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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449530/quality-improvement-in-the-icu-treat-first-what-kills-first
#1
EDITORIAL
Peter H J van der Voort
Professionals in the ICU, like nurses and doctors, are constantly working on quality improvement by developing protocols and monitoring the implementation with indicators. Protocols and quality indicators are usually based on evidence. Studies on quality improvement often measure the effect of protocols after implementation but frequently cannot replicate the results of the previously performed RCTs in clinical practice. Amongst other reasons, this is due to the selection of patients that are included in RCTs...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449121/tri-directional-anaphases-as-a-novel-chromosome-segregation-defect-in-human-oocytes
#2
Jenna Haverfield, Nicola L Dean, Diana Nöel, Gaudeline Rémillard-Labrosse, Veronique Paradis, Isaac-Jacques Kadoch, Greg FitzHarris
STUDY QUESTION: What are the chromosome segregation errors in human oocyte meiosis-I that may underlie oocyte aneuploidy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Multiple modes of chromosome segregation error were observed, including tri-directional anaphases, which we attribute to loss of bipolar spindle structure at anaphase-I. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocyte aneuploidy is common and associated with infertility, but mechanistic information on the chromosome segregation errors underlying these defects is scarce...
April 25, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448805/the-associations-between-quality-of-life-and-clinical-symptoms-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-and-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Noriyuki Ohmuro, Kazunori Matsumoto, Yu Ishii, Masahiro Katsura, Chika Obara, Tatsuo Kikuchi, Yumiko Hamaie, Fumiaki Ito, Hiroo Matsuoka
Quality of life (QOL) is strongly associated with severity of clinical symptoms and is often compromised in patients with chronic or first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, it remains unclear whether baseline QOL in individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis is higher or lower than that in patients with FEP, or what specific clinical symptoms relate to a decreased QOL in individuals with ARMS and FEP. The World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF, an instrument assessing QOL, was administered to 104 individuals with ARMS and 53 with FEP...
April 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446368/ebola-related-stigma-in-ghana-individual-and-community-level-determinants
#4
Eric Y Tenkorang
RATIONALE: Although Ebola-related stigmatization continues to undermine efforts to re-integrate survivors, few studies have examined what influences such stigmatizing attitudes. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the effects of both individual- and community-level factors on Ebola-related stigma in Ghana. METHODS: Data were collected from a cross-section of 800 respondents, nested within 40 communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Multi-level modelling was employed for analysis...
April 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446244/ketogenic-diet-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-children-under-the-age-of-2-years-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Siobhan Titre-Johnson, Natasha Schoeler, Christin Eltze, Ruth Williams, Katharina Vezyroglou, Helen McCullagh, Nick Freemantle, Simon Heales, Rachel Kneen, Louise Marston, Tim Martland, Irwin Nazareth, Elizabeth Neal, Andrew Lux, Alasdair Parker, Shakti Agrawal, Penny Fallon, J Helen Cross
BACKGROUND: The incidence of epilepsy is greatest in the first 2 years of life, an age group where there is generally a poor prognosis for both seizure control and neurodevelopmental outcome. Early control of seizures can be associated with better developmental outcome but many of the epilepsies presenting in infancy are poorly responsive to antiepileptic medication. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet designed to mimic the effects of starvation on the body. Dietary fat is converted into ketones in the body and used as an energy source by the brain...
April 26, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445835/economic-consequences-of-legal-and-illegal-drugs-the-case-of-social-costs-in-belgium
#6
Delfine Lievens, Freya Vander Laenen, Nick Verhaeghe, Koen Putman, Lieven Pauwels, Wim Hardyns, Lieven Annemans
BACKGROUND: Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. METHODS: A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied...
