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feline myocardial

Barry J Maron, Philip R Fox
OBJECTIVES: To highlight similarities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) that are shared between humans and domestic cats. METHODS: Contemporary clinical and scientific findings were selected from the literature. Evidence is provided to support the concept that HCM in humans and felines are fundamentally the same disease. RESULTS: A number of remarkable similarities have been reported in certain spontaneously occurring myocardial disorders in domestic animals that closely resemble the clinical and phenotypic features of their corresponding diseases in humans...
December 2015: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
L B Christiansen, C Prats, P Hyttel, J Koch
OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy...
December 2015: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Philip R Fox, Karsten A Schober
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathy distinguishes a heterogeneous group of myocardial disorders that represent the most prevalent cause of feline heart disease. Etiology is uncertain and the natural history is presently unresolved. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common of these conditions, and while the majority of affected cats are asymptomatic, a proportion is at risk to develop serious morbidities--the most devastating of which include congestive heart failure, arterial thromboembolism, and cardiac death...
December 2015: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Karsten E Schober, Valérie Chetboul
Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is highly prevalent in cats and is a functional hallmark of feline cardiomyopathy. The majority of cats with hypertrophic, restrictive, and dilated cardiomyopathy have echocardiographic evidence of abnormal LV filling, even during the occult (preclinical) phase. Moderate and severe diastolic dysfunction is an indicator of advanced myocardial disease, is associated with clinical signs including exercise intolerance and congestive heart failure, affects outcome, and influences therapeutic decisions...
December 2015: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
I Biasato, L Francescone, G La Rosa, M Tursi
Diagnosis of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is both clinical and anatomopathological. Since standardized echocardiographic parameters have previously been established for its diagnosis and classification, the aim of the present study is to provide an original, complete and repeatable quantitative anatomopathological evaluation of this myocardial disease. Since ES-HCM is a clearly defined clinicopathological entity of feline HCM, the present study also aims to investigate its temporal evolution. The hearts of 21 cats with previous diagnosis or suspicion of HCM and 6 control animals were submitted for morphometric and histopathological investigations...
October 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
Ilaria Spalla, Chiara Locatelli, Giulia Riscazzi, Sara Santagostino, Elena Cremaschi, Paola Brambilla
OBJECTIVES: Feline cardiomyopathies (CMs) represent a heterogeneous group of myocardial diseases. The most common CM is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), followed by restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Studies comparing survival and outcome for different types of CM are scant. Furthermore, little is known about the cardiovascular consequences of systemic diseases on survival. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare survival and prognostic factors in cats affected by HCM, RCM or secondary CM referred to our institution over a 10 year period...
June 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Dana M Lindemann, James W Carpenter, Kelli M Almes, Loni Schumacher, Julia K Ryseff, Mackenzie Hallman
A 13-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) presented for an acute history of lateral recumbency and anorexia. Upon physical examination under general anesthesia, severe icterus was noted. A serum biochemical profile confirmed markedly elevated total bilirubin and alanine transaminase. Based on ultrasound-guided liver aspirates and cytology, a presumptive diagnosis of large granular lymphocyte hepatic lymphoma was reached. Abdominal and thoracic radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis...
June 2015: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ksenia Sedova, Olesya Bernikova, Jan Azarov, Dmitry Shmakov, Vladimir Vityazev, Sergey Kharin
BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemic electrophysiological alterations are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. However, electrophysiological effects of antioxidants are unclear. Our objective was to determine the effects of the antioxidant echinochrome on ventricular repolarization in a feline model of 30-min ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Activation-recovery intervals were measured from 64 ventricular electrograms recorded before and during the LAD ligation in untreated animals (controls, n=5) and animals given echinochrome (1mg/kg, n=5 and 2mg/kg, n=7)...
March 2015: Journal of Electrocardiology
K H Khor, F E Campbell, H Owen, I A Shiels, P C Mills
The histological features of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have been well documented, but there are no reports describing the histological features in mild pre-clinical disease, since cats are rarely screened for the disease in the early stages before clinical signs are apparent. Histological changes at the early stage of the disease in pre-clinical cats could contribute to an improved understanding of disease aetiology or progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological features of HCM in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium of cats diagnosed with pre-clinical HCM...
