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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918587/genome-wide-association-studies-of-albuminuria-towards-genetic-stratification-in-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Cristian Pattaro
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been very successful in unraveling the polygenic structure of several complex diseases and traits. In the case of albuminuria, despite the large sample size achieved by some studies, results look sparse with a limited number of loci reported so far. This review searched for GWAS studies of albumin excretion, albuminuria, and proteinuria. The resulting picture sets elements of uniqueness for albuminuria GWAS with respect to other complex traits. So far, very few loci associated with albuminuria have been validated by means of genome-wide significant evidence or formal replication...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918563/development-and-validation-of-immortalized-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cell-line-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-the-study-of-mammary-gland-functions
#2
Ji-Xia Li, Abdelrahman Said, Xiu-Guo Ge, Wenxiu Wang, Yong Zhang, Tianming Jin
This study aimed to develop a bovine mammary epithelial (BME) cell line model, which provides a possibility to determine functional properties of the bovine mammary gland. The primary cell culture was derived from bovine mammary gland tissues and processed enzymatically to obtain cell colonies with epithelial-like morphology. The cultures of BME cells were purified and optimally cultured at 37 °C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The BME cells were identified as epithelial cell line by the evaluating the expression of keratin-18 using immunofluorescence staining...
September 16, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918554/genome-wide-identification-classification-evolutionary-analysis-and-gene-expression-patterns-of-the-protein-kinase-gene-family-in-wheat-and-aegilops-tauschii
#3
Jun Yan, Peisen Su, Zhaoran Wei, Eviatar Nevo, Lingrang Kong
In this study we systematically identified and classified PKs in Triticum aestivum, Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii. Domain distribution and exon-intron structure analyses of PKs were performed, and we found conserved exon-intron structures within the exon phases in the kinase domain. Collinearity events were determined, and we identified various T. aestivum PKs from polyploidizations and tandem duplication events. Global expression pattern analysis of T. aestivum PKs revealed that some PKs might participate in the signaling pathways of stress response and developmental processes...
September 16, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918527/alterations-in-epididymal-proteomics-and-antioxidant-activity-of-mice-exposed-to-fluoride
#4
Zilong Sun, Sujuan Li, Yuxiang Yu, Hongyu Chen, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Ram Kumar Manthari, Ruiyan Niu, Jundong Wang
It is well known that high fluoride results in low fertility. Epididymis is the important place for spermatozoa maturation, which is essential for successful fertilization. In the previous studies, fluoride was reported to damage the epididymal structure of mouse and rabbit. However, the mechanism underlying sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced epididymal toxicity has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore the global protein alterations in epididymis of mice exposed to NaF using the iTRAQ technique...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918515/oligodendrocyte-neuron-interactions-impact-on-myelination-and-brain-function
#5
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the past, glial cells were considered to be 'glue' cells whose primary role was thought to be merely filling gaps in neural circuits. However, a growing number of reports have indicated the role of glial cells in higher brain function through their interaction with neurons. Myelin was originally thought to be just a sheath structure surrounding neuronal axons, but recently it has been shown that myelin exerts effects on the conduction velocity of neuronal axons even after myelin formation. Therefore, the investigation of glial cell properties and the neuron-glial interactions is important for understanding higher brain function...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918505/purification-and-characterization-of-skeletal-muscle-pyruvate-kinase-from-the-hibernating-ground-squirrel-urocitellus-richardsonii-potential-regulation-by-posttranslational-modification-during-torpor
#6
Ryan A V Bell, Kenneth B Storey
Ground squirrel torpor during winter hibernation is characterized by numerous physiological and biochemical changes, including alterations to fuel metabolism. During torpor, many tissues switch from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism, often by regulating key enzymes within glycolytic and lipolytic pathways. This study investigates the potential regulation of pyruvate kinase (PK), a key member of the glycolytic pathway, within the skeletal muscle of hibernating ground squirrels. PK was purified from the skeletal muscle of control and torpid Richardson's ground squirrels, and PK kinetics, structural stability, and posttranslational modifications were subsequently assessed...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918491/dynamics-of-allosteric-modulation-of%C3%A2-lymphocyte-function-associated-antigen-1-closure-open-switch-unveiling-the-structural-mechanisms-associated-with-outside-in-signaling-activation
#7
Maryam Abdullahi, Fisayo A Olotu, Mahmoud E Soliman
OBJECTIVES: To provide insight into the dynamics of the shape-shifting mechanistic events associated with the opening (activation) of Lymphocyte Function Associated Antigen-1 upon allosteric modulation by an activator, ICAM Binding Enhancer-667 (IBE-667), using molecular dynamics simulation. RESULTS: Various parameters were used to appropriately describe and understand the sequence of events that characterized its activation across the simulation period such as residual distances, TriCα angles; as well as the dihedral angle...
