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Genetics of infective endocarditis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473881/streptococcus-tigurinus-is-frequent-among-gtfr-negative-streptococcus-oralis-isolates-and-in-the-human-oral-cavity-but-highly-virulent-strains-are-uncommon
#1
Georg Conrads, Svenja Barth, Maureen Möckel, Lucas Lenz, Mark van der Linden, Karsten Henne
Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Mitis group and is associated with infective endocarditis. Low and high virulent variants have been described. A search was made in the national reference collection of endocarditis isolates for S. tigurinus-like strains by sequencing housekeeping genes (16S rRNA-gene, gdh, groEL, sodA). The strains were further profiled by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a choice of virulence genes (rib-like, cshA-like, gtfR, int, pitA, hylA). To study the prevalence and abundance of S...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438095/arcobacter-an-emerging-food-borne-zoonotic-pathogen-its-public-health-concerns-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-comprehensive-review
#2
Thadiyam Puram Ramees, Kuldeep Dhama, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ramswaroop Singh Rathore, Ashok Kumar, Mani Saminathan, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal Singh Malik, Raj Kumar Singh
Arcobacter has emerged as an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen, causing sometimes serious infections in humans and animals. Newer species of Arcobacter are being incessantly emerging (presently 25 species have been identified) with novel information on the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic diversity among different Arcobacter species. These have been reported from chickens, domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs), reptiles (lizards, snakes and chelonians), meat (poultry, pork, goat, lamb, beef, rabbit), vegetables and from humans in different countries...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412525/liver-microbiome-of-peromyscus-leucopus-a-key-reservoir-host-species-for-emerging-infectious-diseases-in-north-america
#3
A André, A Mouton, V Millien, J Michaux
Microbiome studies generally focus on the gut microbiome, which is composed of a large proportion of commensal bacteria. Here we propose a first analysis of the liver microbiome using next generation sequencing as a tool to detect potentially pathogenic strains. We used Peromyscus leucopus, the main reservoir host species of Lyme disease in eastern North America, as a model and sequenced V5-V6 regions of the 16S gene from 18 populations in southern Quebec (Canada). The Lactobacillus genus was found to dominate the liver microbiome...
April 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283005/-comparison-of-maldi-tof-and-16s-rrna-methods-in-identification-of-viridans-group-streptococci
#4
Serap Süzük Yıldız, Banu Kaşkatepe, Salih Altınok, Mustafa Çetin, Alper Karagöz, Sümeyra Savaş
Accurate identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) frequently encountered as a causative agent of infective endocarditis is always a challenge for the clinical microbiology laboratory. Clinical microbiology laboratories generally use semi automatic/full automatic systems, molecular methods and also conventional methods for the identification of these bacteria. There are recent published studies that have used MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight) systems in the identification of VGS...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238238/bicuspid-aortic-valve-a-review-of-its-genetics-and-clinical-significance
#5
Lei Wang, Li Ming Wang, Wen Chen, Xin Chen
The aim of this review was to describe recent advancements in the understanding of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly, and affects between 0.46% and 1.37% of the population. There is a male predominance of approximately 3:1.While isolated BAV is found in certain patients, it is often associated with other congenital cardiac lesions, including dilatation of the thoracic aorta, coarctation of the aorta and abnormalities of the coronary anatomy. In most cases, it remains undetected until the patient contracts infective endocarditis, or calcification occurs...
September 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217558/the-scid-mouse-model-for-identifying-virulence-determinants-in-coxiella-burnetii
#6
Erin J van Schaik, Elizabeth D Case, Eric Martinez, Matteo Bonazzi, James E Samuel
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular, zoonotic pathogen that is the causative agent of Q fever. Infection most frequently occurs after inhalation of contaminated aerosols, which can lead to acute, self-limiting febrile illness or more serve chronic infections such as hepatitis or endocarditis. Macrophages are the principal target cells during infection where C. burnetii resides and replicates within a unique phagolysosome-like compartment, the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV). The first virulence determinant described as necessary for infection was full-length lipopolysaccarride (LPS); spontaneous rough mutants (phase II) arise after passage in immuno-incompetent hosts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196877/using-quantitative-spectrometry-to-understand-the-influence-of-genetics-and-nutritional-perturbations-on-the-virulence-potential-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Jessica R Chapman, Divya Balasubramanian, Kayan Tam, Manor Askenazi, Richard Copin, Bo Shopsin, Victor J Torres, Beatrix M Ueberheide
Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is the leading cause of a variety of bacterial infections ranging from superficial skin infections to invasive and life threatening diseases such as septic bacteremia, necrotizing pneumonia, and endocarditis. The success of Sa as a human pathogen is contributed to its ability to adapt to different environments by changing expression, production, or secretion of virulence factors. Although Sa immune evasion is well-studied, the regulation of virulence factors under different nutrient and growth conditions is still not well understood...
