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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684791/the-role-of-promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-in-steatosis-associated-hepatic-tumors-related-to-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#1
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
The persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a risk factor for the development of steatosis-associated tumors in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, yet little is known about the metabolic link with this factor. We correlated HBV-related pathogenesis in genetically engineered mice and human carriers with metabolic proteomics and lipogenic gene expression profiles. The immunohistochemistry showed that the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML, a tumor suppressor involved in genome maintenance and fatty acid oxidation), being inversely influenced by the dynamic HBsAg levels from acute phase to seroclearance, appeared as a lipo-metabolic switch linking HBsAg-induced steatosis (lipogenesis) to HBsAg-lost fat-burning hepatocarcinogenesis (lipolysis)...
April 20, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684776/cyclic-uniaxial-compression-of-human-stem-cells-seeded-on-a-bone-biomimetic-nanocomposite-decreases-anti-osteogenic-commitment-evoked-by-shear-stress
#2
Walter Baumgartner, Isabelle Schneider, Samuel C Hess, Wendelin J Stark, Sonja Märsmann, Marzia Brunelli, Maurizio Calcagni, Paolo Cinelli, Johanna Buschmann
OBJECTIVE: Chemical supplementation of culture media to induce differentiation of adult stem cells seeded on a scaffold may mask other differentiation triggers such as scaffold stiffness, chemical composition or mechanical stimulation. However, stem cells can be differentiated towards osteoblasts without any supplementation given an appropriate osteogenic scaffold and an adequate mechanical stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electrospun meshes of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/aCaP) in a weight ratio of 60:40 were seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and cultured in DMEM...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684611/rna-seq-based-transcriptional-analysis-reveals-dynamic-genes-expression-profiles-and-immune-associated-regulation-under-heat-stress-in-apostichopus-japonicus
#3
Dongxue Xu, Shun Zhou, Lina Sun
In this study, we explored the gene expression profiles in Apostichopus japonicus under continuous heat stress (6 h, 48 h and 192 h) by applying RNA-seq technique. A total of 676, 1010 and 1083 differentially expressed genes were detected at three heat stress groups respectively, which suggested complex regulation of various biological processes. Then we focused on the changing of immune system under HS in sea cucumbers. Key immune-associated genes were involved in heat stress response, which were classified into six groups: heat shock proteins, transferrin superfamily members, effector genes, proteases, complement system, and pattern recognition receptors and signaling...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684503/dynamics-based-community-analysis-and-perturbation-response-scanning-of-allosteric-interaction-networks-in-the-trap1-chaperone-structures-dissect-molecular-linkage-between-conformational-asymmetry-and-sequential-atp-hydrolysis
#4
Gennady M Verkhivker
Allosteric interactions of the Hsp90 chaperones with cochaperones and diverse protein clients can often exhibit distinct asymmetric features that determine regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions in many signaling networks. The recent crystal structures of the mitochondrial Hsp90 isoform TRAP1 in complexes with ATP analogs have provided first evidence of significant asymmetry in the closed dimerized state that triggers independent activity of the chaperone protomers, whereby preferential hydrolysis of the buckled protomer is followed by conformational flipping between protomers and hydrolysis of the second protomer...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684477/assessment-of-myoblast-circular-rna-dynamics-and-its-correlation-with-mirna-during-myogenic-differentiation
#5
Pengpeng Zhang, Haixia Xu, Rui Li, Wei Wu, Zhe Chao, Cencen Li, Wei Xia, Lei Wang, Jinzeng Yang, Yongjie Xu
Myoblast differentiation is a highly complex process that is regulated by proteins as well as by non-coding RNAs. Circular RNAs have been identified as an emerging new class of non-coding RNA in the modulation of skeletal muscle development, whereas their expression profiles and functional regulation in myoblast differentiation remain unknown. In the present study, we performed deep RNA-sequencing of C2C12 myoblasts during cell differentiation and uncovered 37,751 unique circular RNAs derived from 6,943 hosting genes...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684464/tracking-single-membrane-targets-of-human-autoantibodies-using-single-nanoparticle-imaging
#6
Julie Jézéquel, Julien P Dupuis, François Maingret, Laurent Groc
