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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213907/optimizing-the-analysis-of-dental-enamel-microstructure-in-intact-teeth
#1
Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212130/periorbital-soft-tissue-anthropometric-analysis-of-young-adults
#2
Turan Ozdemir, Fatma Ezgi Can, Sefa Isiklar, Ilker Ercan, Nedim Simsek Cankur
The authors aim to determine the periorbital soft tissue anthropometric norms for Turkish young adults for right and left eyes using a noninvasive two-dimensional photogrammetric analysis. Anthropometric measurements of the periorbital soft tissue were taken from 172 female and 56 male Turkish adults aged between 18 and 24 years. The periorbital soft tissue profiles (ocular and palpebral) for males and females were digitally analyzed using linear measurements made with standardized photographic records, taken in a natural head position...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150183/at-the-edge-of-safety-moral-experimentation-in-the-case-of-family-therapy
#3
Teresa Kuan
"At the Edge of Safety" argues for thinking of structural family therapy as a "moral laboratory." Borrowing a trope from Cheryl Mattingly's recent book Moral Laboratories, the article reconsiders a therapeutic style that was once controversial by analyzing personal stories of supervision-i.e. professional training-in light of Mattingly's suggestion that a social space in which people conduct experiments on themselves and their lives may be considered a moral laboratory. Family therapy is especially good to think with, because it is simultaneously a real and a metaphorical laboratory, physically lab-like in its use of visual technologies, yet moral in the way it puts the possibility for situational change in the hands of human actors...
February 1, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105719/allostatic-load-and-biological-anthropology
#4
Ashley N Edes, Douglas E Crews
Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093045/exploring-urban-health-in-cape-town-south-africa-an-interdisciplinary-analysis-of-secondary-data
#5
Rebekka Mumm, Sonia Diaz-Monsalve, Eva Hänselmann, Johanna Freund, Michael Wirsching, Jan Gärtner, Richard Gminski, Katrin Vögtlin, Mirjam Körner, Lena Zirn, Ursula Wittwer-Backofen, Tolu Oni, Axel Kroeger
BACKGROUND: With modern information technology, an overwhelming amount of data is available on different aspects of societies. Our research investigated the feasibility of using secondary data sources to get an overview of determinants of health and health outcomes in different population strata of Cape Town, a large city of South Africa. METHODS: The methodological approach of secondary-data analysis was similar in the different disciplines: Biological Anthropology, Public Health, Environmental Health, Mental Health, Palliative Care, Medical Psychology and Sociology at the University of Freiburg and Public Health at the University of Cape Town...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074346/actively-negotiating-the-mind-body-divide-how-clozapine-treated-schizophrenia-patients-make-health-for-themselves
#6
Julia E H Brown, Simone Dennis
It is well recognised that antipsychotic treatments impact the whole body, not just the target area of the brain. For people with refractory schizophrenia on clozapine, the gold standard antipsychotic treatment in England and Australia, the separation of mental and physical regimes of health is particularly pronounced, resulting in multiple, compartmentalised treatment registers. Clinicians often focus on the mental health aspects of clozapine use, using physical indicators to determine whether treatment can continue...
January 10, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059616/challenges-health-implications-and-advocacy-opportunities-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-global-health-providers
#7
Jason M Nagata
In this commentary, I reflect on challenges with conducting global health research internationally as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, grapple with decisions related to coming out in regions with anti-LGBT laws, and outline the risks and benefits of different advocacy options related to the promotion of LGBT health globally. Despite significant advances in LGBT rights in many countries, homosexuality remains illegal in many others. Using a critical medical anthropology framework, I argue that anti-LGBT laws constitute structural violence and have many detrimental consequences including discrimination and violence; poorer mental and physical health outcomes; and risky sexual behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008554/estimation-of-stature-by-using-the-dimensions-of-the-right-hand-and-right-foot-in-han-chinese-adults
#8
Xinghua Zhang, Yu Wei, Lianbin Zheng, Keli Yu, Dapeng Zhao, Jinping Bao, Yonglan Li, Shunhua Lu, Huanjiu Xi, Guochang Xu, Youfeng Wen
The Han Chinese people are the main ethnic group in China and the largest ethnic group in the world. The dimensions of the hands and feet have been successfully used for the estimation of stature. A total of 26,927 healthy adult subjects, comprising 13,221 men and 13,706 women, were recruited. The survey samples were chosen through random cluster sampling. The mean values were significantly higher in men than those in women for all measurements (P<0.001). All the measurements showed a statistically significant correlation with stature (P<0...
