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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933717/mass-cytometry-analytical-approaches-reveal-cytokine-induced-changes-in-natural-killer-cells
#1
Elena Vendrame, Julia Fukuyama, Dara M Strauss-Albee, Susan Holmes, Catherine A Blish
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells have antiviral and antitumor activity that could be harnessed for the treatment of infections and malignancies. To maintain cell viability and enhance antiviral and antitumor effects, NK cells are frequently treated with cytokines. Here we performed an extensive assessment of the effects of cytokines on the phenotype and function of human NK cells. METHODS: We used cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) to evaluate NK cell repertoire changes after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15 or a combination of IL- 12/IL-15/IL-18...
December 9, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933649/using-chiral-peptide-substitutions-to-probe-the-structure-function-relationship-of-a-key-residue-of-a%C3%AE-42
#2
Christopher J A Warner, Subrata Dutta, Alejandro R Foley, Eefei Chen, David S Kliger, Jevgenij A Raskatov
Amyloid beta-protein 42 plays an important role in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Familial mutations have identified the glutamate residue 22 as a hotspot with regard to peptide neurotoxicity. We introduce an approach to study the influence of systematic sidechain modification at this residue, employing chirality as a structural probe. Circular dichroism experiments reveal that charge-preserving alterations of the amino acid sidechain attenuate the characteristic random coil to β-sheet transition associated with the wildtype peptide...
December 8, 2016: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933532/precise-network-modeling-of-systems-genetics-data-using-the-bayesian-network-webserver
#3
Jesse D Ziebarth, Yan Cui
The Bayesian Network Webserver (BNW, http://compbio.uthsc.edu/BNW ) is an integrated platform for Bayesian network modeling of biological datasets. It provides a web-based network modeling environment that seamlessly integrates advanced algorithms for probabilistic causal modeling and reasoning with Bayesian networks. BNW is designed for precise modeling of relatively small networks that contain less than 20 nodes. The structure learning algorithms used by BNW guarantee the discovery of the best (most probable) network structure given the data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933525/expression-qtls-mapping-and-analysis-a-bayesian-perspective
#4
Martha Imprialou, Enrico Petretto, Leonardo Bottolo
The aim of expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) mapping is the identification of DNA sequence variants that explain variation in gene expression. Given the recent yield of trait-associated genetic variants identified by large-scale genome-wide association analyses (GWAS), eQTL mapping has become a useful tool to understand the functional context where these variants operate and eventually narrow down functional gene targets for disease. Despite its extensive application to complex (polygenic) traits and disease, the majority of eQTL studies still rely on univariate data modeling strategies, i...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933517/a-novel-mutation-in-the-fibrinogen-a%C3%AE-chain-gly13arg-fibrinogen-nanning-causes-congenital-dysfibrinogenemia-associated-with-defective-peptide-a-release
#5
Jie Yan, Meiling Luo, Peng Cheng, Lin Liao, Xuelian Deng, Donghong Deng, Faquan Lin
Dysfibrinogenemia is characterized by blood coagulation dysfunction induced by an abnormal molecular structure of fibrinogen. Here, we describe a new case. A 32-year-old female was suspected of having dysfibrinogenemia during routine laboratory screening, based on her decreased functional fibrinogen level, normal fibrinogen antigen level, and prolonged thrombin time. We extracted DNA and performed polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to identify genetic mutation. Fibrin polymerization, the kinetics of the fibrinopeptide release, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometric analysis, fibrin cross-linking, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot were conducted...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#6
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933419/evaluating-frontier-orbital-energy-and-homo-lumo-gap-with-descriptors-from-density-functional-reactivity-theory
#7
Ying Huang, Chunying Rong, Ruiqin Zhang, Shubin Liu
Wave function theory (WFT) and density functional theory (DFT)-the two most popular solutions to electronic structure problems of atoms and molecules-share the same origin, dealing with the same subject yet using distinct methodologies. For example, molecular orbitals are artifacts in WFT, whereas in DFT, electron density plays the dominant role. One question that needs to be addressed when using these approaches to appreciate properties related to molecular structure and reactivity is if there is any link between the two...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933338/progress-in-research-and-application-of-hiv-1-tat-derived-cell-penetrating-peptide
