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hepatitis C guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451520/-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-from-clinical-guidelines-to-clinical-practice-and-personalization-of-cure
#1
Pierluigi Toniutto
Although clinical guidelines provide clear indications on the treatment of patients with chronic HCV related liver disease, there are still clinical situations in which clinicians experience and judgment remain essential in the proper patient management. These are mainly represented by antiviral therapy in patients with decompensated liver disease, especially if they are candidates for liver transplantation or with significant comorbidities and complex pharmacological therapies. Antiviral retreatment of patients who failed a regimen containing an NS5A protease inhibitor still appears to be a delicate context in which no solid recommendations are provided, especially in patients with HCV genotype 3 and decompensated cirrhosis...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427485/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-the-use-of-the-new-pangenotypic-direct-acting-antivirals-in-special-populations
#2
REVIEW
Stanislas Pol, Lucia Parlati
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The recommended combination of pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) associates the co-formulation of 2 or 3 second-generation DAAs. In the so-called "special populations" defined as patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), HCV/HIV co-infection, HCV/HBV co-infection and an unsuccessful previous DAA regimen, these combinations have a high antiviral potency (sustained virologic response (SVR) > 95%), fair tolerance and a reduced pill burden...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427481/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-results-in-real-life
#3
REVIEW
Christophe Hézode
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed traditional treatment options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. DAA combinations have been shown to be highly effective in reducing the burden of chronic HCV infection in clinical trials and have been recommended by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) treatment guidelines. This review examines the results of second-generation DAA combinations in real-life clinical practice in patients with genotypes 1-3 and in those co-infected with HIV (real-world data in genotypes 4-6 are rare)...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425829/assessment-and-optimization-of-liver-volume-before-major-hepatic-resection-current-guidelines-and-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Adeel S Khan, Sandra Garcia-Aroz, Mohammad A Ansari, Syed M Atiq, Michael Senter-Zapata, Kathryn Fowler, M B Doyle, W C Chapman
Post hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after major liver resection. Although the etiology of PHLF is multifactorial, an inadequate functional liver remnant (FLR) is felt to be the most important modifiable predictor of PHLF. Pre-operative evaluation of FLR function and volume is of paramount importance before proceeding with any major liver resection. Patients with inadequate or borderline FLR volume must be considered for volume optimization strategies such as portal vein embolization (PVE), two stage hepatectomy with portal vein ligation (PVL), Yttrium-90 radioembolization, and associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS)...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416571/a-systematic-review-regarding-tonometry-and-the-transmission-of-infectious-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Nicole Atkins, William Hodge, Bruce Li
Tonometry has been identified as a common method for measuring the intraocular pressure in patients. The direct contact between the tonometer and the eye may contribute to the risk of cross infection, especially of viral particles, from one patient to another. A systematic review was undertaken to address the likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and prion diseases transmission through the use of tonometers. Additionally, a comparison of the current tonometer disinfection methods is provided to assist with identifying which technique effectively reduces the risk of disease transmission...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414007/ultrasensitive-spectrofluorimetric-method-for-rapid-determination-of-daclatasvir-and-ledipasvir-in-human-plasma-and-pharmaceutical-formulations
#6
Mohammad Nabil Abo-Zeid, Noha N Atia, Samia M El-Gizawy, Salwa R El-Shaboury
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) represent a revolution in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C which have emerged at an extremely rapid pace over the past few years. DAAs act directly on the hepatitis C virus at various points in the viral life cycle to inhibit viral production. Among these novel DAAs, are daclatasvir (DCS) and ledipasvir (LDS). Herein, a novel, fast, simple, ultrasensitive and cost-effective spectrofluorimetric method was designed for determination of DCS and LDS in miscellaneous matrices...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404471/prevalence-and-economic-burden-of-extrahepatic-manifestations-of-hepatitis-c-virus-are-underestimated-but-can-be-improved-with-therapy
#7
Nancy Reau, Francis Vekeman, Eric Wu, Yanjun Bao, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez
Despite guideline recommendations, access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is frequently restricted, with some payers approving therapy for only those with advanced disease or cirrhosis. However, delaying potentially curative treatment until the development of advanced liver disease may have costly consequences in terms of both hepatic complications and extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of HCV. Using a large claims database from the United States, we measured the risks and medical costs of 20 EHMs and investigated the role of treatment in different stages of liver fibrosis for mitigating the clinical and economic burden of these EHMs...