September 16, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918447/an-improved-crystal-structure-of-c-phycoerythrin-from-the-marine-cyanobacterium-phormidium-sp-a09dm
#8
Ravi R Sonani, Aleksander W Roszak, Claire Ortmann de Percin Northumberland, Datta Madamwar, Richard J Cogdell
C-Phycoerythrin (PE) from Phormidium sp. A09DM has been crystallized using different conditions and its structure determined to atomic resolution (1.14 Å). In order for the pigment present, phycoerythrobilin (PEB), to function as an efficient light-harvesting molecule it must be held rigidly (Kupka and Scheer in Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:94-103, 2008) and, moreover, the different PEB molecules in PE must be arranged, relative to each other, so as to promote efficient energy transfer between them. This improved structure has allowed us to define in great detail the structure of the PEBs and their binding sites...
September 16, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918394/apolipoprotein-l1-confers-ph-switchable-ion-permeability-to-phospholipid-vesicles
#9
Jonathan Bruno, Nicola Pozzi, Jonathan Oliva, John C Edwards
Apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1) is a human serum protein conferring resistance to African trypanosomes, and certain ApoL1 variants increase susceptibility to some progressive kidney diseases. ApoL1 has been hypothesized to function like a pore-forming colicin and been reported to have permeability effects on both intracellular and plasma membranes. Here, to gain insight into how ApoL1 may function in vivo, we used vesicle-based ion-permeability, direct membrane-association, and intrinsic fluorescence to study the activities of purified recombinant ApoL1...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918368/gnptab-missense-mutations-cause-loss-of-glcnac-1-phosphotransferase-activity-in-mucolipidosis-type-ii-through-distinct-mechanisms
#10
Nataniel Floriano Ludwig, Renata Voltolini Velho, Fernanda Sperb-Ludwig, Angelina Xavier Acosta, Erlane Marques Ribeiro, Chong Kim, Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz, Raquel Boy, Maria Juliana Rodovalho-Doriqui, Charles Marques Lourenço, Emerson Santana Santos, Thomas Braulke, Sandra Pohl, Ida Vanessa D Schwartz
Mucolipidoses (ML) II and III alpha/beta are lysosomal storage diseases caused by pathogenic mutations in GNPTAB encoding the α⁄β-subunit precursor of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase. To determine genotype-phenotype correlation and functional analysis of mutant GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, 13 Brazilian patients clinically and biochemical diagnosed for MLII or III alpha/beta were studied. By sequencing of genomic GNPTAB of the MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients we identified six novel mutations: p.D76G, p.S385L, p...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918354/indium-iii-induces-isolated-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-by-inhibiting-proton-influx-and-triggering-oxidative-stress
#11
Lian Yuan, Jiaqi Zhang, Yujiao Liu, Jie Zhao, Fenglei Jiang, Yi Liu
While Indium's toxicity to organs is realized, its effects on mitochondria are still under investigation. Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is widely accepted in mitochondrial dysfunction approaches and its importance in metal-induced mitochondrial degradation has been proposed. Since mitochondria are respiratory organelles, their interaction with free In(3+) is analyzed to access structural and functional changes. Spectral methods and multimode plate reader was used to detect mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential, membrane fluidity, and inner membrane permeability...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918320/in-silico-interaction-analysis-of-cannabinoid-receptor-interacting-protein-1b-crip1b-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor
#12
Pratishtha Singh, Anjali Ganjiwale, Allyn C Howlett, Sudha M Cowsik
Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein isoform 1b (CRIP1b) is known to interact with the CB1 receptor. Alternative splicing of the CNRIP1 gene produces CRIP1a and CRIP1b with a difference in the third exon only. Exons 1 and 2 encode for a functional domain in both proteins. CRIP1a is involved in regulating CB1 receptor internalization, but the function of CRIP1b is not very well characterized. Since there are significant identities in functional domains of these proteins, CRIP1b is a potential target for drug discovery...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918316/mr-guided-joint-reconstruction-of-activity-and-attenuation-in-brain-pet-mr
#13
Abolfazl Mehranian, Habib Zaidi, Andrew J Reader
With the advent of time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners, joint maximum-likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) maps has recently regained attention for the estimation of PET attenuation maps from emission data. However, the estimated attenuation and activity maps are scaled by unknown scaling factors. We recently demonstrated that in hybrid PET-MR, the scaling issue of this algorithm can be effectively addressed by imposing MR spatial constraints on the estimation of attenuation maps using a penalized MLAA (P-MLAA(+)) algorithm...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918313/learning-with-three-factors-modulating-hebbian-plasticity-with-errors
#14
REVIEW
Łukasz Kuśmierz, Takuya Isomura, Taro Toyoizumi
Synaptic plasticity is a central theme in neuroscience. A framework of three-factor learning rules provides a powerful abstraction, helping to navigate through the abundance of models of synaptic plasticity. It is well-known that the dopamine modulation of learning is related to reward, but theoretical models predict other functional roles of the modulatory third factor; it may encode errors for supervised learning, summary statistics of the population activity for unsupervised learning or attentional feedback...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918311/structural-basis-for-the-potent-and-selective-binding-of-ldn-212854-to-the-bmp-receptor-kinase-alk2
#15
Eleanor Williams, Alex N Bullock
Individuals with the rare developmental disorder fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) experience disabling heterotopic ossification caused by a gain of function mutation in the intracellular region of the BMP type I receptor kinase ALK2, encoded by the gene ACVR1. Small molecule BMP type I receptor inhibitors that block this ossification in FOP mouse models have been derived from the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine scaffold of dorsomorphin. While the first derivative LDN-193189 exhibited pan inhibition of BMP receptors, the more recent compound LDN-212854 has shown increased selectivity for ALK2...
