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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335486/implicit-regularization-for-reconstructing-3d-building-rooftop-models-using-airborne-lidar-data
#1
Jaewook Jung, Yoonseok Jwa, Gunho Sohn
With rapid urbanization, highly accurate and semantically rich virtualization of building assets in 3D become more critical for supporting various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and location-based services. Many research efforts have been conducted to automatically reconstruct building models at city-scale from remotely sensed data. However, developing a fully-automated photogrammetric computer vision system enabling the massive generation of highly accurate building models still remains a challenging task...
March 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334818/chromosomal-dynamics-predicted-by-an-elastic-network-model-explains-genome-wide-accessibility-and-long-range-couplings
#2
Natalie Sauerwald, She Zhang, Carl Kingsford, Ivet Bahar
Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of chromatin and its relation to gene expression and regulation is fundamental to understanding how the genome functions. Advances in Hi-C technology now permit us to study 3D genome organization, but we still lack an understanding of the structural dynamics of chromosomes. The dynamic couplings between regions separated by large genomic distances (>50 Mb) have yet to be characterized. We adapted a well-established protein-modeling framework, the Gaussian Network Model (GNM), to model chromatin dynamics using Hi-C data...
March 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334658/extraction-of-the-3d-local-orientation-of-myocytes-in-human-cardiac-tissue-using-x-ray-phase-contrast-micro-tomography-and-multi-scale-analysis
#3
François Varray, Iulia Mirea, Max Langer, Françoise Peyrin, Laurent Fanton, Isabelle E Magnin
This paper presents a methodology to access the 3D local myocyte arrangements in fresh human post-mortem heart samples. We investigated the cardiac micro-structure at a high and isotropic resolution of 3.5 µm in three dimensions using X-ray phase micro-tomography at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. We then processed the reconstructed volumes to extract the 3D local orientation of the myocytes using a multi-scale approach with no segmentation. We created a simplified 3D model of tissue sample made of simulated myocytes with known size and orientations, to evaluate our orientation extraction method...
February 20, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334358/ranges-of-cervical-intervertebral-disc-deformation-during-an-in-vivo-dynamic-flexion-extension-of-the-neck
#4
Yan Yu, Haiqing Mao, Jing-Sheng Li, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Liming Cheng, Kirkham B Wood, Guoan Li, Thomas D Cha
While abnormal loading is widely believed to cause cervical spine disc diseases, in-vivo cervical disc deformation during dynamic neck motion has not been well delineated. This study investigated the range of cervical disc deformation during an in-vivo functional flexion-extension of the neck. Ten asymptomatic human subjects were tested using a combined dual fluoroscopic imaging system and MRI based 3D modeling technique. Overall disc deformation was determined using the changes of the space geometry between upper and lower endplates of each intervertebral segment (C3/4, C4/5, C5/6 and C6/7)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334010/automated-assessment-of-bone-changes-in-cross-sectional-micro-ct-studies-of-murine-experimental-osteoarthritis
#5
Patricia Das Neves Borges, Tonia L Vincent, Massimo Marenzana
OBJECTIVE: The degradation of articular cartilage, which characterises osteoarthritis (OA), is usually paired with excessive bone remodelling, including subchondral bone sclerosis, cysts, and osteophyte formation. Experimental models of OA are widely used to investigate pathogenesis, yet few validated methodologies for assessing periarticular bone morphology exist and quantitative measurements are limited by manual segmentation of micro-CT scans. The aim of this work was to chart the temporal changes in periarticular bone in murine OA by novel, automated micro-CT methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333915/directed-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-functional-cholangiocyte-like-cells
#6
Fotios Sampaziotis, Miguel Cardoso de Brito, Imbisaat Geti, Alessandro Bertero, Nicholas Rf Hannan, Ludovic Vallier
The difficulty in isolating and propagating functional primary cholangiocytes is a major limitation in the study of biliary disorders and the testing of novel therapeutic agents. To overcome this problem, we have developed a platform for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into functional cholangiocyte-like cells (CLCs). We have previously reported that our 26-d protocol closely recapitulates key stages of biliary development, starting with the differentiation of hPSCs into endoderm and subsequently into foregut progenitor (FP) cells, followed by the generation of hepatoblasts (HBs), cholangiocyte progenitors (CPs) expressing early biliary markers and mature CLCs displaying cholangiocyte functionality...
April 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333667/effect-of-penetration-enhancers-on-the-percutaneous-delivery-of-pain-management-actives
#7
John Trimble, Bob Light
Transdermal compositions for pain management are comprised of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid drugs, and adjuvant drugs acting on: voltage-gated channels, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, acute musculoskeletal pain, and as an antidepressant. In this work, baclofen, bupivacaine, cyclobenzaprine, diclofenac, gabapentin, ibuprofen, ketamine, and pentoxifylline were loaded in transdermal compositions, prepared using a mixture of lipids (isopropyl palmitate and mineral oil) and one of two selected penetration enhancer mixtures: alkyl dimethicone, phenyl trimethicone, and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate; and cetostearyl polyoxyethylene ether and ethylene oxide/propylene oxide copolymer...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333647/automatic-choroidal-layer-segmentation-using-markov-random-field-and-level-set-method
#8
Chuang Wang, Yongmin Li, Ya Xing Wang
The choroid is an important vascular layer that supplies oxygen and nourishment to the retina. The changes in thickness of the choroid have been hypothesised to relate to a number of retinal diseases in the pathophysiology. In this work, an automatic method is proposed for segmenting the choroidal layer from macular images by using the level set framework. The 3D nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter is used to remove all the OCT imaging artifacts including the speckle noise and to enhance the contrast. The distance regularisation and edge constraint terms are embedded into the level set method to avoid the irregular and small regions and keep information about the boundary between the choroid and sclera...
March 20, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333087/magnetically-bioprinted-human-myometrial-3d-cell-rings-as-a-model-for-uterine-contractility
#9
Glauco R Souza, Hubert Tseng, Jacob A Gage, Arunmani Mani, Pujan Desai, Fransisca Leonard, Angela Liao, Monica Longo, Jerrie S Refuerzo, Biana Godin
Deregulation in uterine contractility can cause common pathological disorders of the female reproductive system, including preterm labor, infertility, inappropriate implantation, and irregular menstrual cycle. A better understanding of human myometrium contractility is essential to designing and testing interventions for these important clinical problems. Robust studies on the physiology of human uterine contractions require in vitro models, utilizing a human source. Importantly, uterine contractility is a three-dimensionally (3D)-coordinated phenomenon and should be studied in a 3D environment...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333040/rigid-motion-correction-of-dual-opposed-planar-projections-in-single-photon-imaging
#10
Georgios I Angelis, William Ryder, John Gillam, Frederic Boisson, Andre Kyme, Roger Fulton, Steven Meikle, Peter Kench
Awake and/or freely moving small animal single photon emission imaging allows the continuous study of molecules exhibiting slow kinetics without the need to restrain or anaesthetise the animals. Estimating motion free projections in freely moving small animal planar imaging can be considered as a limited angle tomography problem, except that we wish to estimate the 2D planar projections rather than the 3D volume, where the angular sampling in all three axes depends on the rotational motion of the animal. In this study, we hypothesise that the motion corrected planar projections estimated by reconstructing an estimate of the 3D volume using an iterative motion compensating reconstruction algorithm and integrating it along the projection path, will closely match the true, motion-less, planar distribution regardless of the object motion...
March 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333020/-18-f-choline-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-and-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-detection-of-early-local-recurrence-of-prostate-cancer-initially-treated-by-radiation-therapy-comparison-with-systematic-3-dimensional-transperineal
#11
Salim Kanoun, Paul Walker, Jean-Marc Vrigneaud, Edouard Depardon, Vincent Barbier, Olivier Humbert, Morgan Moulin, Gilles Créhange, Luc Cormier, Romaric Loffroy, François Brunotte, Alexandre Cochet
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT), multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and a combination of both techniques for the detection of local recurrence of prostate cancer initially treated by radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a retrospective, single-institution study of 32 patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence who underwent both FCH-PET/CT and 3T mpMRI within 3 months of one another for the detection of recurrence...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331907/brace-technology-thematic-series-the-3d-rigo-ch%C3%A3%C2%AAneau-type-brace
#12
Manuel Rigo, Mina Jelačić
BACKGROUND: Chêneau and Matthias introduced in 1979 a brace concept inspired in casting. The brace was initially named "CTM" from Chêneau-Toulouse-Münster. The name "CTM" is still popular in France but "Chêneau-type brace" is its common name in the rest of the world. Principles to construct this brace were originally based on anatomical descriptions rather than biomechanics, and its standard is poor. METHODS: This paper follows the format of the "Brace technology thematic series...
2017: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330786/investigating-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity-in-multi-cellular-organotypic-liver-models
#13
Sophia M Orbach, Margaret E Cassin, Marion F Ehrich, Padmavathy Rajagopalan
In vivo studies clearly demonstrate the participation and subsequent death of non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs) with corresponding hepatocyte effects. This results in a critical need to investigate how major liver cell types function cohesively during hepatotoxicity. However, virtually no studies replicate these phenomena in vitro. We report the design of multi-cellular three-dimensional (3D) organotypic liver models of primary rat hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Kupffer cells (KCs)...
March 19, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330614/a-predictive-3d-multi-scale-model-of-biliary-fluid-dynamics-in-the-liver-lobule
#14
Kirstin Meyer, Oleksandr Ostrenko, Georgios Bourantas, Hernan Morales-Navarrete, Natalie Porat-Shliom, Fabian Segovia-Miranda, Hidenori Nonaka, Ali Ghaemi, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Lutz Brusch, Ivo Sbalzarini, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Roberto Weigert, Marino Zerial
Bile, the central metabolic product of the liver, is transported by the bile canaliculi network. The impairment of bile flow in cholestatic liver diseases has urged a demand for insights into its regulation. Here, we developed a predictive 3D multi-scale model that simulates fluid dynamic properties successively from the subcellular to the tissue level. The model integrates the structure of the bile canalicular network in the mouse liver lobule, as determined by high-resolution confocal and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, with measurements of bile transport by intravital microscopy...
March 15, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330571/use-of-3d-orbital-reconstruction-in-the-assessment-of-orbital-sexual-dimorphism-and-its-pathological-consequences
#15
N Graillon, C Boulze, P Adalian, A Loundou, L Guyot
INTRODUCTION: Surrounded by a variety of structures including the facial sinuses and the brain, the human orbit displays unique anatomical features. It is known that orbital volume correlates with age and sex. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dimorphism of orbital volume relative to the size of the skull, and to establish criteria for gender determination. METHODS: Orbital volume was measured from 3D models of the orbits. The volumes were expressed in relation to the centroid size of the skull, to ensure that any sexual dimorphism in orbital volume was not simply due to a difference in skull size...
February 2017: J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330493/loss-of-mmp-8-in-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis-associated-myoepithelial-cells-contributes-to-tumour-promotion-through-altered-adhesive-and-proteolytic-function
#16
Muge Sarper, Michael D Allen, Jenny Gomm, Linda Haywood, Julie Decock, Sally Thirkettle, Ahsen Ustaoglu, Shah-Jalal Sarker, John Marshall, Dylan R Edwards, J Louise Jones
BACKGROUND: Normal myoepithelial cells (MECs) play an important tumour-suppressor role in the breast but display an altered phenotype in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), gaining tumour-promoter functions. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) is expressed by normal MECs but is lost in DCIS. This study investigated the function of MMP-8 in MECs and the impact of its loss in DCIS. METHODS: Primary normal and DCIS-associated MECs, and normal (N-1089) and DCIS-modified myoepithelial (β6-1089) cell lines, were used to assess MMP-8 expression and function...
March 23, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330341/wetting-at-the-nanoscale-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#17
Mohammad Khalkhali, Nasser Kazemi, Hao Zhang, Qingxia Liu
A novel method to calculate the solid-liquid contact angle is introduced in this study. Using the 3D configuration of a liquid droplet on a solid surface, this method calculates the contact angle along the contact line and provides an angular distribution. Although this method uses the 3D configuration of liquid droplets, it does not require the calculation of the 3D density profile to identify the boundaries of the droplet. This decreases the computational cost of the contact angle calculation greatly. Moreover, no presumption about the shape of the liquid droplet is needed when using the method introduced in this study...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329054/whole-heart-detailed-and-quantitative-anatomy-myofibre-structure-and-vasculature-from-x-ray-phase-contrast-synchrotron-radiation-based-micro-computed-tomography
#18
Anna Gonzalez-Tendero, Chong Zhang, Vedrana Balicevic, Rubén Cárdenes, Sven Loncaric, Constantine Butakoff, Bruno Paun, Anne Bonnin, Patricia Garcia-Cañadilla, Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Eduard Gratacós, Fatima Crispi, Bart Bijnens
Background: While individual cardiac myocytes only have a limited ability to shorten, the heart efficiently pumps a large volume-fraction thanks to a cell organization in a complex 3D fibre structure. Subclinical subtle cardiac structural remodelling is often present before symptoms arise. Understanding and early detection of these subtle changes is crucial for diagnosis and prevention. Additionally, personalized computational modelling requires knowledge on the multi-scale structure of the whole heart and vessels...
March 15, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328071/investigation-of-c3-s-hydration-mechanism-by-transmission-electron-microscope-tem-with-integrated-super-x-tm-eds-system
#19
Y Sakalli, R Trettin
Tricalciumsilicate (C3 S, Alite) is the major component of the Portland cement clinker. Hydration of Alite is decisive in influencing the properties of the resulting material. This is due to its high content in cement. The mechanism of the hydration of C3 S is very complicated and not yet fully understood. There are different models describing the hydration of C3 S in various ways. In this work for a better understanding of hydration mechanism, the hydrated C3 S was investigated by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and for the first time, the samples for the investigations were prepared by using of focused ion beam from sintered pellets of C3 S...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328041/sem-microphotogrammetry-a-new-take-on-an-old-method-for-generating-high-resolution-3d-models-from-sem-images
#20
A D Ball, P A Job, A E L Walker
The method we present here uses a scanning electron microscope programmed via macros to automatically capture dozens of images at suitable angles to generate accurate, detailed three-dimensional (3D) surface models with micron-scale resolution. We demonstrate that it is possible to use these Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images in conjunction with commercially available software originally developed for photogrammetry reconstructions from Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras and to reconstruct 3D models of the specimen...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
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