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Hemodialysis hypotension

Yanchen Zhang, Kristin M Corapi, Maria Luongo, Ravi Thadhani, Sagar U Nigwekar
BACKGROUND: Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Most research in the field of calciphylaxis is focused on hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, data on calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. METHODS: In this cohort study, we examined data from adult patients who initiated PD for ESRD management at our institute's PD unit from January 2001 to December 2015...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Andrew Davenport
Whereas there is strong relationship between high blood pressure and increased overall and cardiovascular mortality for the general population, observational studies in hemodialysis patients have reported a "U" shaped relationship between pre-hemodialysis blood pressure recordings and patient survival. Previous attempts to introduce pre and post-hemodialysis blood pressure targets were associated with an increased frequency of intra-dialytic hypotension, itself an independent risk factor for mortality. Conversely, meta-analyses of trials of antihypertensive medications in hemodialysis patients, reported survival benefit for those prescribed medication...
October 2016: Hemodialysis International
Hyo Shik Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Ji Hyun Oh, Chan Sung Jung, Dughyun Choi, Yunsuek Kim, Jin Seok Jeon, Dong Cheol Han, Hyunjin Noh
A 65-year-old man was transferred from the Department of Vascular Surgery to Nephrology because of cardiac arrest during hemodialysis. He underwent incision and drainage for treatment of a buttock abscess. Nafamostat mesilate was used as an anticoagulant for hemodialysis to address bleeding from the incision and drainage site. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred after 15 minutes of dialysis. The patient was treated in the intensive care unit for 5 days. Continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration was started without any anticoagulant in the intensive care unit...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Catherine L Oberg, Robert J Hiensch, Hooman D Poor
OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of three patients with hepatitis C virus infection who all presented with severe type B lactic acidosis shortly after starting treatment with ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-dasabuvir. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: ICU. PATIENTS: Three patients, all who had HCV cirrhosis with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A) and had started taking ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-dasabuvir within the preceding 2 weeks, presented with similar nonspecific symptoms of lethargy, fatigue, and nausea...
September 22, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Kohji Shirai
BACKGROUND: The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new arterial stiffness index of the arterial tree from the origin of the aorta to the ankle, and was essentially derived from the stiffness parameterβtheory proposed by Hayashi. The conspicuous feature of CAVI is independency from blood pressure at the time of measurement. AIM: The purpose is to clarify the meaning of CAVI as a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis, and also the role of CAVI in the blood pressure control system...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jaouad El Maghraoui, Hanane Ouahabi, Nadia Kabbali, Mohamed Arrayhani, Farida Ajdi, Tariq Sqalli Houssaini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Rashmi Mishra, Pavithra Reddy, Misbahuddin Khaja
Cerebral air embolism (CAE) is an infrequently reported complication of routine medical procedures. We present two cases of CAE. The first patient was a 55-year-old male presenting with vomiting and loss of consciousness one day after his hemodialysis session. Physical exam was significant for hypotension and hypoxia with no focal neurologic deficits. Computed tomography (CT) scan of head showed gas in cerebral venous circulation. The patient did not undergo any procedures prior to presentation, and his last hemodialysis session was uneventful...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Nina Dunne
Introduction Hemodialysis has improved in recent years, however, despite such improvements, intra-dialytic hypotensive episodes still persist which can lead to a reduction in the overall effectiveness of the treatment. Profiling sodium levels during dialysis can improve vascular refilling and therefore may prevent hypotensive events. A number of profiling methods exist and this meta-analysis set out to examine the effectiveness of these methods. Methods To assess the effectiveness of hemodialysis sodium profiling techniques...
September 12, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Wen-Hung Huang, Ching-Wei Hsu, Ching-Chih Hu, Tzung-Hai Yen, Cheng-Hao Weng
INTRODUCTION: Predialysis hypotension has been noted to be a predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Previous studies evaluating the impact of predialysis hypotension on the mortality of HD patients did not exclude patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Eight hundred and sixty-six patients on maintenance HD were recruited. Clinical parameters were recorded and subjected to the analysis of predictors of predialysis hypotension and mortality...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
E Mancini, C Perazzini, L Gesualdo, F Aucella, A Limido, F Scolari, S Savoldi, M Tramonti, L Corazza, M Atti, S Severi, P Bolasco, A Santoro
BACKGROUND: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) has a dramatic impact on the main outcomes of dialysis patients. Early warning of hemodynamic worsening during dialysis would enable preventive measures to be taken. Blood oxygen saturation (SO2) is used for hemodynamic monitoring in the critical care setting and may provide useful information about IDH onset. AIM: To evaluate whether short- and medium-term variations in the SO2 signal (ST-SO2var, MT-SO2var,) during dialysis are a predictor of IDH...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Aghogho Odudu, Christopher W McIntyre
Cardiac dysfunction is a key factor in the high morbidity and mortality rates seen in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Much of the dysfunction is manifest as adverse changes in cardiac and vascular structure prior to commencing dialysis. This adverse vascular remodeling arises as a dysregulation between pro- and antiproliferative signaling pathways in response to hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors. The HD procedure itself further promotes cardiomyopathy by inducing hypotension and episodic regional cardiac ischemia that precedes global dysfunction, fibrosis, worsening symptoms, and increased mortality...