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, an increasing number of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases have been associated with the expression of autoantibodies directed against neuronal targets, including neurotransmitter receptors. Although cell-based assays are routinely used in clinics to detect the presence of immunoglobulins, such tests often provide heterogeneous outcomes due to their limited sensitivity, especially at low titers. Thus, there is an urging need for new methods allowing the detection of autoantibodies in seropositive patients that cannot always be clinically distinguished from seronegative ones...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684438/the-cytoskeleton-in-couch-potato-ism-insights-from-a-murine-model-of-impaired-actin-dynamics
#7
Karen Gertz, Ria Uhlemann, Anna Foryst-Ludwig, Ruben Marquina Barrientos, Kai Kappert, Christa Thöne-Reineke, Pierre Djoufack, Clemens Kirschbaum, Klaus B Fink, Andreas Heinz, Ulrich Kintscher, Matthias Endres, Golo Kronenberg
Evidence for a critical pathophysiological role of aberrant cytoskeletal dynamics is being uncovered in a growing number of neuropsychiatric syndromes. A sedentary lifestyle as well as overt psychopathology is prevalent in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Using mice deficient in gelsolin (Gsn-/- ), a crucial actin-severing protein, we here investigated reduced actin turnover as a potential common driver of metabolic disturbances, sedentary behavior, and an anxious/depressive phenotype. Gelsolin deficiency resulted in reduced lifespan...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684410/multicoloured-fluorescent-indicators-for-live-cell-and-in-vivo-imaging-of-inorganic-mercury-dynamics
#8
Rongkun Tao, Mei Shi, Yejun Zou, Di Cheng, Qiaohui Wang, Renmei Liu, Aoxue Wang, Jiahuan Zhu, Lei Deng, HanYang Hu, Xianjun Chen, Jiulin Du, Weiping Zhu, Yuzheng Zhao, Yi Yang
Engineered fluorescent indicators for visualizing mercury ion (Hg2+ ) are powerful tools to illustrate the intracellular distribution and serious toxicity of the ion. However, the sensitive and specific detection of Hg2+ in living cells and in vivo is challenging. This paper reported the development of fluorescent indicators for Hg2+ in green or red color by inserting a circularly permuted fluorescent protein into a highly mercury-specific repressor. These sensors provided a rapid, sensitive, specific, and real-time read-out of Hg2+ dynamics in solutions, bacteria, subcellular organelles of mammalian cells, and zebrafish, thereby providing a useful new method for Hg2+ detection and bioimaging...
April 20, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684376/angiotensin-ii-cyclic-analogs-as-tools-to-investigate-at-1-r-biased-signaling-mechanisms
#9
David St-Pierre, Jérôme Cabana, Brian J Holleran, Élie Besserer-Offroy, Emanuel Escher, Gaétan Guillemette, Pierre Lavigne, Richard Leduc
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) produce pleiotropic effects by their capacity to engage numerous signaling pathways once activated. Functional selectivity (also called biased signaling), where specific compounds can bring GPCRs to adopt conformations that enable selective receptor coupling to distinct signaling pathways, continues to be significantly investigated. However, an important but often overlooked aspect of functional selectivity is the capability of ligands such as angiotensin II (AngII) to adopt specific conformations that may preferentially bind to selective GPCRs structures...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684348/crystal-structure-of-a-thermophilic-o-6-alkylguanine-dna-alkyltransferase-derived-self-labeling-protein-tag-in-covalent-complex-with-a-fluorescent-probe
#10
Franca Rossi, Castrese Morrone, Alberto Massarotti, Davide Maria Ferraris, Anna Valenti, Giuseppe Perugino, Riccardo Miggiano
The self-labeling protein tags are robust and versatile tools for studying different molecular aspects of cell biology. In order to be suitable for a wide spectrum of experimental conditions, it is mandatory that these systems are stable after the fluorescent labeling reaction and do not alter the properties of the fusion partner. SsOGT-H5 is an engineered variant alkylguanine-DNA-alkyl-transferase (OGT) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, and it represents an alternative solution to the SNAP-tag® technology under harsh reaction conditions...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684140/ultra-fast-global-homology-detection-with-discrete-cosine-transform-and-dynamic-time-warping
#11
Daniele Raimondi, Gabriele Orlando, Yves Moreau, Wim F Vranken
Motivation: Evolutionary information is crucial for the annotation of proteins in bioinformatics. The amount of retrieved homologs often correlates with the quality of predicted protein annotations related to structure or function. With a growing amount of sequences available, fast and reliable methods for homology detection are essential, as they have a direct impact on predicted protein annotations. Results: We developed a discriminative, alignment-free algorithm for homology detection with quasi-linear complexity, enabling theoretically much faster homology searches...
