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Physical anthropology

Ashley S Hammond, Victoria P Johnson, James P Higham
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test for differences in hip joint range of motion (ROM) between captive and free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), particularly for hip joint abduction, which previous studies of captive macaques have found to be lower than predicted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hip ROM was assessed following standard joint measurement methodology in anesthetized adult free-ranging rhesus macaques (n = 39) from Cayo Santiago, and compared with published ROM data from captive rhesus macaques (n = 16) (Hammond, , American Journal of Physical Anthropology)...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Evhen Y Strashko, Аnna A Kapustianska, Lyudmyla E Bobyreva
Matters of physical and medical rehabilitation of children with organic lesions of the nervous system, in particular, with cerebral palsy, are actual in countries around the world. Hippotherapy is neurophysiologically oriented therapy using horses. Determine whether a combination of hippotherapy as a method of rehabilitation in the aftermath of outpatient comprehensive impact on MS on a stationary phase; Study of the effect of hippotherapy as securing and preparation method for learning new postures and movements in children with spastic cerebral palsy forms; The study of the possible optimization of psychophysical state, activation motivations of patients; Determination of the optimal timing of hippotherapy sessions, the number of procedures, the study of possible fatigue factor children...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Dan Shen, Zhanbing Ma, Lu Wang, Zhenghao Huo, Hong Lu, Junli Zhao, Wenli Qian
BACKGROUND: In humans, the relative lengths of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait which correlated with prenatal sex steroids and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal hormone exposure in some traits, such as physical performance. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one potent index of physical ability and its relationship with 2D:4D ratio has been discussed in several ethnic groups. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a correlation between 2D:4D ratio and HGS in Chinese college students of Ningxia Han ethnicity...
September 26, 2016: Early Human Development
Anna Harris, Eleanor Flynn
INTRODUCTION: There has been little qualitative research examining how physical examination skills are learned, particularly the sensory and subjective aspects of learning. The authors set out to study how medical students are taught and learn the skills of listening to sound. METHODS: As part of an ethnographic study in Melbourne, 15 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with students and teachers as a way to reflect explicitly on their learning and teaching...
September 27, 2016: Medical Teacher
Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal, Jan Sobiecki
OBJECTIVES: The size and proportions of the human body change continuously in response to social change and economic development. As reported by papers on intergenerational changes in chest size, this part of the human body is also influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the dimensions and proportions of the chest of children and adolescents over a span of 70 years. METHODS: In 2010 an anthropological study was conducted on 3878 children and adolescents aged 3-18 years living in Kraków (Poland)...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Maayan Agmon, Amalia Sa'ar, Tal Araten-Bergman
BACKGROUND: Persons with disabilities (PWD) are one of the most marginalized groups in Western societies. These inequalities are manifested through various disadvantages in the psychosocial, cultural, and economic domains. Inspired by the World Health Organization's holistic conceptualization of disability, the present study examines the relation between the body and personhood in Israeli culture, through cases of newly diagnosed adults with disability. METHOD: Participant observation at a rehabilitation daycare center was carried out for a period of two years...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Josiane L Broussard, Suzanne Devkota
BACKGROUND: The last 50-100 years has been marked by a sharp rise in so-called "Western-diseases" in those countries that have experienced major industrial advances and shifts towards urbanized living. These diseases include obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, and food allergies in which chronic dysregulation of metabolic and/or immune processes appear to be involved, and are likely a byproduct of new environmental influences on our ancient genome. What we now appreciate is that this genome consists of both human and co-evolved microbial genes of the trillions of microbes residing in our body...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Fabio Cavalli, Luca Lusnig, Edmondo Trentin
Sex determination on skeletal remains is one of the most important diagnosis in forensic cases and in demographic studies on ancient populations. Our purpose is to realize an automatic operator-independent method to determine the sex from the bone shape and to test an intelligent, automatic pattern recognition system in an anthropological domain. Our multiple-classifier system is based exclusively on the morphological variants of a curve that represents the sagittal profile of the calvarium, modeled via artificial neural networks, and yields an accuracy higher than 80 %...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Usama Bilal, Julia Díez, Silvia Alfayate, Pedro Gullón, Isabel Del Cura, Francisco Escobar, María Sandín, Manuel Franco
BACKGROUND: Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood's social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. METHODS: We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain). We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System...
2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Christiane Moro
Why have material world of daily life and material objects in their conventional features or to say it in other words, why have the mundane world and mundane objects, in which the human beings live and children come to, encounter, experience and develop through, received so little attention from psychologists thus remaining a blind spot in mainstream developmental psychology? Certainly the object has not been totally forgotten (e.g. Piaget's constructivist paradigm) but it has been considered as theoretically determined by the categories of understanding (cf...