April 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444957/epidemiology-of-endometriosis-a-large-population-based-database-study-in-a-2-million-member-health-care-provider
#7
Vered H Eisenberg, Clara Weil, Gabriel Chodick, Varda Shalev
OBJECTIVE: Endometriosis constitutes a significant burden on the quality of life of women, their families, and health systems. The objective of this study is to describe the real-world epidemiology of endometriosis in an unselected low-risk population in Israel. DESIGN: Retrospective population-based study. SETTING AND POPULATION: The computerized databases of Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS), a 2-million-member healthcare provider representing a quarter of the Israeli population...
April 26, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444715/can-a-patient-reported-outcome-be-adequate-without-assessing-quality-of-life-in-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Nikki Cotterill, Andrea Tubaro
AIMS AND METHODS: A think tank was convened at the sixth ICI-RS meeting held in the United Kingdom on September 2015, to consider the adequacy of patient reported outcome (PRO) measurement if quality of life (QoL) evaluation were excluded. Rigorous methodology is proposed for the development of PROs and much is written about this process but the necessity for QoL inclusion is rarely discussed. The decision was therefore taken to consider what QoL evaluation provides and what these data provide...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444477/ethical-conflicts-in-the-treatment-of-fasting-muslim-patients-with-diabetes-during-ramadan
#9
Ilhan Ilkilic, Hakan Ertin
BACKGROUND: For an effective treatment of patients, quality-assured safe implementation of drug therapy is indispensable. Fasting during Ramadan, an essential religious practice for Muslims, affects Muslim diabetics' drug use in a number of different ways. OBJECTIVES: Ethical problems arising from fasting during the month of Ramadan for practicing Muslim patients are being discussed on the basis of extant research literature. Relevant conflicts of interest originating in this situation are being analysed from an ethical perspective...
April 25, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443437/how-nurses-can-improve-quality-while-controlling-costs
#10
Caroline Shuldham
Health care is expensive, and nurses, like everyone else, must use resources responsibly. At the start of a new financial year there is usually a focus on budgets: how much was spent last year, what is available for next year and how savings will be made.
April 26, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443186/general-guidelines-for-biomedical-software-development
#11
REVIEW
Luis Bastiao Silva, Rafael C Jimenez, Niklas Blomberg, José Luis Oliveira
Most bioinformatics tools available today were not written by professional software developers, but by people that wanted to solve their own problems, using computational solutions and spending the minimum time and effort possible, since these were just the means to an end. Consequently, a vast number of software applications are currently available, hindering the task of identifying the utility and quality of each. At the same time, this situation has hindered regular adoption of these tools in clinical practice...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442155/a-rapid-review-of-consumer-health-information-needs-and-preferences
#12
REVIEW
Imogen Ramsey, Nadia Corsini, Micah D J Peters, Marion Eckert
OBJECTIVE: This rapid review summarizes best available evidence on consumers' needs and preferences for information about healthcare, with a focus on the Australian context. Three questions are addressed: 1) Where do consumers find and what platform do they use to access information about healthcare? 2) How do consumers use the healthcare information that they find? 3) About which topics or subjects do consumers need healthcare information? METHODS: A hierarchical approach was adopted with evidence first sought from reviews then high quality studies using Medline (via PubMed), CINAHL, Embase, the JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, the Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews, EPPI-Centre, and Epistemonikos...
April 10, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441956/what-happened-to-anti-malarial-markets-after-the-affordable-medicines-facility-malaria-pilot-trends-in-act-availability-price-and-market-share-from-five-african-countries-under-continuation-of-the-private-sector-co-payment-mechanism
#13
Sarah Tougher, Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: The private sector supplies anti-malarial treatment for large proportions of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Following the large-scale piloting of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) from 2010 to 2011, a private sector co-payment mechanism (CPM) provided continuation of private sector subsidies for quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QAACT). This article analyses for the first time the extent to which improvements in private sector QAACT supply and distribution observed during the AMFm were maintained or intensified during continuation of the CPM through 2015 in Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda using repeat cross-sectional outlet survey data...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441218/research-on-the-pa-profession-the-medical-model-shifts
#14
Richard W Dehn, Christine M Everett, Roderick S Hooker
Physician assistant (PA)-focused research arose in response to the idea that an assistant to the busy physician could improve healthcare delivery. The process of answering questions about the profession has involved multiple approaches and various scholarly disciplines. In the course of this undertaking, what emerged were three stages of examination of PA behavior. The bibliographic span from this period contains about 2,400 studies that advance some notion of PA benefit to society. On the 50th anniversary of the PA profession, a question arises as to what research has shown...