April 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683733/cep55-overexpression-causes-male-specific-sterility-in-mice-by-suppressing-foxo1-nuclear-retention-through-sustained-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling
#12
Debottam Sinha, Murugan Kalimutho, Josephine Bowles, Ai-Leen Chan, D Jo Merriner, Amanda L Bain, Jacinta L Simmons, Raimundo Freire, J Alejandro Lopez, Robin M Hobbs, Moira K O'Bryan, Kum Kum Khanna
Spermatogenesis is a dynamic process involving self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis, and ultimately, the differentiation of haploid spermatids into sperm. Centrosomal protein (CEP)-55 is necessary for somatic cell abscission during cytokinesis. It facilitates equal segregation of cytoplasmic contents between daughter cells by recruiting endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery (ESCRT) at the midbody. In germ cells, CEP55, in partnership with testes expressed-14 protein (TEX14), has also been shown to be an integral component of intercellular bridge before meiosis...
April 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683674/the-dynamic-origin-of-color-tuning-in-proteins-revealed-by-a-carotenoid-pigment
#13
Daniele Loco, Francesco Buda, Johan Lugtenburg, Benedetta Mennucci
Understanding the microscopic origin of the color tuning in pigment-protein complexes is a challenging yet fundamental issue in photoactive biological systems. Here, we propose a possible interpretation by using a state-of-the-art multiscale strategy based on the integration of quantum chemistry and polarizable atomistic embeddings into a dynamic description. By means of such a strategy we are able to resolve the long-standing dispute over the coloration mechanism in the crustacyanin protein. It is shown that the combination of the dynamical flexibility of the carotenoid pigments (astaxanthin) with the responsive protein environment is essential to obtain quantitative predictions of the spectral tuning...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683671/extra-cavity-effect-in-cyclodextrin-surfactant-complexation
#14
Carolyn Vargas, Christian Schönbeck, Ina Heimann, Sandro Keller
Cyclodextrin (CD) complexation is a convenient method to sequester surfactants in a controllable way, for example, during membrane-protein reconstitution. Interestingly, the equilibrium stability of CD/surfactant inclusion complexes increases with the length of the nonpolar surfactant chain even beyond the point where all hydrophobic contacts within the canonical CD cavity are saturated. To rationalize this observation, we have dissected the inclusion complexation equilibria of a structurally well-defined CD, that is, heptakis(2,6-di-O methyl)-CD (DIMEB), and a homologous series of surfactants, namely, n alkyl-N,N dimethyl-3 ammonio-1 propanesulfonates (SB3 x) with chain lengths ranging from x = 8 to 14...
April 23, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683661/plasticity-of-the-binding-site-of-renin-optimized-selection-of-protein-structures-for-ensemble-docking
#15
Claas Strecker, Bernd Meyer
Protein flexibility poses a major challenge to docking of potential ligands in that the binding site can adopt different shapes. Docking algorithms usually keep the protein rigid and only allow the ligand to be treated as flexible. However, a wrong assessment of the shape of the binding pocket can prevent a ligand from adapting a correct pose. Ensemble docking is a simple yet promising method to solve this problem: Ligands are docked into multiple structures and the results are subsequently merged. Selection of protein structures is a significant factor for this approach...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683487/regulation-of-primary-microrna-processing
#16
REVIEW
Antoine Creugny, Aurélie Fender, Sébastien Pfeffer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved small regulatory RNAs that participate in the fine-tuning of many, if not all, fundamental biological processes. Molecular mechanisms involved in miRNA biogenesis and mode of action have been elucidated in the past two decades. Similar to many cellular pathways, miRNA processing and function can be globally or specifically regulated at several levels and by numerous proteins and RNAs. Given their role as fine-tuning molecules, it is essential for miRNA expression to be tightly regulated in order to maintain cellular homeostasis...