April 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159672/influence-of-vancomycin-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-on-the-outcome-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-left-sided-infective-endocarditis-treated-with-antistaphylococcal-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-a-prospective-cohort-study-by-the-international-collaboration
#8
J M Pericàs, J A Messina, C Garcia-de-la-Mària, L Park, B K Sharma-Kuinkel, F Marco, D Wray, Z A Kanafani, M Carugati, E Durante-Mangoni, P Tattevin, V H Chu, A Moreno, V G Fowler, J M Miró
OBJECTIVES: Left-sided methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) endocarditis treated with cloxacillin has a poorer prognosis when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is ≥1.5 mg/L. We aimed to validate this using the International Collaboration on Endocarditis cohort and to analyse whether specific genetic characteristics were associated with a high vancomycin MIC (≥1.5 mg/L) phenotype. METHODS: All patients with left-sided MSSA infective endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactam antibiotics between 2000 and 2006 with available isolates were included...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110789/exudative-epidermitis-of-piglets-caused-by-non-toxigenic-staphylococcus-sciuri
#9
Lixin Lu, Kongwang He, Yanxiu Ni, Zhengyu Yu, Aihua Mao
Infections with strains of Staphylococcus sciuri are a potential threat to animal and public health, and a cause for considerable concern. We isolated and identified S. sciuri as a pathogen from an acute outbreak of exudative epidermitis in piglets for further genetic identification using experimental infections. The results of this study showed that S. sciuri strain NJ1306 reproduced exudative epidermitis in experimentally infected 5-day-old piglets. The isolated bacteria also caused sudden death in BALB/c mice following intraperitoneal injection with 5×10(8) CFU of the isolate...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918263/mycobacterium-chimaera-colonisation-of-heater-cooler-units-hcu-in-western-australia-2015-investigation-of-possible-iatrogenic-infection-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#10
James Owen Robinson, Geoffrey Wallace Coombs, David John Speers, Terillee Keehner, Anthony David Keil, Victoria D'Abrera, Peter Boan, Stanley Pang
Following the reported link between heater-cooler unit (HCU) colonisation with Mycobacterium chimaera and endocarditis, mycobacterial sampling of all HCUs in use in Western Australia was initiated from August 2015, revealing M. chimaera colonisation in 10 of 15 HCUs. After M. chimaera was isolated from a pleural biopsy from a cardiothoracic patient who may have been exposed to a colonised HCU, a whole genome sequencing investigation was performed involving 65 specimens from 15 HCUs across five hospitals to assess if this infection was related to the HCU...
November 17, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892875/the-zoonotic-potential-of-lactococcus-garvieae-an-overview-on-microbiology-epidemiology-virulence-factors-and-relationship-with-its-presence-in-foods
#11
REVIEW
Alicia Gibello, Fátima Galán-Sánchez, M Mar Blanco, Manuel Rodríguez-Iglesias, Lucas Domínguez, José F Fernández-Garayzábal
Lactococcus garvieae is a relevant worldwide fish pathogen affecting various farmed and wild marine and freshwater species. It has also been isolated from other animals, such as ruminants with subclinical mastitis and pigs with pneumonia. From the early 90s, L. garvieae has been associated with different human infections, mainly endocarditis. During the last five years, human infections by this bacterium appear to be increasing, likely due to the improvement in microbiological methods for bacterial identification and the alertness of this bacterium by physicians...
December 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818810/familial-adenomatous-polyposis-manifesting-as-lactococcus-endocarditis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-association-of-lactococcus-with-underlying-gastrointestinal-disease
#12
Taylor C Bazemore, Stacey A Maskarinec, Kahli Zietlow, Edward F Hendershot, John R Perfect
A 45-year-old male with a prosthetic aortic valve presented to the hospital with several months of generalized malaise. On admission, he was noted to have anemia of unclear etiology and subsequently became febrile with multiple blood cultures growing Lactococcus garvieae. Inpatient workup was concerning for infectious endocarditis (IE) secondary to Lactococcus. The patient was discharged home with appropriate antimicrobial therapy; however, he was readmitted for persistent, symptomatic anemia and underwent colonoscopy, which revealed innumerable colonic polyps consistent with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) that was later confirmed with genetic testing...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736784/antibodies-targeting-hsa-and-pada-prevent-platelet-aggregation-and-protect-rats-against-experimental-endocarditis-induced-by-streptococcus-gordonii
#13
Stefano Mancini, Carmen Menzi, Frank Oechslin, Philippe Moreillon, José Manuel Entenza
Streptococcus gordonii and related species of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of infective endocarditis (IE). We explored vaccination as a strategy to prevent VGS-IE, using a novel antigen-presenting system based on non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis displaying vaccinogens on its surface. Hsa and PadA are surface-located S. gordonii proteins implicated in platelet adhesion and aggregation, which are key steps in the pathogenesis of IE. This function makes them ideal targets for vaccination against VGS-IE...
