms, enterococci have become more recognized as emerging human pathogens in recent years...
2017: Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629255/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-associated-to-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-endocarditis-a-case-report
#12
D I Costescu Strachinaru, M Chaumont, D Gobin, L Sattar, M Strachinaru, E Karakike, A Roman, D Konopnicki
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but severe and potentially fatal syndrome that is characterized by increased proliferation and activation of benign macrophages with hemophagocytosis throughout the reticuloendothelial system. This syndrome is classified as primary (genetic) or secondary when acquired in the context of infections (usually viral), malignancies, rheumatologic and metabolic diseases. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of HLH complicating a Haemophilus parainfluenzae mitral valve endocarditis and resolving under antibiotic and surgical treatment alone...
June 19, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592797/distinct-biological-potential-of-streptococcus-gordonii-and-streptococcus-sanguinis-revealed-by-comparative-genome-analysis
#13
Wenning Zheng, Mui Fern Tan, Lesley A Old, Ian C Paterson, Nicholas S Jakubovics, Siew Woh Choo
Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque and important agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE). To gain a greater understanding of these two closely related species, we performed comparative analyses on 14 new S. gordonii and 5 S. sanguinis strains using various bioinformatics approaches. We revealed S. gordonii and S. sanguinis harbor open pan-genomes and share generally high sequence homology and number of core genes including virulence genes. However, we observed subtle differences in genomic islands and prophages between the species...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473881/streptococcus-tigurinus-is-frequent-among-gtfr-negative-streptococcus-oralis-isolates-and-in-the-human-oral-cavity-but-highly-virulent-strains-are-uncommon
#14
Georg Conrads, Svenja Barth, Maureen Möckel, Lucas Lenz, Mark van der Linden, Karsten Henne
Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Mitis group and is associated with infective endocarditis. Low and high virulent variants have been described. A search was made in the national reference collection of endocarditis isolates for S. tigurinus-like strains by sequencing housekeeping genes (16S rRNA-gene, gdh, groEL, sodA). The strains were further profiled by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a choice of virulence genes (rib-like, cshA-like, gtfR, int, pitA, hylA). To study the prevalence and abundance of S...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438095/arcobacter-an-emerging-food-borne-zoonotic-pathogen-its-public-health-concerns-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-comprehensive-review
#15
Thadiyam Puram Ramees, Kuldeep Dhama, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ramswaroop Singh Rathore, Ashok Kumar, Mani Saminathan, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal Singh Malik, Raj Kumar Singh
Arcobacter has emerged as an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen, causing sometimes serious infections in humans and animals. Newer species of Arcobacter are being incessantly emerging (presently 25 species have been identified) with novel information on the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic diversity among different Arcobacter species. These have been reported from chickens, domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs), reptiles (lizards, snakes and chelonians), meat (poultry, pork, goat, lamb, beef, rabbit), vegetables and from humans in different countries...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412525/liver-microbiome-of-peromyscus-leucopus-a-key-reservoir-host-species-for-emerging-infectious-diseases-in-north-america
#16
A André, A Mouton, V Millien, J Michaux
Microbiome studies generally focus on the gut microbiome, which is composed of a large proportion of commensal bacteria. Here we propose a first analysis of the liver microbiome using next generation sequencing as a tool to detect potentially pathogenic strains. We used Peromyscus leucopus, the main reservoir host species of Lyme disease in eastern North America, as a model and sequenced V5-V6 regions of the 16S gene from 18 populations in southern Quebec (Canada). The Lactobacillus genus was found to dominate the liver microbiome...
April 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283005/-comparison-of-maldi-tof-and-16s-rrna-methods-in-identification-of-viridans-group-streptococci
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Serap Süzük Yıldız, Banu Kaşkatepe, Salih Altınok, Mustafa Çetin, Alper Karagöz, Sümeyra Savaş
Accurate identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) frequently encountered as a causative agent of infective endocarditis is always a challenge for the clinical microbiology laboratory. Clinical microbiology laboratories generally use semi automatic/full automatic systems, molecular methods and also conventional methods for the identification of these bacteria. There are recent published studies that have used MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight) systems in the identification of VGS...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238238/bicuspid-aortic-valve-a-review-of-its-genetics-and-clinical-significance
#18
Lei Wang, Li Ming Wang, Wen Chen, Xin Chen
The aim of this review was to describe recent advancements in the understanding of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly, and affects between 0.46% and 1.37% of the population. There is a male predominance of approximately 3:1.While isolated BAV is found in certain patients, it is often associated with other congenital cardiac lesions, including dilatation of the thoracic aorta, coarctation of the aorta and abnormalities of the coronary anatomy. In most cases, it remains undetected until the patient contracts infective endocarditis, or calcification occurs...
September 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217558/the-scid-mouse-model-for-identifying-virulence-determinants-in-coxiella-burnetii
#19
Erin J van Schaik, Elizabeth D Case, Eric Martinez, Matteo Bonazzi, James E Samuel
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular, zoonotic pathogen that is the causative agent of Q fever. Infection most frequently occurs after inhalation of contaminated aerosols, which can lead to acute, self-limiting febrile illness or more serve chronic infections such as hepatitis or endocarditis. Macrophages are the principal target cells during infection where C. burnetii resides and replicates within a unique phagolysosome-like compartment, the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV). The first virulence determinant described as necessary for infection was full-length lipopolysaccarride (LPS); spontaneous rough mutants (phase II) arise after passage in immuno-incompetent hosts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196877/using-quantitative-spectrometry-to-understand-the-influence-of-genetics-and-nutritional-perturbations-on-the-virulence-potential-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Jessica R Chapman, Divya Balasubramanian, Kayan Tam, Manor Askenazi, Richard Copin, Bo Shopsin, Victor J Torres, Beatrix M Ueberheide
Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is the leading cause of a variety of bacterial infections ranging from superficial skin infections to invasive and life threatening diseases such as septic bacteremia, necrotizing pneumonia, and endocarditis. The success of Sa as a human pathogen is contributed to its ability to adapt to different environments by changing expression, production, or secretion of virulence factors. Although Sa immune evasion is well-studied, the regulation of virulence factors under different nutrient and growth conditions is still not well understood...
April 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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