April 23, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683460/quantification-of-site-specific-protein-lysine-acetylation-and-succinylation-stoichiometry-using-data-independent-acquisition-mass-spectrometry
#17
Lei Wei, Jesse G Meyer, Birgit Schilling
Post-translational modification (PTM) of protein lysine residues by NƐ-acylation induces structural changes that can dynamically regulate protein functions, for example, by changing enzymatic activity or by mediating interactions. Precise quantification of site-specific protein acylation occupancy, or stoichiometry, is essential for understanding the functional consequences of both global low-level stoichiometry and individual high-level acylation stoichiometry of specific lysine residues. Other groups have reported measurement of lysine acetylation stoichiometry by comparing the ratio of peptide precursor isotopes from endogenous, natural abundance acylation and exogenous, heavy isotope-labeled acylation introduced after quantitative chemical acetylation of proteins using stable isotope-labeled acetic anhydride...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682811/upregulation-of-hypothalamic-arginine-vasopressin-by-peripherally-administered-furosemide-in-transgenic-rats-expressing-arginine-vasopressin-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#18
Hiromichi Ueno, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Haruki Nishimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Tetsu Miyamoto, Ryota Serino, Masahito Tamura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yutaka Otsuji, Yoichi Ueta
Furosemide, which is used worldwide as a diuretic agent, inhibits sodium reabsorption in the Henle's loop, resulting in diuresis and natriuresis. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The synthesis AVP in the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN physiologically regulated by plasma osmolality and blood volume and contributed water homeostasis by increasing water reabsorption in the collecting duct...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682766/non-cell-cycle-functions-of-the-cdk-network-in-ciliogenesis-recycling-the-cell-cycle-oscillator
#19
REVIEW
Liliana Krasinska, Daniel Fisher
Cyclin-dependent kinases are Ser/Thr protein kinases best known for their cell cycle roles, where CDK1 triggers mitotic onset in all eukaryotes. CDKs are also involved in various other cellular processes, some of which, such as transcription and centrosome duplication, are coupled to cell cycle progression. A new study suggests that the mitotic CDK network is active at low levels in non-dividing, differentiating precursors of multiciliated cells, and that it drives ciliogenesis. Manipulating the activity of CDK1 or PLK1 altered transitions between the amplification, growth, and disengagement phases, in a manner analogous to the control of passage through different phases of mitosis...
April 23, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682763/differential-expression-of-annexin-2-spink1-and-hsp60-predict-progression-of-prostate-cancer-through-bifurcated-who-gleason-score-categories-in-african-american-men
#20
Desta A Beyene, Tammey J Naab, Norma F Kanarek, Victor Apprey, Ashwini Esnakula, Farahan A Khan, Marc R Blackman, Collis A Brown, Tamaro S Hudson
BACKGROUND: Although studies have observed several markers correlate with progression of prostate cancer (PCa), no specific markers have been identified that accurately predict the progression of this disease, even in African American (AA) men who are generally at higher risk than other ethnic groups. The primary goal of this study was to explore whether three markers could predict the progression of PCa. METHOD: We investigated protein expression of Annexin 2 (ANX2), serine peptidase inhibitor, kazal type 1(SPINK1)/tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI), and heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) in 79 archival human prostate trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy tissues according to a modified World Health Organization (WHO) classification: normal (WHO1a), Gleason Score (GS6 (WHO1b), GS7 subgroups (WHO2 = 3 + 4, WHO3 = 4 + 3), GS8 (WHO4), and GS9-10 (WHO5)...
April 22, 2018: Prostate
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