January 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004788/multi-indel-analysis-for-ancestry-inference-of-sub-populations-in-china
#9
Kuan Sun, Yi Ye, Tao Luo, Yiping Hou
Ancestry inference is of great interest in diverse areas of scientific researches, including the forensic biology, medical genetics and anthropology. Various methods have been published for distinguishing populations. However, few reports refer to sub-populations (like ethnic groups) within Asian populations for the limitation of markers. Several InDel loci located very tightly in physical positions were treated as one marker by us, which is multi-InDel. The multi-InDel shows potential as Ancestry Inference Marker (AIM)...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004246/reproducibility-of-three-dimensional-posterior-cranial-base-angles-using-low-dose-computed-tomography
#10
R Olszewski, L Frison, N Schoenarts, R H Khonsari, G A Odri, F Zech, H Reychler
OBJECTIVES: One of the key aspects of three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial cephalometry is the measurement of posterior cranial base angle as this area is deeply involved in craniofacial development. The purpose of our retrospective study was to define the best reproducible 3D posterior cranial base angles among five 3D angles transposed from 2D cephalometry (Cousin, BL1 of Ross and Ravosa, Bjork, Delaire, CBA4 of Liberman) and seven 3D angles based on physical anthropology studies and on new concepts (R1 to R7)...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885654/historical-trends-in-graduate-research-and-training-of-diplomates-of-the-american-board-of-forensic-anthropology
#11
Jonathan D Bethard
The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115)...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864949/multimethod-resolution-of-a-small-scale-case-of-commingling
#12
Janet E Finlayson, Eric J Bartelink, Alexandra Perrone, Kevin Dalton
This study highlights the use of multiple methods for resolving a case of commingled human remains. Skeletal remains were located in a marijuana field in rural northern California by law enforcement. Although initially buried in shallow graves, the remains of two decedents were disturbed by large carnivores and scattered over a wide area. The remains were submitted by law enforcement for forensic anthropological analysis and resolution of commingling. To segregate the remains of the two individuals, a number of methods were employed, including: (i) physical matching of fragmented remains; (ii) articulation to evaluate joint congruence; (iii) visual pair-matching of bilateral elements; (iv) osteometric pair-matching; (v) evaluation of taphonomic patterns; (vi) DNA analysis; and (vii) portable X-ray spectrometry (pXRF)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856767/suicidal-thinking-and-behaviour-as-of-600-bce-aesop-s-fables
#13
Julian Davis, Tammie T Money, Saxby Pridmore
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry has ignored history, anthropology, sociology and literature in the search for enlightenment regarding suicide. Our objective was to determine what, if anything, Aesop's fables had to teach us about suicide in around 600 BCE. Aesop's account is around two centuries older than the oldest text (Herodotus: The histories) previously examined by our group. METHOD: We examined two translations of Aesop's fables, seeking accounts fitting the following categories: (1) suicidal thinking, (2) suicidal behaviour without fatal consequences, and (3) suicidal behaviour with fatal consequences...