February 2015: Veterinary Journal
Catherine A Makarewich, Hongyu Zhang, Jennifer Davis, Robert N Correll, Danielle M Trappanese, Nicholas E Hoffman, Constantine D Troupes, Remus M Berretta, Hajime Kubo, Muniswamy Madesh, Xiongwen Chen, Erhe Gao, Jeffery D Molkentin, Steven R Houser
RATIONALE: The cellular and molecular basis for post-myocardial infarction (MI) structural and functional remodeling is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine if Ca2+ influx through transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels contributes to post-MI structural and functional remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: TRPC1/3/4/6 channel mRNA increased after MI in mice and was associated with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry. Cardiac myocyte-specific expression of a dominant-negative (loss-of-function) TRPC4 channel increased basal myocyte contractility and reduced hypertrophy and cardiac structural and functional remodeling after MI while increasing survival in mice...
August 29, 2014: Circulation Research
Rebecca Langhorn, Jakob Lundgren Willesen, Inge Tarnow, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen
BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponins are established as the gold standard biomarkers for acute cardiac injury. As even small elevations of cardiac troponins have prognostic relevance in people, it is important to investigate the performance of sensitive assays for use in veterinary medicine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate analytical and overlap performance of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay, the ADVIA Centaur CP TnI-Ultra assay, in dogs and cats...
December 2013: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Philip R Fox, Cristina Basso, Gaetano Thiene, Barry J Maron
BACKGROUND: Spontaneously occurring small animal models of myocardial disease, closely resembling the human condition, have been reported for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (in cats) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (in cats and boxer dogs). Nonhypertrophied restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a well-recognized but relatively uncommon primary heart muscle disease causing substantial morbidity in humans. We describe RCM occurring in felines here as a potential model of human disease...
January 2014: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
S C Riesen, K E Schober, J D Bonagura, C A Carnes
In this article the myocardial expression of different hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) isoforms in myocardial tissue from healthy control cats and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was evaluated. Myocardial tissue samples of the left ventricle of control cats (n = 12) and cats with HCM (n = 4) were collected. Expression of feline HCN was determined by immunoblot analysis using antibodies against HCN2 and HCN4. Optical densities of HCN bands were compared among groups by use of the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test...
February 2013: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Sara Granström, Christian Bressen Pipper, Rasmus Møgelvang, Peter Sogaard, Jakob Lundgren Willesen, Jørgen Koch
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the effect of sample volume (SV) size settings and sampling method on measurement variability and peak systolic (s'), and early (e') and late (a') diastolic longitudinal myocardial velocities using color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI) in cats. ANIMALS: Twenty cats with normal echocardiograms and 20 cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We quantified and compared empirical variance and average absolute values of s', e' and a' for three cardiac cycles using eight different SV settings (length 1,2,3 and 5 mm; width 1 and 2 mm) and three methods of sampling (end-diastolic sampling with manual tracking of the SV, end-systolic sampling without tracking, and random-frame sampling without tracking)...
December 2012: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Valerie Chetboul, Amandine Petit, Vassiliki Gouni, Emilie Trehiou-Sechi, Charlotte Misbach, David Balouka, Carolina Carlos Sampedrano, Jean-Louis Pouchelon, Renaud Tissier, Marie Abitbol
OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate heart morphology and function using echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), (2) to determine heart disease prevalence and characteristics, and (3) to assess potential genetic features in a population of Sphynx cats presented for cardiovascular screening. ANIMALS: A total of 147 echocardiographic examinations, including 33 follow-ups, were performed by trained observers on 114 Sphynx cats of different ages (2.62 ± 1.93 years [0...
December 2012: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Xiaoying Zhang, Christopher Szeto, Erhe Gao, Mingxin Tang, Jianguo Jin, Qin Fu, Catherine Makarewich, Xiaojie Ai, Ying Li, Allen Tang, Jenny Wang, Hui Gao, Fang Wang, Xinyi Joy Ge, Satya P Kunapuli, