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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488960/towards-pathogen-inactivation-of-red-blood-cells-and-whole-blood-targeting-viral-dna-rna-design-technologies-and-future-prospects-for-developing-countries
#1
REVIEW
Victor J Drew, Lassina Barro, Jerard Seghatchian, Thierry Burnouf
Over 110 million units of blood are collected yearly. The need for blood products is greater in developing countries, but so is the risk of contracting a transfusion-transmitted infection. Without efficient donor screening/viral testing and validated pathogen inactivation technology, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections correlates with the infection rate of the donor population. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on good manufacturing practices in an effort to ensure a strong global standard of transfusion and blood product safety...
April 13, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482112/a-bayesian-screening-approach-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-using-multiple-longitudinal-biomarkers
#2
Nabihah Tayob, Francesco Stingo, Kim-Anh Do, Anna S F Lok, Ziding Feng
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has limited treatment options and poor survival, therefore early detection is critical to improving the survival of patients with HCC. Current guidelines for high-risk patients include ultrasound screenings every six months, but ultrasounds are operator dependent and not sensitive for early HCC. Serum α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is a widely used diagnostic biomarker, but it has limited sensitivity and is not elevated in all HCC cases so, we incorporate a second blood-based biomarker, des'γ carboxy-prothrombin (DCP), that has shown potential as a screening marker for HCC...
May 8, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480743/hepatitis-c-virus-resistance-testing-in-genotype-1-the-changing-role-in-clinical-utility
#3
Suzanne Molino, Michelle T Martin
OBJECTIVE: To review the role and utility of baseline resistance testing with currently available and pipeline genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. DATA SOURCES: Authors reviewed liver meeting abstracts for data on currently-available and pipeline genotype 1 retreatment regimens from January 1, 2015, to March 23, 2017. Additional trials were identified from a review of clinicaltrials.gov using the pipeline medication names. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Authors identified reports of current and pipeline genotype 1 retreatment regimens...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471945/metabolic-concerns-in-aging-hiv-infected-persons-from-serum-lipid-phenotype-to-fatty-liver
#4
Giovanni Guaraldi, Amedeo Lonardo, Liliana Maia, Frank J Palella
: Among HIV-infected persons, the assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) provides a window through which overall metabolic health can be evaluated. In this review, we summarize clinical data that support the roles of aging and metabolic dysregulation as factors contributing to fatty liver/NAFLD among HIV-infected persons.Age-related metabolic alterations include hepatic anatomic and functional changes, altered homeostasis of gastrointestinal microbiota and anthropometric changes (such as a shift of body fat depots from the subcutaneous to the visceral compartment) that are often associated with the development of insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470850/the-frequency-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-treated-with-sofosbuvir-based-regimens
#5
R Maan, S H Al Marzooqi, J S Klair, J Karkada, O Cerocchi, M Kowgier, S M Harrell, K D Rhodes, H L A Janssen, J J Feld, A Duarte-Rojo
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend withholding sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 30 mL/min. AIM: To assess the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with no renal contraindications for SOF-based treatment. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective observational study included all consecutive patients that were treated with SOF-based or telaprevir/boceprevir (TVR/BOC)-based regimens at two tertiary university centers in North America...
May 3, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469041/hepatosplenic-candidiasis-without-prior-documented-candidemia-an-underrecognized-diagnosis
#6
Joffrey van Prehn, C Willemien Menke-van der Houven van Oordt, Madelon L de Rooij, Ellen Meijer, Marije K Bomers, Karin van Dijk
INTRODUCTION: Patients with a history of chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation (SCT) and prolonged neutropenia are at risk for hepatic and/or splenic seeding of Candida. In our experience, hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC) without documented candidemia often remains unrecognized. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We describe three cases of HSC without documented candidemia and the challenges in establishing the diagnosis and adequately treating this condition. The first patient had a history of SCT for treatment of breast cancer and was scheduled for hemihepatectomy for suspected liver metastasis...