August 24, 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
Jessica J Geer, Shweta Shah, Eric Williams, Ayse Akcan Arikan, Poyyapakkam Srivaths
BACKGROUND: Intradialytic hypotension and myocardial stunning are proposed as contributing to the pathogenesis of increased cardiovascular disease burden and death in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Noninvasive cardiac output measurements provide a dynamic, real-time assessment of hemodynamic parameters. We investigated intradialytic changes in hemodynamic parameters in pediatric outpatients receiving chronic HD and determined patient and treatment risk factors associated with such intradialytic changes...
August 23, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Jean Michel I Maarek, Eduardo H Rubinstein, Yumei Guo, Christianne J Lane, Vito M Campese, Daniel P Holschneider
Intradialytic hypotensive events (IDH) accompanied by deleterious decreases of the cardiac output complicate up to 25% of hemodialysis treatments. Monitoring options available to track hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis have been found ineffective to anticipate the occurrence of IDH. We have assembled opto-electronic instrumentation that uses the fluorescence of a small bolus of indocyanine green dye injected in the hemodialysis circuit to estimate cardiac output and blood volume based on indicator dilution principles in patients receiving hemodialysis...
August 18, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Michael F Papacostas, Margaret Hoge, Michel Baum, Samuel Z Davila
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of salicylate toxicity treated with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and review the literature regarding the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for salicylate toxicity. CASE: A 16-year-old male presented after ingesting 1901 mg/kg of enteric coated aspirin. Salicylate level was 92 mg/dl 4 h after ingestion. Sequele included seizure, acute kidney injury, pulmonary edema, and prolonged QTc. He received 5...
September 2016: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Bernd G Stegmayr
Patients on chronic hemodialysis have a shortened survival compared to the general population. There are multiple sources of morbidity and mortality unique to the dialysis population that account for this. Reasons include the effects of blood membrane interactions, intradialytic hypotension, myocardial stunning, excessive interdialytic weight gain, high-flow arteriovenous fistulae, and impaired lipid break down by anticoagulation administered during HD. Another risk factor, not well appreciated, is the occurrence of microemboli of air (microbubbles) during HD...
August 16, 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
Andrei Niculae, Ileana Peride, Adriana Marinescu-Paninopol, Camelia Doina Vrabie, Octav Ginghină, Cristian Radu Jecan, Ovidiu Gabriel Bratu
We present the case of a 57-year-old hemodialysed male patient known with severe hypertension resistant to six classes of hypotensive medication, in maximal doses, correlated with increased ultrafiltration during the hemodialysis session. In this case, bilateral nephrectomy was performed as final treatment option for malignant hypertension, and histopathological examination of both kidneys emphasized arteriosclerosis lesions. The results consisted in better hypertension management, with a reduction in both the number and doses of antihypertensive drugs...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Pallavi Pothuri, Keerat Ahuja, Viki Kumar, Sham Lal, Taisiya Tumarinson, Khalid Mahmood
BACKGROUND Unexplained renal insufficiency combined with hepatic failure is a common problem encountered by clinicians. As with many disease processes involving multi-organ systems, reversible causes are usually not readily identifiable, and for many patients their health deteriorates rapidly. We present a rare cause of acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia occurring simultaneously, with leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaints of anuria over the past two days...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Matthew H Loichinger, Autumn J Broady, Kelly Yamasato, Emily Mills, P Gordon McLemore, Dena Towner
OBJECTIVE: Pregnant patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) have long hospital stays for the purpose of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) during HD, which allows for monitoring of fetal well-being. However, more frequent dialysis allows for smaller fluid shifts, preventing maternal hypotension. Our aim was to determine differences in rates of EFM abnormalities during HD versus non-stress testing (NST) off dialysis for gravid women with renal failure. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study over a 13-year period (2000-2013) identified five patients with renal failure in pregnancy...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kenta Torigoe, Hideyuki Arai, Ayuko Yamashita, Yoshiaki Muraya, Yoko Obata, Tomoya Nishino
A 77-year-old man on maintenance dialysis developed hypotension, nausea and abdominal pain one hour after beginning to undergo hemodialysis. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed gas shadows in the intrahepatic portal vein and the small intestinal wall, but no signs indicating intestinal necrosis. Three days later, the gas shadows on abdominal CT disappeared by conservative therapy. In cases with both pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis and hepatic portal venous gas, intestinal necrosis should therefore be suspected and surgical therapy should also be considered, particularly in hemodialysis patients with a risk of intestinal ischemia...
2016: Internal Medicine
Natasa Eftimovska-Otovic, Olivera Stojceva-Taneva, Risto Grozdanovski, Saso Stojcev
BACKGROUND: The degree to which the dialysate prescription and, in particular, the dialysate sodium concentration influences blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) via changes in sodium flux, plasma volume or the other parameters is not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate whether dialysis patients will have some beneficial effects of dialysate sodium set up according to serum sodium or sodium modeling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-two nondiabetic subjects (52 men and 40 women) performed 12 consecutive hemodialysis (HD) sessions (4 weeks) with dialysate sodium concentration set up on 138 mmol/L (standard sodium - first phase), followed by 24 sessions (second phase) wherein dialysate sodium was set up according to individualized sodium...
June 15, 2016: Open Access Maced J Med Sci
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