May 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440660/implementation-of-whole-slide-imaging-for-clinical-purposes-issues-to-consider-from-the-perspective-of-early-adopters
#15
Andrew J Evans, Mohamed E Salama, Walter H Henricks, Liron Pantanowitz
CONTEXT: - There is growing interest in the use of digital pathology, especially whole slide imaging, for diagnostic purposes. Many issues need to be considered when incorporating this technology into a clinical laboratory. The College of American Pathologists established a Digital Pathology Committee to support the development of College programs related to digital pathology. One of its many initiatives was a panel discussion entitled "Implementing Whole-Slide Imaging for Clinical Use: What to Do and What to Avoid," given for 3 years at the College's annual meetings starting in 2014...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439750/hospital-heterogeneity-what-drives-the-quality-of-health-care
#16
Manhal Ali, Reza Salehnejad, Mohaimen Mansur
A major feature of health care systems is substantial variation in health care quality across hospitals. The quality of stroke care widely varies across NHS hospitals. We investigate factors that may explain variations in health care quality using measures of quality of stroke care. We combine NHS trust data from the National Sentinel Stroke Audit with other data sets from the Office for National Statistics, NHS and census data to capture hospitals' human and physical assets and organisational characteristics...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439243/relationships-between-behavioural-addictions-and-psychiatric-disorders-what-is-known-and-what-is-yet-to-be-learned
#17
Vladan Starcevic, Yasser Khazaal
This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437809/reactive-rather-than-proactive-diabetes-management-in-the-perioperative-period
#18
Inge Hommel, Petra J van Gurp, Alfons A den Broeder, Hub Wollersheim, Femke Atsma, Marlies E J L Hulscher, Cees J Tack
As perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor postoperative patient outcomes, clinical guidelines provide recommendations for optimal perioperative glucose control. It is unclear to what extent recommended glucose levels are met in daily practice, and little is known about factors that influence these levels. We describe blood glucose levels throughout the hospital care pathway in 375 non-critically ill patients with diabetes who underwent major surgery (abdominal, cardiac, or orthopedic) in 6 hospitals, examine determinants of these levels including adherence to 9 quality indicators for optimal perioperative diabetes care, and perform qualitative interviews to identify barriers for optimal care...
April 24, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437511/online-information-on-the-treatment-of-burning-mouth-syndrome-quality-and-readability
#19
Shatha Alnafea, Stefano Fedele, Stephen Porter, Richeal Ni Riordain
AIMS: To evaluate the quality and readability of online information about the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). METHODS: An internet search using the phrase "burning mouth syndrome treatment" was carried out on the Google search engine (www.google.co.uk) on 8 June 2015, and the first 100 websites listed were examined. Data collection included DISCERN score, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks for website analysis score, the presence of the Health on the Net (HON) Foundation seal, and the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES)...
April 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437468/role-of-cleavage-at-the-core-e1-junction-of-hepatitis-c-virus-polyprotein-in-viral-morphogenesis
#20
Véronique Pène, Matthieu Lemasson, Francis Harper, Gérard Pierron, Arielle R Rosenberg
In hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein sequence, core protein terminates with E1 envelope signal peptide. Cleavage by signal peptidase (SP) separates E1 from the complete form of core protein, anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the signal peptide. Subsequent cleavage of the signal peptide by signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly begins at the surface of lipid droplets, yet SPP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for initiation of budding in the ER...
2017: PloS One
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