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Genetic characteristics of MRSA

Xing Wang, Xia Li, Wei Liu, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 80 CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Meenaxi Sharma, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Angela M Kearns, Michel Doumith, Patrick R Butaye, M Angeles Argudín, Angela Lahuerta-Marin, Bruno Pichon, Manal AbuOun, Jon Rogers, Richard J Ellis, Christopher Teale, Muna F Anjum
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 recovered from S. aureus isolated animals in the UK. To determine possible origins of 12 LA-MRSA CC398 isolates collected after screening more than a thousand S. aureus animal isolates from the UK between 2013 and 2015, whole genome sequences (WGS) of CC398 European, including UK, and non-European isolates from diverse animal hosts were compared. Phylogenetic reconstruction applied to WGS data to assess genetic relatedness of all 89 isolates, clustered the 12 UK CC398 LA-MRSA within the European sub-lineages, although on different nodes; implicating multiple independent incursions into the UK, as opposed to a single introduction followed by clonal expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Meiji Soe Aung, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Ayako Sumi, Masahiko Ito, Kenji Kudo, Shigeo Morimoto, Shino Hosoya, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is a genomic island of staphylococcus and is considered to confer enhanced ability to survive and growth on host bacterial cells. ACME has been typically identified in Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-positive ST8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with SCCmec type IVa (USA300 clone), and it is also found in other lineages at low frequency. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of PVL(+)and/or ACME(+) MRSA were investigated for 624 clinical isolates collected from outpatients in northern Japan from 2013 to 2014...
November 21, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Junyan Liu, Dingqiang Chen, Brian M Peters, Lin Li, Bing Li, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirliff
Considered to be a potential "superbug", methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been one of the major recent infectious pathogens and thus poses a challenge to hospital infection control. The mobile genetic element staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) carries both the mecA or mecC gene, encoding for a novel specific penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a), and site-specific recombinase genes ccrAB or/and ccrC. In MRSA, the acquisition of SCCmec leads to the resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Emily S Wong, Claire W Y Chow, W K Luk, Kitty S C Fung, Kenneth K W Li
PURPOSE: To characterize epidemiological data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ocular infections over a 10-year period in Hong Kong; to compare the characteristics between hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) ocular infections; and to review the treatment regimen and outcome of identified cases. METHODS: A retrospective case review of ocular samples testing positive for MRSA at a tertiary eye center from July 2005 to June 2015 was performed...
January 2017: Cornea
Yanping Fan, Xiaolin Wang, Ling Li, Zhenjiang Yao, Sidong Chen, Xiaohua Ye
While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Auttawit Sirichoat, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Rattiyaporn Kanlaya, Ratree Tavichakorntrakool, Aroonwadee Chanawong, Sujintana Wongthong, Visith Thongboonkerd
Reduced vancomycin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem. Unfortunately, its genetic marker and molecular mechanisms remained unknown. This study investigated differential phenotypic characteristic and protein expression profiles among three groups of MRSA isolates, including vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA), heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) (n = 7 isolates/group). Phenotypic characteristic revealed significant greater number of isolates with non-spreading colony in VISA as compared to both VSSA and hVISA groups...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Aimée Kissou, Soufiane Sanou, Armel Poda, Carole G Kyelem, Jérôme Solassol, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Philippe Van De Perre, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Hélène Jean-Pierre, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Sylvain Godreuil
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gi Su Kang, Yung Hee Jung, Hwa Su Kim, Yeong Seon Lee, Chan Park, Kwang Jun Lee, Jeong Ok Cha
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important pathogens causing nosocomial infections in Korean hospitals. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and genetic diversity of clinical S. aureus isolates in healthcare settings from 2001 to 2008. METHODS: Samples and data were obtained from 986 individuals as part of the National Antimicrobial Surveillance Project, involving 10 regions nationwide. Molecular typing studies, including multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were performed, and a representative clone of Korean MRSA was classified by combinational grouping using a DiversiLab (DL; bioMérieux, France) repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) system...
November 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
P Kale, B Dhawan
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of infection, both in hospitalised patients with significant healthcare exposure and in patients without healthcare risk factors. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) are known for their rapid community transmission and propensity to cause aggressive skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia. The distinction between the healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA and CA-MRSA is gradually fading owing to the acquisition of multiple virulence factors and genetic elements...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
A L Zogg, K Zurfluh, M Nüesch-Inderbinen, R Stephan
This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and genetic characteristics of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 80 samples of Swiss (n=36) and imported (n=44) raw chicken meat collected at retail level. In addition, ESBL-producers were screened for the presence of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1. Countries of import included Argentina (n=2), Austria (n=1), Brazil (n=3), Denmark (n=5), France (n=1), Germany (n=13), Hungary (n=5), Italy (n=8), and Slovenia (n=6)...
