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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866239/an-evaluation-of-soil-chemistry-in-human-cadaver-decomposition-islands-potential-for-estimating-postmortem-interval-pmi
#1
J P Fancher, J A Aitkenhead-Peterson, T Farris, K Mix, A P Schwab, D J Wescott, M D Hamilton
Soil samples from the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, were analyzed for multiple soil characteristics from cadaver decomposition islands to a depth of 5centimeters (cm) from 63 human decomposition sites, as well as depths up to 15cm in a subset of 11 of the cadaver decomposition islands plus control soils. Postmortem interval (PMI) of the cadaver decomposition islands ranged from 6 to 1752 days. Some soil chemistry, including nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH4-N), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), peaked at early PMI values and their concentrations at 0-5cm returned to near control values over time likely due to translocation down the soil profile...
August 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859116/the-sommersdorf-mummies-an-interdisciplinary-investigation-on-human-remains-from-a-17th-19th-century-aristocratic-crypt-in-southern-germany
#2
Amelie Alterauge, Manuel Kellinghaus, Christian Jackowski, Natallia Shved, Frank Rühli, Frank Maixner, Albert Zink, Wilfried Rosendahl, Sandra Lösch
Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838563/a-volumetric-technique-for-fossil-body-mass-estimation-applied-to-australopithecus-afarensis
#3
Charlotte A Brassey, Thomas G O'Mahoney, Andrew T Chamberlain, William I Sellers
Fossil body mass estimation is a well established practice within the field of physical anthropology. Previous studies have relied upon traditional allometric approaches, in which the relationship between one/several skeletal dimensions and body mass in a range of modern taxa is used in a predictive capacity. The lack of relatively complete skeletons has thus far limited the potential application of alternative mass estimation techniques, such as volumetric reconstruction, to fossil hominins. Yet across vertebrate paleontology more broadly, novel volumetric approaches are resulting in predicted values for fossil body mass very different to those estimated by traditional allometry...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833114/estimating-biological-characteristics-with-virtual-laser-data
#4
Ryan A Mullins, John Albanese
Laser scanning technology is increasingly being used in forensic anthropological research to obtain virtual data for archival purposes and post hoc measurement collection. This research compared the measurement accuracy of two laser scanners-the FARO Focus(3D) 330X and the FARO Freestyle(3D) -against traditionally obtained (i.e., by hand) control data (N = 454). Skeletal data were collected to address a novel question: the ability of laser scanning technology to produce measurements useful for biological characteristic estimation, such as sex and stature...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832826/-study-of-perceptions-regarding-health-in-people-who-use-bicycles-as-a-means-of-transport
#5
Mario Jordi
In recent years, the development of specific promotion policies in some Spanish cities has led to increased use of bicycles as a means of transport. In the case of the city of Seville, bicycle commuting within the metropolitan area has gone from being quantitatively insignificant to amounting to more than 6% of the modal share. Based in ethnographic research carried out in the region of Andalucía between 2013 and 2015, implementing interviews, focus groups and participatory forums in which 320 adults took part, this article analyzes from a sociocultural point of view perceptions about the health of those who use bicycles as a means of transportation and evidences some challenges that need to be faced in promoting bicycle transportation in the city...
