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Genetics of infective endocarditis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918263/mycobacterium-chimaera-colonisation-of-heater-cooler-units-hcu-in-western-australia-2015-investigation-of-possible-iatrogenic-infection-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#1
James Owen Robinson, Geoffrey Wallace Coombs, David John Speers, Terillee Keehner, Anthony David Keil, Victoria D'Abrera, Peter Boan, Stanley Pang
Following the reported link between heater-cooler unit (HCU) colonisation with Mycobacterium chimaera and endocarditis, mycobacterial sampling of all HCUs in use in Western Australia was initiated from August 2015, revealing M. chimaera colonisation in 10 of 15 HCUs. After M. chimaera was isolated from a pleural biopsy from a cardiothoracic patient who may have been exposed to a colonised HCU, a whole genome sequencing investigation was performed involving 65 specimens from 15 HCUs across five hospitals to assess if this infection was related to the HCU...
November 17, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892875/the-zoonotic-potential-of-lactococcus-garvieae-an-overview-on-microbiology-epidemiology-virulence-factors-and-relationship-with-its-presence-in-foods
#2
REVIEW
Alicia Gibello, Fátima Galán-Sánchez, M Mar Blanco, Manuel Rodríguez-Iglesias, Lucas Domínguez, José F Fernández-Garayzábal
Lactococcus garvieae is a relevant worldwide fish pathogen affecting various farmed and wild marine and freshwater species. It has also been isolated from other animals, such as ruminants with subclinical mastitis and pigs with pneumonia. From the early 90s, L. garvieae has been associated with different human infections, mainly endocarditis. During the last five years, human infections by this bacterium appear to be increasing, likely due to the improvement in microbiological methods for bacterial identification and the alertness of this bacterium by physicians...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818810/familial-adenomatous-polyposis-manifesting-as-lactococcus-endocarditis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-association-of-lactococcus-with-underlying-gastrointestinal-disease
#3
Taylor C Bazemore, Stacey A Maskarinec, Kahli Zietlow, Edward F Hendershot, John R Perfect
A 45-year-old male with a prosthetic aortic valve presented to the hospital with several months of generalized malaise. On admission, he was noted to have anemia of unclear etiology and subsequently became febrile with multiple blood cultures growing Lactococcus garvieae. Inpatient workup was concerning for infectious endocarditis (IE) secondary to Lactococcus. The patient was discharged home with appropriate antimicrobial therapy; however, he was readmitted for persistent, symptomatic anemia and underwent colonoscopy, which revealed innumerable colonic polyps consistent with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) that was later confirmed with genetic testing...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736784/antibodies-targeting-hsa-and-pada-prevent-platelet-aggregation-and-protect-rats-against-experimental-endocarditis-induced-by-streptococcus-gordonii
#4
Stefano Mancini, Carmen Menzi, Frank Oechslin, Philippe Moreillon, José Manuel Entenza
Streptococcus gordonii and related species of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of infective endocarditis (IE). We explored vaccination as a strategy to prevent VGS-IE, using a novel antigen-presenting system based on non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis displaying vaccinogens on its surface. Hsa and PadA are surface-located S. gordonii proteins implicated in platelet adhesion and aggregation, which are key steps in the pathogenesis of IE. This function makes them ideal targets for vaccination against VGS-IE...
