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Physical anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136574/are-we-using-the-appropriate-reference-samples-to-develop-juvenile-age-estimation-methods-based-on-bone-size-an-exploration-of-growth-differences-between-average-children-and-those-who-become-victims-of-homicide
#1
Laure Spake, Hugo F V Cardoso
The population on which forensic juvenile skeletal age estimation methods are applied has not been critically considered. Previous research suggests that child victims of homicide tend to be from socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts, and that these contexts impair linear growth. This study investigates whether juvenile skeletal remains examined by forensic anthropologists are short for age compared to their normal healthy peers. Cadaver lengths were obtained from records of autopsies of 1256 individuals, aged birth to eighteen years at death, conducted between 2000 and 2015 in Australia, New Zealand, and the U...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130838/the-psychology-of-rituals-an-integrative-review-and-process-based-framework
#2
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108022/risk-factors-for-hiv-infection-among-female-sex-workers-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#3
Jean De Dieu Longo, Marcel Mbeko Simaleko, Henri Saint-Calvaire Diemer, Gérard Grésenguet, Gilles Brücker, Laurent Belec
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were i) to categorize female sex workers (FSW) according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui; ii) to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as outcome, and iii) to investigate factors associated with HIV status. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work in Bangui among 345 sexually active women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101418/-the-big-data-game-on-the-ludic-constitution-of-the-collaborative-production-of-knowledge-in-high-energy-physics-at-cern
#4
Anne Dippel
This article looks at how games and play contribute to the big data-driven production of knowledge in High-Energy Physics, with a particular focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where the author has been conducting anthropological fieldwork since 2014. The ludic (playful) aspect of knowledge production is analyzed here in three different dimensions: the Symbolic, the Ontological, and the Epistemic. The first one points towards CERN as place where a cosmological game of probability is played with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations...
December 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065282/does-facial-attractiveness-influence-perception-of-epilepsy-diagnosis-an-insight-into-stigma-in-epilepsy
#5
Aleksandar J Ristić, Olja Jovanović, Dragan Popadić, Višnja Pađen, Ahsan N V Moosa, Ana Krivokapić, Aleksandra Parojčić, Ivana Berisavac, Andrej Ilanković, Vladimir Baščarević, Nikola Vojvodić, Dragoslav Sokić
BACKGROUND: Using a group of young healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis (pMS), we aimed to investigate whether the physical attractiveness judgment affects perception of epilepsy. We tested hypothesis that subjects, in the absence of relevant clues, would catch upon the facial attractiveness when asked to speculate which person suffers epilepsy and select less attractive choices. METHOD: Two photo-arrays (7 photos for each gender) selected from the Chicago Face Database (180 neutral faces of Caucasian volunteers with unknown medical status) were shown to study participants...
October 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023628/ethnic-derivation-of-the-ainu-inferred-from-ancient-mitochondrial-dna-data
#6
Noboru Adachi, Tsuneo Kakuda, Ryohei Takahashi, Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Ken-Ichi Shinoda
OBJECTIVES: The Ainu, the indigenous people living on the northernmost island of Japan, Hokkaido, have long been a focus of anthropological interest because of their cultural, linguistic, and physical identity. A major problem with genetic studies on the Ainu is that the previously published data stemmed almost exclusively from only 51 modern-day individuals living in Biratori Town, central Hokkaido. To clarify the actual genetic characteristics of the Ainu, individuals who are less influenced by mainland Japanese, who started large-scale immigration into Hokkaido about 150 years ago, should be examined...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993149/relationship-of-blood-pressure-and-erectile-dysfunction-in-men-without-previously-diagnosed-hypertension
#7
Arto Heikkilä, Antti Kaipia, Maarit Venermo, Hannu Kautiainen, Päivi Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual disorder that affects all age groups and has a close association with essential hypertension. AIM: To characterize the relation of blood pressure and ED in detail. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study of 45- to 70-year-old men without previously diagnosed hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, renal disease, or diabetes was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in southwestern Finland...