June 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
L Hu, Y Li, Y Lu, J D Klena, Y Qiu, Y Lin, M Jiang, X Shi, L Chen, X Liu, H Ma, J Cheng, S Wu, B Kan, Q Hu
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a serious hospital and community-acquired infection and some strains are associated with greater severity. We investigated the clinical variability and molecular characteristics of MRSA infections in Shenzhen, China through a study at nine sentinel hospitals from January to December 2014. MRSA infections were classified as community-associated (CA-MRSA), healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA), and healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO-MRSA). In total, 812 MRSA isolates were collected and 183 of these were selected for further study...
October 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Jialing Lin, Dongxin Lin, Ping Xu, Ting Zhang, Qianting Ou, Chan Bai, Zhenjiang Yao
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), survives in dry conditions and can persist for long periods on surfaces touched by humans. Studies that estimate the proportions and characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA contamination in non-hospital environments are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a proportion meta-analysis and reviewed the features of antibiotic resistance and molecular genetics. METHODS: Articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 that studied proportions of S...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Muhabat A Raji, Ghada Garaween, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Atef M Shibl, Abiola Senok
Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Frieder Schaumburg, Francis Chinedum Onwugamba, Ruslan Akulenko, Georg Peters, Alexander Mellmann, Robin Köck, Karsten Becker
Livestock is often colonized with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and Staphylococcus aureus. There is a risk that flies spread antimicrobial resistant bacteria from livestock to humans. Here, we screened flies from urban and rural areas near the city of Münster, Germany, for the presence of ESBL-E and S. aureus and compared molecular characteristics of these isolates with those isolated from humans in the same region. In total, 1346 single flies were grinded and cultured overnight in BHI-broth. The broth was cultured on Columbia blood agar and selective media for the detection of S...
June 14, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Mariana Andrade-Figueiredo, Tereza Cristina Leal-Balbino
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of global and nosocomial infections with a significant impact in hospitals worldwide. Our objective was to investigate clinical and molecular characteristics of S. aureus isolates causing infections in patients admitted to hospitals from Recife city, Brazil, and investigate the prevalence of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive S. aureus (OS-MRSA) in the region, as well as genetically characterize the isolates and compare with epidemic clones...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Marilyn Chung, Choon Keun Kim, Teresa Conceição, Marta Aires-De-Sousa, Hermínia De Lencastre, Alexander Tomasz
OBJECTIVES: Recent surveillance of MRSA colonizing patients and healthcare workers in two African countries (Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe) reported the frequent recovery of oxacillin-susceptible MRSA (OS-MRSA): Staphylococcus aureus strains that gave positive results with the mecA DNA probe, but had low oxacillin MIC values characteristic of susceptible S. aureus. This apparent dissociation of the drug-resistant phenotype from mecA-the primary genetic determinant of resistance-prompted us to perform a more detailed analysis on nine of the African OS-MRSA strains...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M S Aung, H Zi, K M Nwe, W W Maw, M T Aung, W W Min, N Nyein, M Kawaguchiya, N Urushibara, A Sumi, N Kobayashi
Prevalence, drug resistance and genetic characteristics were analysed for a total of 128 clinical isolates of staphylococci obtained from a tertiary hospital in Myanmar. The dominant species were S. aureus (39%) and S. haemolyticus (35%), followed by S. epidermidis (6%) and S. saprophyticus (5%). The majority of S. haemolyticus isolates (71.1%) harboured mecA, showing high resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin and levofloxacin, while methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was only 8% (four isolates) among S...
March 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Maria Teresa C Vieira, Mariel A Marlow, Fábio Aguiar-Alves, Marcos Gabriel Pinheiro, Maria de Fátima Nogueira de Freitas Alves, Maria Letícia Santos Cruz, Mariza Curto Saavedra Gaspar, Rebeca Rocha, Luis Guillermo C Velarde, Claudete A Araújo Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has been linked to HIV-related sexual and social behaviors. MRSA risk factors may be different for HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults. We investigated the association of MRSA colonization, persistent colonization and genotypes with potential risk factors among HIV-infected youth. METHODS: For this case-control study, patients 24 years of age or younger attending 2 HIV reference centers were recruited from February to August 2012 and followed for 1 year...
October 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Thijs Bosch, Martijn van Luit, Gerlinde N Pluister, Dineke Frentz, Anja Haenen, Fabian Landman, Sandra Witteveen, Naomi van Marm-Wattimena, Han G van der Heide, Leo M Schouls
Since 2007, livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has become the predominant MRSA clade isolated from humans in the Netherlands. To assess possible temporal changes, we molecularly characterised over 9,000 LA-MRSA isolates submitted from 2003 to 2014 to the Dutch MRSA surveillance. After an initial rapid increase with a peak in 2009 (n = 1,368), the total number of submitted LA-MRSA isolates has been slowly decreasing to 968 in 2014 and over 80% of LA-MRSA belonged to one of three predominant MLVA/spa-types...
May 26, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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