December 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505001/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-streptococcus-tigurinus-strains-identifies-genetic-elements-specifically-and-uniquely-present-in-highly-virulent-strains
#5
Seydina M Diene, Patrice François, Andrea Zbinden, José Manuel Entenza, Grégory Resch
Streptococcus tigurinus is responsible for severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. As described, S. tigurinus isolates AZ_3aT and AZ_14 were highly virulent (HV phenotype) in an experimental model of infective endocarditis and showed enhanced adherence and invasion of human endothelial cells when compared to low virulent S. tigurinus isolate AZ_8 (LV phenotype). Here, we sought whether genetic determinants could explain the higher virulence of AZ_3aT and AZ_14 isolates...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463203/new-insights-into-the-enterococcus-faecium-and-streptococcus-gallolyticus-subsp-gallolyticus-host-interaction-mechanisms
#6
Ana María Sánchez-Díaz, Beatriz Romero-Hernández, Elisa Conde-Moreno, Young-Keun Kwak, Javier Zamora, Patricia Colque-Navarro, Roland Möllby, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Rafael Cantón, Laura García-Bermejo, Rosa Del Campo
Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406563/ctam-is-required-for-menaquinol-oxidase-aa3-function-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Neal D Hammer, Lici A Schurig-Briccio, Svetlana Y Gerdes, Robert B Gennis, Eric P Skaar
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis in the developed world. The ability of S. aureus to cause substantial disease in distinct host environments is supported by a flexible metabolism that allows this pathogen to overcome challenges unique to each host organ. One feature of staphylococcal metabolic flexibility is a branched aerobic respiratory chain composed of multiple terminal oxidases...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344596/identification-of-infantile-diarrhea-caused-by-breast-milk-transmitted-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#8
Zhong Chen, Wei-Guang Pan, Wei-Yi Xian, Hang Cheng, Jin-Xin Zheng, Qing-Hua Hu, Zhi-Jian Yu, Qi-Wen Deng
Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known organism which is responsible for a variety of human infectious diseases including skin infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Few of the microorganisms can be transmitted from mother to the newborn or infant by milk breastfeeding. This study aims to identify transmission of S. aureus from healthy, lactating mothers to their infants by breastfeeding. Stool specimens of diarrheal infants and breast milk of their mother (totally three pairs) were collected and six Staphylococcus aureus isolates were cultured positively...
October 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294620/pantoea-agglomerans-a-mysterious-bacterium-of-evil-and-good-part-iii-deleterious-effects-infections-of-humans-animals-and-plants
#9
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Barbara Mackiewicz, Marta Kinga Lemieszek, Marcin Golec, Janusz Milanowski
Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097812/carriage-clinical-microbiology-and-transmission-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Anna Aryee, Jonathan D Edgeworth
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in clinical practice and a major diagnostic focus for the routine microbiology laboratory. It is carried as a harmless commensal in up to two-thirds of the population at any one time predominantly not only in the anterior nares, but also in multiple other sites such as the groin, axilla, throat, perineum, vagina and rectum. It colonizes skin breach sites, such as ulcers and wounds, and causes superficial and deep skin and soft tissue infections and life-threatening deep seated infections particularly endocarditis and osteomyelitis...
April 21, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26967674/enterococcus-faecalis-ebp-pili-are-important-for-cell-cell-aggregation-and-intraspecies-gene-transfer
#11
Sabina Leanti La Rosa, Maria Camila Montealegre, Kavindra V Singh, Barbara E Murray
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that ranks among the leading causes of biofilm-associated infections. We previously demonstrated that the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili (Ebp) of E. faecalis play a major role in biofilm formation, adherence to abiotic surfaces and experimental infections. In this study, derivatives of E. faecalis strain OG1 were engineered to further characterize functions of Ebp pili. Loss of pili resulted in a 36-fold decrease in the number of closely associated cells when OG1RFΔebpABC was mixed with OG1SSpΔebpABC, compared with mixing the Ebp+ parental strains...
May 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26915093/importance-of-molecular-methods-to-determine-whether-a-probiotic-is-the-source-of-lactobacillus-bacteremia
#12
Alla Aroutcheva, Julie Auclair, Martin Frappier, Mathieu Millette, Karen Lolans, Danielle de Montigny, Serge Carrière, Stephen Sokalski, William E Trick, Robert A Weinstein
There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli-Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)-that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic...
March 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26854338/molecular-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-characterization-of-aerococcus-viridans-isolated-from-porcine-urinary-infection
#13
Luisa Z Moreno, Carlos E C Matajira, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana Paula S Silva, Renan E Mesquita, Ana Paula G Christ, Maria Inês Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno
Aerococcus viridans has been reported as a human and animal pathogen causing urinary tract infection, arthritis, pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis. Routinely, A. viridans is not surveyed in clinical diagnosis laboratories and commonly is misidentified as other bacteria. There is no concrete data on the prevalence and impact of the pathogen to both human and animal health. In the present study, we report the isolation and molecular and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of A. viridans strains from porcine urinary infections...
February 29, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26543259/plausible-drug-targets-in-the-streptococcus-mutans-quorum-sensing-pathways-to-combat-dental-biofilms-and-associated-risks
#14
REVIEW
Gurmeet Kaur, Shrinidhi Rajesh, S Adline Princy
Streptococcus mutans, a Gram positive facultative anaerobe, is one among the approximately seven hundred bacterial species to exist in human buccal cavity and cause dental caries. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent communication process that respond to the inter/intra-species signals and elicit responses to show behavioral changes in the bacteria to an aggressive forms. In accordance to this phenomenon, the S. mutans also harbors a Competing Stimulating Peptide (CSP)-mediated quorum sensing, ComCDE (Two-component regulatory system) to regulate several virulence-associated traits that includes the formation of the oral biofilm (dental plaque), genetic competence and acidogenicity...