November 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987535/blood-sweat-and-plaster-casts-reviewing-the-history-composition-and-scientific-value-of-the-raymond-a-dart-collection-of-african-life-and-death-masks
#8
T M R Houlton, B K Billings
This paper addresses the history, composition and scientific value of one of the most comprehensive facemask collections in Africa, the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks. Housed within the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa), it comprises 1110 masks (397 life, 487 death, 226 unknown). Life masks represent populations throughout Africa; death masks predominately southern Africa. Males preponderate by 75%. Recorded ages are error prone, but suggest most life masks are those of <35 year-olds, death masks of 36+ year-olds...
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953824/charity-hospitality-and-the-human-person
#9
Mark Agius, Anna McKeever
We believe that in order to properly interpret all aspects of human scientific enquiry in terms of its impact on human beings it is necessary to have an adequate all encompassing model of the human person. We began this presentation by discussing the differences between the 'Cartesian' Dualistic model of the human Person and that of Aquinas and Augustine (which depend on Aristotle and Plato respectively). While the 'Cartesian' describes a completely separate 'soul' or 'mind' from the physical body, the Thomistic model of the Human Person is that of an Embodied Spirit, in which every aspect of the human spirit is reflected in an aspect or function of the physical body...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866239/an-evaluation-of-soil-chemistry-in-human-cadaver-decomposition-islands-potential-for-estimating-postmortem-interval-pmi
#10
J P Fancher, J A Aitkenhead-Peterson, T Farris, K Mix, A P Schwab, D J Wescott, M D Hamilton
Soil samples from the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, were analyzed for multiple soil characteristics from cadaver decomposition islands to a depth of 5centimeters (cm) from 63 human decomposition sites, as well as depths up to 15cm in a subset of 11 of the cadaver decomposition islands plus control soils. Postmortem interval (PMI) of the cadaver decomposition islands ranged from 6 to 1752 days. Some soil chemistry, including nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH4-N), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), peaked at early PMI values and their concentrations at 0-5cm returned to near control values over time likely due to translocation down the soil profile...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859116/the-sommersdorf-mummies-an-interdisciplinary-investigation-on-human-remains-from-a-17th-19th-century-aristocratic-crypt-in-southern-germany
#11
Amelie Alterauge, Manuel Kellinghaus, Christian Jackowski, Natallia Shved, Frank Rühli, Frank Maixner, Albert Zink, Wilfried Rosendahl, Sandra Lösch
Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838563/a-volumetric-technique-for-fossil-body-mass-estimation-applied-to-australopithecus-afarensis
#12
Charlotte A Brassey, Thomas G O'Mahoney, Andrew T Chamberlain, William I Sellers
Fossil body mass estimation is a well established practice within the field of physical anthropology. Previous studies have relied upon traditional allometric approaches, in which the relationship between one/several skeletal dimensions and body mass in a range of modern taxa is used in a predictive capacity. The lack of relatively complete skeletons has thus far limited the potential application of alternative mass estimation techniques, such as volumetric reconstruction, to fossil hominins. Yet across vertebrate paleontology more broadly, novel volumetric approaches are resulting in predicted values for fossil body mass very different to those estimated by traditional allometry...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833114/estimating-biological-characteristics-with-virtual-laser-data
#13
Ryan A Mullins, John Albanese
Laser scanning technology is increasingly being used in forensic anthropological research to obtain virtual data for archival purposes and post hoc measurement collection. This research compared the measurement accuracy of two laser scanners-the FARO Focus(3D) 330X and the FARO Freestyle(3D) -against traditionally obtained (i.e., by hand) control data (N = 454). Skeletal data were collected to address a novel question: the ability of laser scanning technology to produce measurements useful for biological characteristic estimation, such as sex and stature...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832826/-study-of-perceptions-regarding-health-in-people-who-use-bicycles-as-a-means-of-transport
#14
Mario Jordi
In recent years, the development of specific promotion policies in some Spanish cities has led to increased use of bicycles as a means of transport. In the case of the city of Seville, bicycle commuting within the metropolitan area has gone from being quantitatively insignificant to amounting to more than 6% of the modal share. Based in ethnographic research carried out in the region of Andalucía between 2013 and 2015, implementing interviews, focus groups and participatory forums in which 320 adults took part, this article analyzes from a sociocultural point of view perceptions about the health of those who use bicycles as a means of transportation and evidences some challenges that need to be faced in promoting bicycle transportation in the city...