May 3, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467593/-standard-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-to-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-infection-22-guidelines
#7
Petr Urbánek, Petr Husa, Stanislav Plíšek, Luděk RoŽnovský
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461903/economic-study-of-the-value-of-expanding-hcv-treatment-capacity-in-germany
#8
Urbano Sbarigia, Daniel Wirth, Karen Van Nuys, Caroline Huber, Ron Brookmeyer, Jona Stahmeyer, Christian Krauth
BACKGROUND: Today's highly efficacious, low-toxicity interferon-free treatment regimens for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cure most patients with HCV in 12-24 weeks. The aim of this study was to understand how the introduction of shorter duration treatment regimens for HCV will impact the capacity for treatment and value to society. METHODS: A Markov model of HCV transmission and progression was constructed, incorporating nationally representative data on HCV prevalence, incidence and progression; mortality, treatment costs, medical expenditures, employment probabilities and disability payments in Germany...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460317/simultaneous-determination-of-the-brand-new-two-drug-combination-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-sofosbuvir-ledipasvir-using-smart-spectrophotometric-methods-manipulating-ratio-spectra
#9
Maya S Eissa
In this work, various sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods were first introduced for the simultaneous determination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in their binary mixture without preliminary separation. Ledipasvir was determined simply by zero-order spectrophotometric method at its λmax=333.0nm in a linear range of 2.5-30.0μg/ml without any interference of sofosbuvir even in low or high concentrations and with mean percentage recovery of 100.05±0.632. Sofosbuvir can be quantitatively estimated by one of the following smart spectrophotometric methods based on ratio spectra developed for the resolution of the overlapped spectra of their binary mixture; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) by computing the difference between the amplitudes of sofosbuvir ratio spectra at 228nm and 270nm, first derivative (DD(1)) of ratio spectra by measuring the sum of amplitude of trough and peak at 265nm and 277nm, respectively, ratio subtraction (RS) spectrophotometric method in which sofosbuvir can be successfully determined at its λmax=261...
April 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456667/6-hcv-genotyping-9g-test-for-hcv-1a-1b-2-3-4-and-6-6a-6f-6i-and-6n-with-high-accuracy
#10
Wasun Chantratita, Keum-Soo Song, Satish Balasaheb Nimse, Viroj Pongthanapisith, Nipa Thongbaiphet, Garanyuta Wongtabtim, Ekawat Pasomsub, Kanokwan Angkanavin, Mukesh Digambar Sonawane, Shrikant Dasharath Warkad, Taisun Kim
According to EASL guidelines and WHO recommendations, the accurate detection of HCV genotypes such as HCV 1a, HCV1b, HCV 2, HCV 3, HCV 4, and HCV 6 (6a, 6f, 6i, 6n) is crucial for the efficient treatment of hepatitis C. HCV Genotyping 9G test allows simultaneous genotyping of HCV 1a, 1b, 2, 3, 4, and 6 (6a, 6f, 6i, and 6n) in clinical samples in 30min. The performance of the test was evaluated by comparison with sequence analysis. Serum samples (n=152) from HCV-infected patients (n=110) and healthy individuals (n=42) were processed under blinded codes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456519/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-italy-a-consensus-report-from-an-expert-panel
#11
Mauro Viganò, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Craxì
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The advent of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has significantly improved the course of patients with chronic HCV infection (CHC), due to the ability of these drugs to achieve high rates of sustained virological response (SVR). These exceedingly high rates of SVR and the excellent safety data have been confirmed in real life practice. Evolving guidelines have been issued by national and international scientific societies in accordance with the progression of clinical knowledge and the availability of new DAAs...
April 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444987/platelet-count-spleen-length-and-platelet-count-to-spleen-length-ratio-for-the-diagnosis-of-oesophageal-varices-in-people-with-chronic-liver-disease-or-portal-vein-thrombosis
#12
REVIEW
Agostino Colli, Juan Cristóbal Gana, Jason Yap, Thomasin Adams-Webber, Natalie Rashkovan, Simon C Ling, Giovanni Casazza
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend screening of people with oesophageal varices via oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy at the time of diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis. This requires that people repeatedly undergo unpleasant invasive procedures with their attendant risks, although half of these people have no identifiable oesophageal varices 10 years after the initial diagnosis of cirrhosis. Platelet count, spleen length, and platelet count-to-spleen length ratio are non-invasive tests proposed as triage tests for the diagnosis of oesophageal varices...