December 2015: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416910/important-contribution-of-the-novel-locus-comeb-to-extracellular-dna-dependent-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-biofilm-formation
#15
Nithya Babu Rajendran, Julian Eikmeier, Karsten Becker, Muzaffar Hussain, Georg Peters, Christine Heilmann
The coagulase-negative species Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an emerging cause of serious and potentially life-threatening infections, such as infective endocarditis. The pathogenesis of these infections is characterized by the ability of S. lugdunensis to form biofilms on either biotic or abiotic surfaces. To elucidate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in S. lugdunensis, we performed transposon (Tn917) mutagenesis. One mutant had a significantly reduced biofilm-forming capacity and carried a Tn917 insertion within the competence gene comEB...
December 2015: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26318542/staphylococcus-aureus-infective-endocarditis-versus-bacteremia-strains-subtle-genetic-differences-at-stake
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Coralie Bouchiat, Karen Moreau, Sébastien Devillard, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Amandine Mosnier, Tom Geissmann, Michèle Bes, Anne Tristan, Gérard Lina, Frédéric Laurent, Lionel Piroth, Nejla Aissa, Xavier Duval, Vincent Le Moing, François Vandenesch
Infective endocarditis (IE)((1)) is a severe condition complicating 10-25% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Although host-related IE risk factors have been identified, the involvement of bacterial features in IE complication is still unclear. We characterized strictly defined IE and bacteremia isolates and searched for discriminant features. S. aureus isolates causing community-acquired, definite native-valve IE (n=72) and bacteremia (n=54) were collected prospectively as part of a French multicenter cohort...
December 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277368/sudden-infant-death-due-to-lactococcal-infective-endocarditis
#17
K Taniguchi, M Nakayama, K Nakahira, Y Nakura, N Kanagawa, I Yanagihara, S Miyaishi
Infective endocarditis (IE) of infants is rare, most of which occur associated with congenital heart disease or its cardiac surgery. We experienced a case of sudden death of a four-month-old male infant without congenital heart disease. It was elucidated by postmortem examination that the dead had suffered severe IE, which led him to death. In the microbiological genetic analysis using histological section, the pathogen causing inflammation in the present case was identified as Lactococcus lactis subspecies, although Staphylococci have been reported to be common and important one...
March 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26184852/staphylococcus-saprophyticus-native-valve-endocarditis-in-a-diabetic-patient-with-neurogenic-bladder-a-case-report
#18
Hiroki Magarifuchi, Koji Kusaba, Hiroki Yamakuchi, Yohei Hamada, Toshiharu Urakami, Yosuke Aoki
A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with 2-day history of malaise and dyspnea. He had mitral prolapse and type II diabetes mellitus with neurogenic bladder, which was cared for by catheterization on his own. On arrival the patient was in septic condition with hypoxemia, and physical examination revealed systolic murmur at the apex. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed vegetation of the mitral and the aortic valve. The presence of continuous bacteremia was confirmed by multiple sets of blood culture, whereby gram-positive cocci was retrieved and identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S...
September 2015: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056157/the-use-of-whole-genome-sequencing-for-molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-surveillance-identifying-the-role-of-incx3-plasmids-and-the-spread-of-blandm-4-like-genes-in-the-enterobacteriaceae
#19
Björn A Espedido, Borce Dimitrijovski, Sebastiaan J van Hal, Slade O Jensen
AIMS: To characterise the resistome of a multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp0003) isolated from an Australian traveller who was repatriated to a Sydney Metropolitan Hospital from Myanmar with possible prosthetic aortic valve infective endocarditis. METHODS: Kp0003 was recovered from a blood culture of the patient and whole genome sequencing was performed. Read mapping and de novo assembly of reads facilitated in silico multi-locus sequence and plasmid replicon typing as well as the characterisation of antibiotic resistance genes and their genetic context...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26013484/the-copyaz-operon-functions-in-copper-efflux-biofilm-formation-genetic-transformation-and-stress-tolerance-in-streptococcus-mutans
#20
Kamna Singh, Dilani B Senadheera, Céline M Lévesque, Dennis G Cvitkovitch
UNLABELLED: In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S...
August 1, 2015: Journal of Bacteriology
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