#8
REVIEW
Le Zou, Qilin Peng, Ping Wang, Boting Zhou
Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (TAT) is encoded by HIV-1. It is a peptide rich in basic amino acids and belongs to the protein transduction domain family. It has been found that HIV-1 TAT and its core peptide segment TAT47-57 play an important role in promoting the cellular uptake of coupled bioactive macromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and drug molecules. HIV-1 TAT can also significantly increase the soluble expression of extrinsic proteins...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933313/genetic-engineering-of-chimeric-antigen-receptors-using-lamprey-derived-variable-lymphocyte-receptors
#9
Robert Moot, Sunil S Raikar, Lauren Fleischer, Melissa Querrey, Daniel E Tylawsky, Hirotomo Nakahara, Christopher B Doering, H Trent Spencer
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are used to redirect effector cell specificity to selected cell surface antigens. Using CARs, antitumor activity can be initiated in patients with no prior tumor specific immunity. Although CARs have shown promising clinical results, the technology remains limited by the availability of specific cognate cell target antigens. To increase the repertoire of targetable tumor cell antigens we utilized the immune system of the sea lamprey to generate directed variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs)...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933225/rational-design-of-dual-active-sites-in-a-single-protein-scaffold-a-case-study-of-heme-protein-in-myoglobin
#10
Xiao-Gang Shu, Ji-Hu Su, Ke-Jie Du, Yong You, Shu-Qin Gao, Ge-Bo Wen, Xiangshi Tan, Ying-Wu Lin
Rational protein design has been proven to be a powerful tool for creating functional artificial proteins. Although many artificial metalloproteins with a single active site have been successfully created, those with dual active sites in a single protein scaffold are still relatively rare. In this study, we rationally designed dual active sites in a single heme protein scaffold, myoglobin (Mb), by retaining the native heme site and creating a copper-binding site remotely through a single mutation of Arg118 to His or Met...
June 2016: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933191/genetics-of-inherited-cardiocutaneous-syndromes-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Tara Bardawil, Samar Khalil, Christina Bergqvist, Ossama Abbas, Abdul Ghani Kibbi, Fadi Bitar, Georges Nemer, Mazen Kurban
The life of a human being originates as a single cell which, under the influence of certain factors, divides sequentially into multiple cells that subsequently become committed to develop and differentiate into the different structures and organs. Alterations occurring early on in the development process may lead to fetal demise in utero. Conversely, abnormalities at later stages may result in structural and/or functional abnormalities of varying severities. The cardiovascular system and skin share certain developmental and structural factors; therefore, it is not surprising to find several inherited syndromes with both cardiac and skin manifestations...
2016: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933179/associations-between-genetics-medical-status-physical-exercise-and-psychological-well-being-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Lena Backström-Eriksson, Agneta Bergsten-Brucefors, Lena Hjelte, Bo Melin, Kimmo Sorjonen
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive, life-shortening disease among people of European origin. Type of genetic mutation and regular physical exercise has an impact on clinical outcome. This cross-sectional study explores the associations between genetics, medical status, physical exercise and psychological well-being in adult patients with CF. METHODS: Adult patients with CF (N=68; mean age: 32.2; range 18-67 years; 46% women) completed the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933168/thermal-ecological-physiology-of-native-and-invasive-frog-species-do-invaders-perform-better
#13
Pablo A Cortes, Hans Puschel, Paz Acuña, José L Bartheld, Francisco Bozinovic
Biological invasions are recognized as an important biotic component of global change that threatens the composition, structure and functioning of ecosystems, resulting in loss of biodiversity and displacement of native species. Although ecological characteristics facilitating the establishment and spread of non-native species are widely recognized, little is known about organismal attributes underlying invasion success. In this study, we tested the effect of thermal acclimation on thermal tolerance and locomotor performance in the invasive Xenopus laevis and the Chilean native Calyptocephalella gayi...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933162/photoexcited-state-properties-of-carbon-dots-from-thermally-induced-functionalization-of-carbon-nanoparticles
#14
Yin Hu, Mohamad M Al Awak, Fan Yang, Sijia Yan, Qingwu Xiong, Ping Wang, Yongan Tang, Liju Yang, Gregory E LeCroy, Xiaofang Hou, Christopher E Bunker, Linxi Xu, Nicholas Tomlinson, Ya-Ping Sun