November 17, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787632/proposal-of-new-regression-formulae-for-the-estimation-of-age-in-infant-skeletal-remains-from-the-metric-study-of-the-pars-basilaris
#14
Javier Irurita Olivares, Inmaculada Alemán Aguilera
In the context of physical and forensic anthropology, when a child's skeleton is damaged or in poor condition, which is common, many of the metric methods for the estimation of skeletal age cannot be used. In these circumstances, those more resistant bones, such as the pars basilaris, will be most useful. The aims of this study were to test existing methods for estimating skeletal age from the metric study of the pars basilaris and to propose new regression formulae. One hundred fourteen individuals aged between 5 months of gestation and 6 years were analyzed; seven measures were taken from each pars basilaris using a digital caliper...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731892/hip-joint-mobility-in-free-ranging-rhesus-macaques
#15
Ashley S Hammond, Victoria P Johnson, James P Higham
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test for differences in hip joint range of motion (ROM) between captive and free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), particularly for hip joint abduction, which previous studies of captive macaques have found to be lower than predicted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hip ROM was assessed following standard joint measurement methodology in anesthetized adult free-ranging rhesus macaques (n = 39) from Cayo Santiago, and compared with published ROM data from captive rhesus macaques (n = 16) (Hammond, , American Journal of Physical Anthropology)...
February 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717938/experience-of-using-hippotherapy-in-complex-effects-on-muscle-spirals-in-children-with-spastic-forms-of-cerebral-palsy
#16
Evhen Y Strashko, Аnna A Kapustianska, Lyudmyla E Bobyreva
Matters of physical and medical rehabilitation of children with organic lesions of the nervous system, in particular, with cerebral palsy, are actual in countries around the world. Hippotherapy is neurophysiologically oriented therapy using horses. Determine whether a combination of hippotherapy as a method of rehabilitation in the aftermath of outpatient comprehensive impact on MS on a stationary phase; Study of the effect of hippotherapy as securing and preparation method for learning new postures and movements in children with spastic cerebral palsy forms; The study of the possible optimization of psychophysical state, activation motivations of patients; Determination of the optimal timing of hippotherapy sessions, the number of procedures, the study of possible fatigue factor children...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685464/digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-handgrip-strength-in-a-chinese-population-of-han-ethnicity
#17
Dan Shen, Zhanbing Ma, Lu Wang, Zhenghao Huo, Hong Lu, Junli Zhao, Wenli Qian
BACKGROUND: In humans, the relative lengths of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait which correlated with prenatal sex steroids and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal hormone exposure in some traits, such as physical performance. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one potent index of physical ability and its relationship with 2D:4D ratio has been discussed in several ethnic groups. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a correlation between 2D:4D ratio and HGS in Chinese college students of Ningxia Han ethnicity...
December 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670626/medical-education-of-attention-a-qualitative-study-of-learning-to-listen-to-sound
#18
Anna Harris, Eleanor Flynn
INTRODUCTION: There has been little qualitative research examining how physical examination skills are learned, particularly the sensory and subjective aspects of learning. The authors set out to study how medical students are taught and learn the skills of listening to sound. METHODS: As part of an ethnographic study in Melbourne, 15 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with students and teachers as a way to reflect explicitly on their learning and teaching...
September 27, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637370/intergenerational-changes-in-chest-size-and-proportions-in-children-and-adolescents-aged-3-18-from-krak%C3%A3-w-poland-within-the-last-70-years
#19
Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal, Jan Sobiecki
OBJECTIVES: The size and proportions of the human body change continuously in response to social change and economic development. As reported by papers on intergenerational changes in chest size, this part of the human body is also influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the dimensions and proportions of the chest of children and adolescents over a span of 70 years. METHODS: In 2010 an anthropological study was conducted on 3878 children and adolescents aged 3-18 years living in Kraków (Poland)...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633249/the-person-in-the-disabled-body-a-perspective-on-culture-and-personhood-from-the-margins
#20
Maayan Agmon, Amalia Sa'ar, Tal Araten-Bergman
BACKGROUND: Persons with disabilities (PWD) are one of the most marginalized groups in Western societies. These inequalities are manifested through various disadvantages in the psychosocial, cultural, and economic domains. Inspired by the World Health Organization's holistic conceptualization of disability, the present study examines the relation between the body and personhood in Israeli culture, through cases of newly diagnosed adults with disability. METHOD: Participant observation at a rehabilitation daycare center was carried out for a period of two years...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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