December 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505001/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-streptococcus-tigurinus-strains-identifies-genetic-elements-specifically-and-uniquely-present-in-highly-virulent-strains
#14
Seydina M Diene, Patrice François, Andrea Zbinden, José Manuel Entenza, Grégory Resch
Streptococcus tigurinus is responsible for severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. As described, S. tigurinus isolates AZ_3aT and AZ_14 were highly virulent (HV phenotype) in an experimental model of infective endocarditis and showed enhanced adherence and invasion of human endothelial cells when compared to low virulent S. tigurinus isolate AZ_8 (LV phenotype). Here, we sought whether genetic determinants could explain the higher virulence of AZ_3aT and AZ_14 isolates...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463203/new-insights-into-the-enterococcus-faecium-and-streptococcus-gallolyticus-subsp-gallolyticus-host-interaction-mechanisms
#15
Ana María Sánchez-Díaz, Beatriz Romero-Hernández, Elisa Conde-Moreno, Young-Keun Kwak, Javier Zamora, Patricia Colque-Navarro, Roland Möllby, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Rafael Cantón, Laura García-Bermejo, Rosa Del Campo
Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406563/ctam-is-required-for-menaquinol-oxidase-aa3-function-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Neal D Hammer, Lici A Schurig-Briccio, Svetlana Y Gerdes, Robert B Gennis, Eric P Skaar
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis in the developed world. The ability of S. aureus to cause substantial disease in distinct host environments is supported by a flexible metabolism that allows this pathogen to overcome challenges unique to each host organ. One feature of staphylococcal metabolic flexibility is a branched aerobic respiratory chain composed of multiple terminal oxidases...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344596/identification-of-infantile-diarrhea-caused-by-breast-milk-transmitted-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#17
Zhong Chen, Wei-Guang Pan, Wei-Yi Xian, Hang Cheng, Jin-Xin Zheng, Qing-Hua Hu, Zhi-Jian Yu, Qi-Wen Deng
Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known organism which is responsible for a variety of human infectious diseases including skin infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Few of the microorganisms can be transmitted from mother to the newborn or infant by milk breastfeeding. This study aims to identify transmission of S. aureus from healthy, lactating mothers to their infants by breastfeeding. Stool specimens of diarrheal infants and breast milk of their mother (totally three pairs) were collected and six Staphylococcus aureus isolates were cultured positively...
October 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294620/pantoea-agglomerans-a-mysterious-bacterium-of-evil-and-good-part-iii-deleterious-effects-infections-of-humans-animals-and-plants
#18
REVIEW
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Barbara Mackiewicz, Marta Kinga Lemieszek, Marcin Golec, Janusz Milanowski
Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097812/carriage-clinical-microbiology-and-transmission-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Anna Aryee, Jonathan D Edgeworth
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in clinical practice and a major diagnostic focus for the routine microbiology laboratory. It is carried as a harmless commensal in up to two-thirds of the population at any one time predominantly not only in the anterior nares, but also in multiple other sites such as the groin, axilla, throat, perineum, vagina and rectum. It colonizes skin breach sites, such as ulcers and wounds, and causes superficial and deep skin and soft tissue infections and life-threatening deep seated infections particularly endocarditis and osteomyelitis...
April 21, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26967674/enterococcus-faecalis-ebp-pili-are-important-for-cell-cell-aggregation-and-intraspecies-gene-transfer
#20
Sabina Leanti La Rosa, Maria Camila Montealegre, Kavindra V Singh, Barbara E Murray
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that ranks among the leading causes of biofilm-associated infections. We previously demonstrated that the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili (Ebp) of E. faecalis play a major role in biofilm formation, adherence to abiotic surfaces and experimental infections. In this study, derivatives of E. faecalis strain OG1 were engineered to further characterize functions of Ebp pili. Loss of pili resulted in a 36-fold decrease in the number of closely associated cells when OG1RFΔebpABC was mixed with OG1SSpΔebpABC, compared with mixing the Ebp+ parental strains...
May 2016: Microbiology
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