September 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#16
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918259/disrupted-structural-and-functional-connectivity-networks-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#17
Jingna Zhang, Ye Zhang, Li Wang, Linqiong Sang, Jun Yang, Rubing Yan, Pengyue Li, Jian Wang, Mingguo Qiu
Local lesions caused by stroke may result in extensive structural and functional reorganization in the brain. Previous studies of this phenomenon have focused on specific brain networks. Here, we aimed to discover abnormalities in whole-brain networks and to explore the decoupling between structural and functional connectivity in patients with stroke. Fifteen ischemic stroke patients and 23 normal controls (NCs) were recruited in this study. A graph theoretical analysis was employed to investigate the abnormal topological properties of structural and functional brain networks in patients with stroke...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918252/a-pdgf-vegf-homologue-provides-new-insights-into-the-nucleus-grafting-operation-and-immune-response-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#18
Xian-De Huang, Hua Zhang, Mao-Xian He
The platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF, PVF) family of proteins have been implicated in a wide range of biological functions in vertebrates, including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, neural development and especially angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. In this study, a PVF gene, belonging to the PDGF/VEGF family, was cloned and characterized from Pinctada fucata. It contained an ORF of 1110bp encoding a putative protein of 369 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence presented the typical structural features of PDGF family members and the N-terminal signal peptide for secretion...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918248/total-nitrogen-removal-products-and-molecular-characteristics-of-14%C3%A2-n-containing-compounds-in-supercritical-water-oxidation
#19
Bowen Yang, Zhemin Shen, Zhiwen Cheng, Wenchao Ji
Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process of 14 N-containing compounds was investigated with residence time of 150 s, at a stable pressure of 24 MPa, temperatures of 350-500 °C and 500% excess oxygen, resulted in total nitrogen (TN) removal from 41 to 96%. The products of N-containing species were mainly N2, nitrate, ammonium, as well as hardly nitrite or NOX. The yield distributions of nitrate and ammonium were different: the main nitrate concentrations were obtained from the compounds containing nitro-group and diazonium, like nitrobenzene, 2-nitrophenol and eriochrome blue black R (EBBR); the predominant ammonium yields were achieved from amino-group and N-heterocyclic compounds, such as aniline, 5-chloro-2-methylaniline, 3,4-dichloroaniline, 1-methylimidazole, 1,10-phenanthroline, cyanuric acid, indole and 2,3-indolinedione...
August 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918200/profiling-the-short-linear-non-disulfide-bond-containing-peptidome-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-tityus-obscurus
#20
Nathalia Baptista Dias, Bibiana Monson de Souza, Fernando Kamimura Cocchi, Hipócrates M Chalkidis, Valquíria Abrão Coronado Dorce, Mario Sergio Palma
Many scorpion accidents occur in the Brazilian Amazonian region and are frequently caused by Tityus obscurus. Approximately 5% of the crude venom of this species is composed of short linear, non-disulfide-bridged peptides, which have not been intensively investigated. As a consequence, only a few of these peptides have been structurally and functionally characterized to date. In the present paper, the peptide fraction of the venom was subjected to peptide profiling using an LCMS-IT-TOF/MS and MS(n) system. The analysis detected 320 non-disulfide bond-containing peptides (NDBPs), of which twenty-seven had their sequences assigned; among them, thirteen peptides were characterized, constituting novel toxins in T...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
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