July 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404466/sequencing-of-hepatitis-c-virus-for-detection-of-resistance-to-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Sofia R Bartlett, Jason Grebely, Auda A Eltahla, Jacqueline D Reeves, Anita Y M Howe, Veronica Miller, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Rowena A Bull, Mark W Douglas, Gregory J Dore, Patrick Harrington, Andrew R Lloyd, Brendan Jacka, Gail V Matthews, Gary P Wang, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Jordan J Feld, Janke Schinkel, Federico Garcia, Johan Lennerstrand, Tanya L Applegate
The significance of the clinical impact of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) on treatment failure is unclear. No standardized methods or guidelines for detection of DAA RASs in HCV exist. To facilitate further evaluations of the impact of DAA RASs in HCV, we conducted a systematic review of RAS sequencing protocols, compiled a comprehensive public library of sequencing primers, and provided expert guidance on the most appropriate methods to screen and identify RASs...
July 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396792/role-of-interventional-radiology-in-managing-pediatric-liver-tumors-part-2-percutaneous-interventions
#9
REVIEW
C Matthew Hawkins, Alexander J Towbin, Derek J Roebuck, Eric J Monroe, Anne E Gill, Avnesh S Thakor, Richard B Towbin, Anne Marie Cahill, Matthew P Lungren
Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the most common pediatric liver malignancies, with hepatoblastoma occurring more commonly in younger children and HCC occurring more commonly in older children and adolescents. Although surgical resection (including transplant when necessary) and systemic chemotherapy have improved overall survival rate for hepatoblastoma to approximately 80% from 30%, a number of children with this tumor type are not eligible for operative treatment. In contradistinction, pediatric HCC continues to carry a dismal prognosis with an overall 5-year survival rate of 30%...
February 2, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391861/noninvasive-assessment-of-fibrosis-regression-in-hepatitis-c-virus-sustained-virologic-responders
#10
Hirsh D Trivedi, Steven C Lin, Daryl T Y Lau
The emergence of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies and noninvasive measures of liver fibrosis has streamlined the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. DAA therapy is associated with a significantly higher rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) compared to interferon-based therapies. Concomitantly, validated noninvasive measures of fibrosis allow evaluation of patients for therapy without an invasive liver biopsy. Noninvasive measures of fibrosis can be classified as serologic tests or imaging modalities...
October 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391775/tuberculosis-and-viral-hepatitis-infection-in-eastern-europe-asia-and-latin-america-impact-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitors-in-clinical-practice
#11
REVIEW
Yi-Hsing Chen, Hellen Mds de Carvalho, Umut Kalyoncu, Lyndon John Q Llamado, Gaston Solano, Ron Pedersen, Galina Lukina, Juan J Lichauco, Radu S Vasilescu
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly becoming the standard of care for treating a number of inflammatory diseases. However, treatment with TNF-α inhibitors carries an inherent risk of compromising the immune system, resulting in an increased susceptibility to infections and malignancies. This increased risk of infection is of particular concern in Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America where tuberculosis (TB) and viral hepatitis are endemic. In this brief review, we examine the literature and review the impact of TNF-α inhibitors on the incidence and the reactivation of latent disease with respect to TB, hepatitis C infection, and hepatitis B infection...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381697/policy-responses-to-hepatitis-c-in-the-nordic-countries-gaps-and-discrepant-reporting-in-the-hep-nordic-study
#12
Kelly Safreed-Harmon, Kristina L Hetherington, Soo Aleman, Hannu Alho, Olav Dalgard, Tove Frisch, Magnus Gottfredsson, Nina Weis, Jeffrey V Lazarus
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381084/characterization-of-scca-igm-as-a-biomarker-of-liver-disease-in-an-asian-cohort-of-patients
#13
Hoang Bui Huu, Nhuong Ha Thuc, Hoa Pham Thi Le, Thuy Do Thi Thanh, An Luong Bac, Claudio Tiribelli, Patrizia Pontisso, Andrea Gallotta, Laura Paneghetti, Giorgio Fassina
Viral hepatitis infection is a major global issue and a leading cause of liver disease and associated deaths. Over time, patients infected with hepatitis B (HBV) or C virus (HCV) develop cirrhosis and, eventually, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For this reason, they need to be constantly monitored. Current Asian guidelines recommend the determination of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) together with liver ultrasounds every six months to detect HCC nodules. However, both methods have several limitations, and other biomarkers have been studied for monitoring cirrhosis, including SCCA-IgM, an immune-complex formed by Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen and IgM...