April 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831258/which-psychological-psychophysiological-and-anthropometric-factors-are-connected-with-life-events-depression-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Milos Slepecky, Antonia Kotianova, Jan Prasko, Ivan Majercak, Erika Gyorgyova, Michal Kotian, Marta Zatkova, Marta Popelkova, Marie Ociskova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine psychological, psychophysiological, and anthropometric factors connected with life events, level of depression, and quality of life in people at risk for cardiovascular disease and healthy controls. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving arterial hypertension patients and healthy controls. There were several measurements including physical, anthropological, cardiovascular, and psychophysiological measurements and administration of questionnaires...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802724/juvenile-body-mass-estimation-a-methodological-evaluation
#16
Libby Cowgill
Two attempts have been made to develop body mass prediction formulae specifically for immature remains: Ruff (Ruff, C.C., 2007, Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains. American Journal Physical Anthropology 133, 698-716) and Robbins et al. (Robbins, G., Sciulli, P.W., Blatt, S.H., 2010. Estimating body mass in subadult human skeletons. American Journal Physical Anthropology 143, 146-150). While both were developed from the same reference population, they differ in their independent variable selection: Ruff (2008) used measures of metaphyseal and articular surface size to predict body mass in immature remains, whereas Robbins et al...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700651/metric-based-vs-peer-reviewed-evaluation-of-a-research-output-lesson-learnt-from-uk-s-national-research-assessment-exercise
#17
Kushwanth Koya, Gobinda Chowdhury
PURPOSE: There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs) make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645314/neuromuscular-function-during-knee-extension-exercise-after-cold-water-immersion
#18
Hitoshi Wakabayashi, Titis Wijayanto, Yutaka Tochihara
BACKGROUND: Human adaptability to cold environment has been focused on in the physiological anthropology and related research area. Concerning the human acclimatization process in the natural climate, it is necessary to conduct a research assessing comprehensive effect of cold environment and physical activities in cold. This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion on the exercise performance and neuromuscular function during maximal and submaximal isometric knee extension...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600906/giuseppe-sergi-the-portrait-of-a-positivist-scientist
#19
Giovanni Cerro
Giuseppe Sergi (1841-1936) was one of the most important anthropologists and psychologists of the age of positivism and this article focuses on three domains of his scientific research: degeneration, eugenics and race. His concept of degeneration is defined as the development of special forms of human adaptation to the environment. This issue is closely related to his theory of the "stratification of character", which had a profound impact on Italian psychiatry and criminal anthropology in the late nineteenth century...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582402/a-matter-of-months-high-precision-migration-chronology-of-a-bronze-age-female
#20
Karin Margarita Frei, Chiara Villa, Marie Louise Jørkov, Morten E Allentoft, Flemming Kaul, Per Ethelberg, Samantha S Reiter, Andrew S Wilson, Michelle Taube, Jesper Olsen, Niels Lynnerup, Eske Willerslev, Kristian Kristiansen, Robert Frei
Establishing the age at which prehistoric individuals move away from their childhood residential location holds crucial information about the socio dynamics and mobility patterns in ancient societies. We present a novel combination of strontium isotope analyses performed on the over 3000 year old "Skrydstrup Woman" from Denmark, for whom we compiled a highly detailed month-scale model of her migration timeline. When combined with physical anthropological analyses this timeline can be related to the chronological age at which the residential location changed...
2017: PloS One
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