April 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831258/which-psychological-psychophysiological-and-anthropometric-factors-are-connected-with-life-events-depression-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Milos Slepecky, Antonia Kotianova, Jan Prasko, Ivan Majercak, Erika Gyorgyova, Michal Kotian, Marta Zatkova, Marta Popelkova, Marie Ociskova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine psychological, psychophysiological, and anthropometric factors connected with life events, level of depression, and quality of life in people at risk for cardiovascular disease and healthy controls. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving arterial hypertension patients and healthy controls. There were several measurements including physical, anthropological, cardiovascular, and psychophysiological measurements and administration of questionnaires...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802724/juvenile-body-mass-estimation-a-methodological-evaluation
#7
Libby Cowgill
Two attempts have been made to develop body mass prediction formulae specifically for immature remains: Ruff (Ruff, C.C., 2007, Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains. American Journal Physical Anthropology 133, 698-716) and Robbins et al. (Robbins, G., Sciulli, P.W., Blatt, S.H., 2010. Estimating body mass in subadult human skeletons. American Journal Physical Anthropology 143, 146-150). While both were developed from the same reference population, they differ in their independent variable selection: Ruff (2008) used measures of metaphyseal and articular surface size to predict body mass in immature remains, whereas Robbins et al...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700651/metric-based-vs-peer-reviewed-evaluation-of-a-research-output-lesson-learnt-from-uk-s-national-research-assessment-exercise
#8
Kushwanth Koya, Gobinda Chowdhury
PURPOSE: There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs) make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645314/neuromuscular-function-during-knee-extension-exercise-after-cold-water-immersion
#9
Hitoshi Wakabayashi, Titis Wijayanto, Yutaka Tochihara
BACKGROUND: Human adaptability to cold environment has been focused on in the physiological anthropology and related research area. Concerning the human acclimatization process in the natural climate, it is necessary to conduct a research assessing comprehensive effect of cold environment and physical activities in cold. This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion on the exercise performance and neuromuscular function during maximal and submaximal isometric knee extension...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600906/giuseppe-sergi-the-portrait-of-a-positivist-scientist
#10
Giovanni Cerro
Giuseppe Sergi (1841-1936) was one of the most important anthropologists and psychologists of the age of positivism and this article focuses on three domains of his scientific research: degeneration, eugenics and race. His concept of degeneration is defined as the development of special forms of human adaptation to the environment. This issue is closely related to his theory of the "stratification of character", which had a profound impact on Italian psychiatry and criminal anthropology in the late nineteenth century...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582402/a-matter-of-months-high-precision-migration-chronology-of-a-bronze-age-female
#11
Karin Margarita Frei, Chiara Villa, Marie Louise Jørkov, Morten E Allentoft, Flemming Kaul, Per Ethelberg, Samantha S Reiter, Andrew S Wilson, Michelle Taube, Jesper Olsen, Niels Lynnerup, Eske Willerslev, Kristian Kristiansen, Robert Frei
Establishing the age at which prehistoric individuals move away from their childhood residential location holds crucial information about the socio dynamics and mobility patterns in ancient societies. We present a novel combination of strontium isotope analyses performed on the over 3000 year old "Skrydstrup Woman" from Denmark, for whom we compiled a highly detailed month-scale model of her migration timeline. When combined with physical anthropological analyses this timeline can be related to the chronological age at which the residential location changed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511408/estimation-of-total-length-of-femur-from-its-proximal-and-distal-segmental-measurements-of-disarticulated-femur-bones-of-nepalese-population-using-regression-equation-method
#12
Laxman Khanal, Sandip Shah, Sarun Koirala
INTRODUCTION: Length of long bones is taken as an important contributor for estimating one of the four elements of forensic anthropology i.e., stature of the individual. Since physical characteristics of the individual differ among different groups of population, population specific studies are needed for estimating the total length of femur from its segment measurements. AIM: Since femur is not always recovered intact in forensic cases, it was the aim of this study to derive regression equations from measurements of proximal and distal fragments in Nepalese population...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484621/the-mountains-of-giants-an-anthropometric-survey-of-male-youths-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#13
Pavel Grasgruber, Stevo Popović, Dominik Bokuvka, Ivan Davidović, Sylva Hřebíčková, Pavlína Ingrová, Predrag Potpara, Stipan Prce, Nikola Stračárová
The aim of this anthropometric survey, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), was to map local geographical differences in male stature and some other anthropometric characteristics (sitting height, arm span). In addition, to investigate the main environmental factors influencing physical growth, the documented values of height would be compared with available nutritional and socioeconomic statistics. Anthropometric data were collected in 3192 boys aged approximately 18.3 years (17-20 years), from 97 schools in 37 towns...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458331/preliminary-thoughts-on-research-in-medical-humanities
#14
Xiaojing Yun, Jiawei Guo, Haihong Qian
Medical humanities (MH) is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social sciences (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and health geography), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Studies of MH should not be limited to theoretical discussions. Research results must be translated into use of methodologies to formulate medical policies, guide clinical practices, and help resolve physical or mental problems...