December 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Stephanie Zesch, Stephanie Panzer, Wilfried Rosendahl, John W Nance, Stefan O Schönberg, Thomas Henzler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically reinvestigate the first human mummy that was ever analyzed with X-ray imaging in 1896, using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in order to compare the earliest and latest imaging technologies, to estimate preservation, age at death, sex, anatomical variants, paleopathological findings, mummification, embalming and wrapping of the child mummy from ancient Egypt. Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the mummy's age and to specify the child's living period in the Egyptian chronology...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
Yesica Yolanda Rangel Flores
Violence against women is a worldwide problem due to its impact on quality of life for those living under the complicity of a patriarchal culture and a state that makes such violence invisible. This article aims to give visibility to the contexts of violence affecting female "partners of migrants" in their places of origin, problematizing how such violence assaults their physical and mental health. This was a qualitative study with an interpretative anthropological focus, drawing on a sample of 21 women from rural and urban areas in San Luis Potosí, Mexico...
August 1, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
G Richard Scott, Roman Schomberg, Victoria Swenson, Donovan Adams, Marin A Pilloud
OBJECTIVES: In the first issue of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, E.A. Hooton noted the expression of Eskimoid characteristics in the Icelandic skull, one of which was mandibular torus. Our goal is to evaluate this trait in another North Atlantic population, the Greenlandic Norse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An investigation of mandibular torus was carried out on all Greenlandic Norse skeletons disinterred up to 1986 (n = 109), along with comparative samples from Iceland (n = 82), Norway (n = 98), and Denmark (n = 64)...
July 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Alexandra Yu Smirnova
This article highlights certain inconsistencies that exist in modern lexicography with respect to word meaning representation and proposes an alternative outlook on the nature of word meaning based on the principles of the functional linguo-anthropological theory. Through the case study of the lexeme bank , it has been demonstrated that word meaning can be presented as a more coherent structure if only the functional evaluative nature of language be taken into account more accurately while compiling a dictionary entry...
June 2016: Heliyon
Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza
The article analyzes Brazilian anthropologist Edgard Roquette-Pinto's participation in the international debate that involved the field of physical anthropology and discussions on miscegenation in the first decades of the twentieth century. Special focus is on his readings and interpretations of a group of US anthropologists and eugenicists and his controversies with them, including Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, and Franz Boas. The article explores the various ways in which Roquette-Pinto interpreted and incorporated their ideas and how his anthropological interpretations took on new meanings when they moved beyond Brazil's borders...
July 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Chiara Frazzoli, Guy Bertrand Pouokam, Alberto Mantovani, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
The term geophagy is applied to the recurrent intentional eating of soil with multifactorial motivation. Geophagists are generally defined by gender (women), age (children), physical status (e.g. pregnancy, lactation, postpartum), social status (people exposed to significant nutritional deficiencies), and culture, but lost awareness of traditional medical meaning of this practice is changing these consumption patterns and increasing health risks. Moreover, although the holistic anthropological perspective recognizes soil consumption as mineral supplementation under certain circumstances, we should consider how the living environment has changed and is changing, along with diet, nutrition requirements, and habits...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Paula Skye Tallman
Researchers need measures of vulnerability that are grounded in explicit theoretical and conceptual frameworks, that are sensitive to local contexts, and that are easy to collect. This paper presents the Index of Vulnerability (IoV), a quantitative yet anthropologically-informed method connecting social-ecological systems to mental and physical health outcomes. The IoV combines measures of five life domains; food insecurity, water insecurity, access to healthcare, social support, and social status. Scores on this index increase for each life domain where the individual falls into a "high risk" category...
August 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Joel B Hagen
Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists...
June 17, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
Shahram Habibzadeh, Farhad Poufarzi, Mohammad Mehrtak, Saied Sadeghiyeh-Ahari, Mehdi Jafari-Oori, Karim Hajizadeh-Bastani, Arezoo Azari
INTRODUCTION: In all human societies, domestic violence is known as a threat. Violence is imposing one's will on others through mental pressure and physical damage then can cause a feeling of anxiety and insecurity in them, especially for the weaker and more vulnerable groups such as women, children, elderly and minority groups who are the victims of oppression and socioeconomic inequalities. According to statistics, Ardabil, in comparison with other Iran's provinces, has the most number of violent crimes...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Won-Joon Lee, Eun Jin Woo, Chang Seok Oh, Jeong A Yoo, Yi-Suk Kim, Jong Ha Hong, A Young Yoon, Caroline M Wilkinson, Jin Og Ju, Soon Jo Choi, Soong Doek Lee, Dong Hoon Shin
In November and December 2013, unidentified human skeletal remains buried in a mokgwakmyo (a traditional wooden coffin) were unearthed while conducting an archaeological investigation near Gyeongju, which was the capital of the Silla Kingdom (57 BCE- 660 CE) of ancient Korea. The human skeletal remains were preserved in relatively intact condition. In an attempt to obtain biological information on the skeleton, physical anthropological, mitochondrial DNA, stable isotope and craniofacial analyses were carried out...
2016: PloS One
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