January 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378859/high-prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-and-bloodborne-virus-infection-in-a-homeless-population
#14
Robert W Aldridge, Andrew C Hayward, Sara Hemming, Susan K Yates, Gloria Ferenando, Lucia Possas, Elizabeth Garber, John M Watson, Anna Maria Geretti, Timothy Daniel McHugh, Marc Lipman, Alistair Story
INTRODUCTION: Urban homeless populations in the UK have been shown to have high rates of active tuberculosis, but less is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of LTBI among individuals using homeless hostels in London. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey with outcome follow-up in homeless hostels in London. Our primary outcome was prevalence of LTBI. Recruitment for the study took place between May 2011 and June 2013...
January 29, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362063/management-of-coinfections-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#15
REVIEW
Sabra S Custer
In addition to chronic use of antiretrovirals to maintain suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many persons living with HIV are coinfected with tuberculosis, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. These coinfections can be successfully treated or managed alongside HIV infection. Clinicians should follow practice guidelines to appropriately screen patients with HIV for these coinfections and initiate treatment when necessary. The most significant concern when treating any of these coinfections is to avoid drug-drug interactions with the patient's antiretrovirals...
March 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359645/chronic-hepatitis-c-screening-evaluation-and-treatment-update-in-the-age-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#16
Miranda Surjadi
Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV), the cause of one of the most common infectious diseases, infects approximately 4 million to 5 million Americans with approximately half of infected individuals undiagnosed. Some workplaces screen employees for HCV exposure and other bloodborne pathogens (BBP) after needlestick injuries, but it is not well known whether employers screen employees for HCV without an occupational exposure. New guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that all individuals born between 1945 and 1965 should be screened for HCV regardless of risk; this provides an opportunity at the worksite for HCV outreach to employees, dependents, and retirees...
January 1, 2018: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359020/de-novo-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#17
Samuel Torres-Landa, Armando Salim Muñoz-Abraham, Brett E Fortune, Ananta Gurung, Jeffrey Pollak, Sukru H Emre, Manuel I Rodriguez-Davalos, Michael L Schilsky
De-novo malignancies carry an incidence ranging between 3%-26% after transplant and account for the second highest cause of post-transplant mortality behind cardiovascular disease. While the majority of de-novo malignancies after transplant usually consist of skin cancers, there has been an increasing rate of solid tumor cancers over the last 15 years. Although, recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well understood among patients transplanted for HCC, there are increasing reports of de-novo HCC in those transplanted for a non-HCC indication...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354660/the-effect-of-shorter-treatment-regimens-for-hepatitis-c-on-population-health-and-under-fixed-budgets
#18
Jake R Morgan, Arthur Y Kim, Susanna Naggie, Benjamin P Linas
Background: Direct acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies are highly effective but costly. Wider adoption of an 8-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment regimen could result in significant savings, but may be less efficacious compared with a 12-week regimen. We evaluated outcomes under a constrained budget and cost-effectiveness of 8 vs 12 weeks of therapy in treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, genotype 1 HCV-infected black and nonblack individuals and considered scenarios of IL28B and NS5A resistance testing to determine treatment duration in sensitivity analyses...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352387/current-perspectives-on-erythema-multiforme
#19
REVIEW
Marianne Lerch, Carlo Mainetti, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Thomas Harr
Recognition and timely adequate treatment of erythema multiforme remain a major challenge. In this review, current diagnostic guidelines, potential pitfalls, and modern/novel treatment options are summarized with the aim to help clinicians with diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. The diagnosis of erythema multiforme, that has an acute, self-limiting course, is based on its typical clinical picture of targetoid erythematous lesions with predominant acral localization as well as histological findings...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343192/coverage-and-outcomes-of-antenatal-tests-for-infections-a-population-based-survey-in-the-province-of-trento-italy
#20
Michela Dalmartello, Fabio Parazzini, Mariangela Pedron, Riccardo Pertile, Lucia Collini, Carlo La Vecchia, Silvano Piffer
BACKGROUND: Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), HIV, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections may have very severe outcomes during pregnancy, and for this reason, monitoring of infections in pregnant women is a requirement of prenatal assistance. AIMS: To describe coverage and outcome of the screening for rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, HBV, HCV, HIV, and Group B Streptococcus in pregnancy in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Northern Italy (538,600 inhabitants)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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