Carbon dots are small carbon nanoparticles with various surface passivation schemes, in which more effective has been the deliberate chemical functionalization of the nanoparticles for brighter fluorescence emissions, though the synthesis method is more tedious and subject to some limitations in the selection of functionalization molecules. Another more popular synthesis method has been the carbonization of organic species, with the method being more efficient and versatile, but less controllable in the synthesis and for the desired dot structure and performance...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. C, Materials for Optical and Electronic Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933102/a-polysaccharide-utilization-locus-from-flavobacterium-johnsoniae-enables-conversion-of-recalcitrant-chitin
#15
Johan Larsbrink, Yongtao Zhu, Sampada S Kharade, Kurt J Kwiatkowski, Vincent G H Eijsink, Nicole M Koropatkin, Mark J McBride, Phillip B Pope
BACKGROUND: Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide on earth and as such a great target for bioconversion applications. The phylum Bacteroidetes is one of nature's most ubiquitous bacterial lineages and is essential in the global carbon cycle with many members being highly efficient degraders of complex carbohydrates. However, despite their specialist reputation in carbohydrate conversion, mechanisms for degrading recalcitrant crystalline polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose are hitherto unknown...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933085/plant-physiological-morphological-and-yield-related-responses-to-night-temperature-changes-across-different-species-and-plant-functional-types
#16
Panpan Jing, Dan Wang, Chunwu Zhu, Jiquan Chen
Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933080/identification-of-a-dolabellane-type-diterpene-synthase-and-other-root-expressed-diterpene-synthases-in-arabidopsis
#17
Qiang Wang, Meirong Jia, Jung-Hyun Huh, Andrew Muchlinski, Reuben J Peters, Dorothea Tholl
Arabidopsis thaliana maintains a complex metabolism for the production of secondary or specialized metabolites. Such metabolites include volatile and semivolatile terpenes, which have been associated with direct and indirect defensive activities in flowers and leaves. In comparison, the structural diversity and function of terpenes in Arabidopsis roots has remained largely unexplored despite a substantial number of root-expressed genes in the Arabidopsis terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933074/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-grf-genes-in-chinese-pear-pyrus-bretschneideri-rehd-poplar-populous-grape-vitis-vinifera-arabidopsis-and-rice-oryza-sativa
#18
Yunpeng Cao, Yahui Han, Qing Jin, Yi Lin, Yongping Cai
Growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have important functions in regulating plant growth and development. Previous studies on GRF family members focused either on a single or a small set of genes. Here, a comparative genomic analysis of the GRF gene family was performed in poplar (a model tree species), Arabidopsis (a model plant for annual herbaceous dicots), grape (one model plant for perennial dicots), rice (a model plant for monocots) and Chinese pear (one of the economical fruit crops)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933056/characterization-of-three-novel-sxt-r391-integrating-conjugative-elements-icemfuind1a-and-icemfuind1b-and-icemprchn1-identified-in-the-genomes-of-marinomonas-fungiae-jcm-18476-t-and-marinomonas-profundimaris-strain-d104
#19
Jhasketan Badhai, Subrata K Das
The genus Marinomonas comprises Gram negative bacteria which are widespread in the marine environment and there is no report on the genomic analysis of SXT/R391 ICEs derived from this group of bacteria. This study describes the genomic features of three new SXT/R391 integrating conjugating elements (ICEs) identified in the genome of Marinomonas fungiae JCM 18476(T) (ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b) and in Marinomonas profundimaris strain D104 (ICEMprChn1). Structural organizations of the three ICEs were similar to the typical SXT/R391 family of ICEs and showed high degree of conservation in the core genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933050/an-essential-factor-for-high-mg-2-tolerance-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Joshua Armitano, Peter Redder, Vanessa A Guimarães, Patrick Linder
Internal bacterial concentration of Mg(2+), the most abundant divalent cation in living cells, is estimated to be in the single millimolar range. However, many bacteria will thrive in media with only micromolars of Mg(2+), by using a range of intensely studied and highly efficient import mechanisms, as well as in media with very high magnesium concentration, presumably mediated by currently unknown export mechanisms. Staphylococcus aureus has a particularly high Mg(2+) tolerance for a pathogen, growing unimpaired in up to 770 mM Mg(2+), and we here identify SA0657, a key factor in this tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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