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Physical anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074346/actively-negotiating-the-mind-body-divide-how-clozapine-treated-schizophrenia-patients-make-health-for-themselves
#1
Julia E H Brown, Simone Dennis
It is well recognised that antipsychotic treatments impact the whole body, not just the target area of the brain. For people with refractory schizophrenia on clozapine, the gold standard antipsychotic treatment in England and Australia, the separation of mental and physical regimes of health is particularly pronounced, resulting in multiple, compartmentalised treatment registers. Clinicians often focus on the mental health aspects of clozapine use, using physical indicators to determine whether treatment can continue...
January 10, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059616/challenges-health-implications-and-advocacy-opportunities-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-global-health-providers
#2
Jason M Nagata
In this commentary, I reflect on challenges with conducting global health research internationally as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, grapple with decisions related to coming out in regions with anti-LGBT laws, and outline the risks and benefits of different advocacy options related to the promotion of LGBT health globally. Despite significant advances in LGBT rights in many countries, homosexuality remains illegal in many others. Using a critical medical anthropology framework, I argue that anti-LGBT laws constitute structural violence and have many detrimental consequences including discrimination and violence; poorer mental and physical health outcomes; and risky sexual behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008554/estimation-of-stature-by-using-the-dimensions-of-the-right-hand-and-right-foot-in-han-chinese-adults
#3
Xinghua Zhang, Yu Wei, Lianbin Zheng, Keli Yu, Dapeng Zhao, Jinping Bao, Yonglan Li, Shunhua Lu, Huanjiu Xi, Guochang Xu, Youfeng Wen
The Han Chinese people are the main ethnic group in China and the largest ethnic group in the world. The dimensions of the hands and feet have been successfully used for the estimation of stature. A total of 26,927 healthy adult subjects, comprising 13,221 men and 13,706 women, were recruited. The survey samples were chosen through random cluster sampling. The mean values were significantly higher in men than those in women for all measurements (P<0.001). All the measurements showed a statistically significant correlation with stature (P<0...
December 21, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004788/multi-indel-analysis-for-ancestry-inference-of-sub-populations-in-china
#4
Kuan Sun, Yi Ye, Tao Luo, Yiping Hou
Ancestry inference is of great interest in diverse areas of scientific researches, including the forensic biology, medical genetics and anthropology. Various methods have been published for distinguishing populations. However, few reports refer to sub-populations (like ethnic groups) within Asian populations for the limitation of markers. Several InDel loci located very tightly in physical positions were treated as one marker by us, which is multi-InDel. The multi-InDel shows potential as Ancestry Inference Marker (AIM)...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004246/reproducibility-of-three-dimensional-posterior-cranial-base-angles-using-low-dose-computed-tomography
#5
R Olszewski, L Frison, N Schoenarts, R H Khonsari, G A Odri, F Zech, H Reychler
OBJECTIVES: One of the key aspects of three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial cephalometry is the measurement of posterior cranial base angle as this area is deeply involved in craniofacial development. The purpose of our retrospective study was to define the best reproducible 3D posterior cranial base angles among five 3D angles transposed from 2D cephalometry (Cousin, BL1 of Ross and Ravosa, Bjork, Delaire, CBA4 of Liberman) and seven 3D angles based on physical anthropology studies and on new concepts (R1 to R7)...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885654/historical-trends-in-graduate-research-and-training-of-diplomates-of-the-american-board-of-forensic-anthropology
#6
Jonathan D Bethard
The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115)...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864949/multimethod-resolution-of-a-small-scale-case-of-commingling
#7
Janet E Finlayson, Eric J Bartelink, Alexandra Perrone, Kevin Dalton
This study highlights the use of multiple methods for resolving a case of commingled human remains. Skeletal remains were located in a marijuana field in rural northern California by law enforcement. Although initially buried in shallow graves, the remains of two decedents were disturbed by large carnivores and scattered over a wide area. The remains were submitted by law enforcement for forensic anthropological analysis and resolution of commingling. To segregate the remains of the two individuals, a number of methods were employed, including: (i) physical matching of fragmented remains; (ii) articulation to evaluate joint congruence; (iii) visual pair-matching of bilateral elements; (iv) osteometric pair-matching; (v) evaluation of taphonomic patterns; (vi) DNA analysis; and (vii) portable X-ray spectrometry (pXRF)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856767/suicidal-thinking-and-behaviour-as-of-600-bce-aesop-s-fables
#8
Julian Davis, Tammie T Money, Saxby Pridmore
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry has ignored history, anthropology, sociology and literature in the search for enlightenment regarding suicide. Our objective was to determine what, if anything, Aesop's fables had to teach us about suicide in around 600 BCE. Aesop's account is around two centuries older than the oldest text (Herodotus: The histories) previously examined by our group. METHOD: We examined two translations of Aesop's fables, seeking accounts fitting the following categories: (1) suicidal thinking, (2) suicidal behaviour without fatal consequences, and (3) suicidal behaviour with fatal consequences...
November 17, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787632/proposal-of-new-regression-formulae-for-the-estimation-of-age-in-infant-skeletal-remains-from-the-metric-study-of-the-pars-basilaris
#9
Javier Irurita Olivares, Inmaculada Alemán Aguilera
In the context of physical and forensic anthropology, when a child's skeleton is damaged or in poor condition, which is common, many of the metric methods for the estimation of skeletal age cannot be used. In these circumstances, those more resistant bones, such as the pars basilaris, will be most useful. The aims of this study were to test existing methods for estimating skeletal age from the metric study of the pars basilaris and to propose new regression formulae. One hundred fourteen individuals aged between 5 months of gestation and 6 years were analyzed; seven measures were taken from each pars basilaris using a digital caliper...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731892/hip-joint-mobility-in-free-ranging-rhesus-macaques
#10
Ashley S Hammond, Victoria P Johnson, James P Higham
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test for differences in hip joint range of motion (ROM) between captive and free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), particularly for hip joint abduction, which previous studies of captive macaques have found to be lower than predicted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hip ROM was assessed following standard joint measurement methodology in anesthetized adult free-ranging rhesus macaques (n = 39) from Cayo Santiago, and compared with published ROM data from captive rhesus macaques (n = 16) (Hammond, , American Journal of Physical Anthropology)...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717938/experience-of-using-hippotherapy-in-complex-effects-on-muscle-spirals-in-children-with-spastic-forms-of-cerebral-palsy
#11
Evhen Y Strashko, Аnna A Kapustianska, Lyudmyla E Bobyreva
Matters of physical and medical rehabilitation of children with organic lesions of the nervous system, in particular, with cerebral palsy, are actual in countries around the world. Hippotherapy is neurophysiologically oriented therapy using horses. Determine whether a combination of hippotherapy as a method of rehabilitation in the aftermath of outpatient comprehensive impact on MS on a stationary phase; Study of the effect of hippotherapy as securing and preparation method for learning new postures and movements in children with spastic cerebral palsy forms; The study of the possible optimization of psychophysical state, activation motivations of patients; Determination of the optimal timing of hippotherapy sessions, the number of procedures, the study of possible fatigue factor children...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685464/digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-handgrip-strength-in-a-chinese-population-of-han-ethnicity
#12
Dan Shen, Zhanbing Ma, Lu Wang, Zhenghao Huo, Hong Lu, Junli Zhao, Wenli Qian
BACKGROUND: In humans, the relative lengths of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait which correlated with prenatal sex steroids and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal hormone exposure in some traits, such as physical performance. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one potent index of physical ability and its relationship with 2D:4D ratio has been discussed in several ethnic groups. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a correlation between 2D:4D ratio and HGS in Chinese college students of Ningxia Han ethnicity...
December 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670626/medical-education-of-attention-a-qualitative-study-of-learning-to-listen-to-sound
#13
Anna Harris, Eleanor Flynn
INTRODUCTION: There has been little qualitative research examining how physical examination skills are learned, particularly the sensory and subjective aspects of learning. The authors set out to study how medical students are taught and learn the skills of listening to sound. METHODS: As part of an ethnographic study in Melbourne, 15 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with students and teachers as a way to reflect explicitly on their learning and teaching...