April 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442120/american-gastroenterological-association-institute-technical-review-on-the-role-of-elastography-in-chronic-liver-diseases
#13
Siddharth Singh, Andrew J Muir, Douglas T Dieterich, Yngve T Falck-Ytter
Chronic liver diseases (CLDs), due to chronic hepatitis C; hepatitis B; nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD); and alcoholic liver disease, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Early identification of patients with cirrhosis at high risk of progression to liver-related complications may facilitate timely care and improve outcomes. With risks and misclassification associated with invasive tests, such as liver biopsy, noninvasive imaging modalities for liver fibrosis assessment have gained popularity...
May 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439915/treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-direct-acting-antivirals-in-patients-with-%C3%AE-thalassaemia-major-and-advanced-liver-disease
#14
Emmanouil Sinakos, Dimitrios Kountouras, John Koskinas, Kalliopi Zachou, Stylianos Karatapanis, Christos Triantos, Themistoklis Vassiliadis, Ioannis Goulis, Alexandra Kourakli, Efthymia Vlachaki, Barbara Toli, Maria Tampaki, Pinelopi Arvaniti, Georgios Tsiaoussis, Aristea Bellou, Antonis Kattamis, Konstantinos Maragkos, Foteini Petropoulou, George N Dalekos, Evangelos Akriviadis, George V Papatheodoridis
Interferon-based regimens for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) were often deferred in patients with β-thalasaemia major (β-TM) due to poor efficacy and tolerance. Current guidelines recommend direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of DAAs in patients with β-TM and advanced liver disease due to CHC. Patients were recruited from eight liver units in Greece. The stage of liver disease was assessed using transient elastography and/or liver histology...
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424803/use-of-a-flumazenil-infusion-to-treat-chlordiazepoxide-toxicity
#15
I R Wallace, E C Campbell, M Trimble
"Alcohol detox" is a common presentation to acute medical services and is usually managed via standardised guidelines and protocols. We present a case of chlordiazepoxide toxicity, requiring repeated bolus doses and subsequently 24 hours of an intravenous infusion of flumazenil in response to guideline directed management of an alcohol withdrawal state. The use of prolonged flumazenil infusions to treat benzodiazepine toxicity is infrequently described. Chlordiazepoxide is metabolised in the hepatic microsomal pathway and hepatic impairment can lead to accumulation of toxic metabolites, which may have been the explanation for toxicity in this case...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422868/meta-analysis-of-possible-role-of-cadherin-gene-methylation-in-evolution-and-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-a-prisma-guideline
#16
Chunxiao Zhu, Xuefeng Feng, Guoliang Ye, Tao Huang
BACKGROUND: Cadherins (CDHs) have been reported to be associated with cancer. However, the clinical significance of CDH gene methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. METHODS: Based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria, available studies were identified from online electronic database. The overall odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated and analyzed...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421422/hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3-update-on-current-and-emergent-therapeutic-interventions
#17
REVIEW
Steven W Johnson, Dorothea K Thompson, Brianne Raccor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have markedly improved the prognosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-genotype 3 (GT3), a highly prevalent infection worldwide. However, in patients with hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), GT3 infection presents a treatment challenge compared with other genotypes. The dependence of the HCV life cycle on host lipid metabolism suggests the possible utility of targeting host cellular factors for combination anti-HCV therapy...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416195/pitavastatin-versus-pravastatin-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-and-dyslipidaemia-intrepid-12-week-and-52-week-results-of-a-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-superiority-trial
#18
Judith A Aberg, Craig A Sponseller, Douglas J Ward, Vladimir A Kryzhanovski, Stuart E Campbell, Melanie A Thompson
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia...
April 13, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412043/assessment-of-high-priced-systemic-antifungal-prescriptions
#19
C Poulat, Y Nivoix, A Launoy, P Lutun, P Bachellier, S Rohr, M-L Woehl, D Levêque, V Bru, R Herbrecht, B Gourieux
OBJECTIVES: To assess compliance with international guidelines for costly antifungal prescriptions and to compare these results with a first study performed in 2007. METHODS: Retrospective study including all costly antifungal prescriptions made in surgical and medical intensive care units and in a hepatobiliary, pancreatic, and digestive surgery unit. Prescriptions were assessed in terms of indication, dosage, and antifungal de-escalation. RESULTS: Seventy-four treatments were analyzed...
April 12, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406833/hepatitis-c-infection-updates-on-treatment-guidelines
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
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