April 29, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432628/design-of-water-quality-monitoring-networks-with-two-information-scenarios-in-tropical-andean-basins
#15
Juan Carlos Bastidas, Jorge Julián Vélez, Jeannette Zambrano, Adela Londoño
Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km(2) watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km(2) watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River)...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390151/from-biography-to-osteobiography-an-example-of-anthropological-historical-identification-of-the-remains-of-st-paul
#16
Frane Mihanović, Ivan Jerković, Ivana Kružić, Šimun Anđelinović, Stipan Janković, Željana Bašić
In the identification process of historical figures, and especially in cases of Saint's bodies or mummified remains, any method that includes physical encroachment or sampling is often not allowed. In these cases, one of the few remaining possibilities is the application of nondestructive radiographical and anthropological methods. However, although there have been a few attempts of such analyses, no systematic standard methodology has been developed until now. In this study, we developed a methodological approach that was used to test the authenticity of the alleged body of Saint Paul the Confessor...
April 8, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362021/sexual-dimorphism-in-base-of-skull
#17
Anabel Amores-Ampuero
Sex determination is an important task in forensic medicine and physical anthropology. The aims of this study were to assess the presence of sexual dimorphism in the base of the skull and to compare the accuracy of sex estimation by this method with that achieved in other metric studies of this region. The sample comprised 109 individuals (53 males and 56 females) of known sex, age, and cause of death from San José cemetery in Granada (Spain). Six dimensions were analyzed and discriminant function analysis was performed...
April 1, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344984/advance-directive-in-end-of-life-decision-making-among-the-yoruba-of-south-western-nigeria
#18
Ayodele Samuel Jegede, Olufunke Olufunsho Adegoke
End-of-life decision making is value-laden within the context of culture and bioethics. Also, ethics committee role is difficult to understand on this, thus need for ethnomethodological perspective in an expanding bioethical age. Anthropological approach was utilized to document Yoruba definition and perspective of death, cultural beliefs about end-of-life decision making, factors influencing it and ethics committee role. Interviews were conducted among selected Yoruba resident in Akinyele LGA, Oyo State, Nigeria...
November 2016: BEOnline: Journal of the West African Bioethics Training Program
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318184/preventing-childhood-obesity-contributions-from-the-social-sciences-to-intervention
#19
Muriel Lamarque, Alicia Bibiana Orden
Programming and implementation of health policies for the prevention of overweight and obesity have traditionally focused on the dissemination of specific messages identifying healthy foods and pointing out the importance of physical activity. Despite recurrent efforts, the prevalence of obesity in both adult and children populations continues to rise. The configuration of preventive proposals seems to neglect the more complex reality of the eating phenomenon, whose nature goes beyond its biological basis. Behind the presence of overweight or obesity, there are factors that exceed individual behaviors, which are constituted as elements of social order...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290865/-chronic-reno-cardial-continuum-in-glomerulonephritis
#20
I T Murkamilov, R R Kaliev, A Sh Sarybaev, J Sh Imanakunova, B F Imanov, A A Ibragimov, N T Davidova
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate main risk factors contributing to development of cardiovascular pathology at the predialysis stage of chronic glomerulonephritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 173 patients (90 men, 83 women, age 15-70, mean age 36.8+/-12.9 years) at predialysis stage of chronic glomerulonephritis. Cardiovascular pathology (coronary heart disease, disturbances of cardiac rhythm, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic heart failure) was found in 88 patients...
September 2016: Kardiologiia
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