September 27, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637370/intergenerational-changes-in-chest-size-and-proportions-in-children-and-adolescents-aged-3-18-from-krak%C3%A3-w-poland-within-the-last-70-years
#14
Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal, Jan Sobiecki
OBJECTIVES: The size and proportions of the human body change continuously in response to social change and economic development. As reported by papers on intergenerational changes in chest size, this part of the human body is also influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the dimensions and proportions of the chest of children and adolescents over a span of 70 years. METHODS: In 2010 an anthropological study was conducted on 3878 children and adolescents aged 3-18 years living in Kraków (Poland)...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633249/the-person-in-the-disabled-body-a-perspective-on-culture-and-personhood-from-the-margins
#15
Maayan Agmon, Amalia Sa'ar, Tal Araten-Bergman
BACKGROUND: Persons with disabilities (PWD) are one of the most marginalized groups in Western societies. These inequalities are manifested through various disadvantages in the psychosocial, cultural, and economic domains. Inspired by the World Health Organization's holistic conceptualization of disability, the present study examines the relation between the body and personhood in Israeli culture, through cases of newly diagnosed adults with disability. METHOD: Participant observation at a rehabilitation daycare center was carried out for a period of two years...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617196/the-changing-microbial-landscape-of-western-society-diet-dwellings-and-discordance
#16
REVIEW
Josiane L Broussard, Suzanne Devkota
BACKGROUND: The last 50-100 years has been marked by a sharp rise in so-called "Western-diseases" in those countries that have experienced major industrial advances and shifts towards urbanized living. These diseases include obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, and food allergies in which chronic dysregulation of metabolic and/or immune processes appear to be involved, and are likely a byproduct of new environmental influences on our ancient genome. What we now appreciate is that this genome consists of both human and co-evolved microbial genes of the trillions of microbes residing in our body...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571939/use-of-pattern-recognition-and-neural-networks-for-non-metric-sex-diagnosis-from-lateral-shape-of-calvarium-an-innovative-model-for-computer-aided-diagnosis-in-forensic-and-physical-anthropology
#17
Fabio Cavalli, Luca Lusnig, Edmondo Trentin
Sex determination on skeletal remains is one of the most important diagnosis in forensic cases and in demographic studies on ancient populations. Our purpose is to realize an automatic operator-independent method to determine the sex from the bone shape and to test an intelligent, automatic pattern recognition system in an anthropological domain. Our multiple-classifier system is based exclusively on the morphological variants of a curve that represents the sagittal profile of the calvarium, modeled via artificial neural networks, and yields an accuracy higher than 80 %...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549991/population-cardiovascular-health-and-urban-environments-the-heart-healthy-hoods-exploratory-study-in-madrid-spain
#18
Usama Bilal, Julia Díez, Silvia Alfayate, Pedro Gullón, Isabel Del Cura, Francisco Escobar, María Sandín, Manuel Franco
BACKGROUND: Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood's social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. METHODS: We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain). We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System...
2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519908/to-encounter-to-build-the-world-and-to-become-a-human-being-advocating-for-a-material-cultural-turn-in-developmental-psychology
#19
Christiane Moro
Why have material world of daily life and material objects in their conventional features or to say it in other words, why have the mundane world and mundane objects, in which the human beings live and children come to, encounter, experience and develop through, received so little attention from psychologists thus remaining a blind spot in mainstream developmental psychology? Certainly the object has not been totally forgotten (e.g. Piaget's constructivist paradigm) but it has been considered as theoretically determined by the categories of understanding (cf...
December 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504475/from-first-to-latest-imaging-technology-revisiting-the-first-mummy-investigated-with-x-ray-in-1896-by-using-dual-source-computed-tomography
#20
REVIEW
Stephanie Zesch, Stephanie Panzer, Wilfried Rosendahl, John W Nance, Stefan O Schönberg, Thomas Henzler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically reinvestigate the first human mummy that was ever analyzed with X-ray imaging in 1896, using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in order to compare the earliest and latest imaging technologies, to estimate preservation, age at death, sex, anatomical variants, paleopathological findings, mummification, embalming and wrapping of the child mummy from ancient Egypt. Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the mummy's age and to specify the child's living period in the Egyptian chronology...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
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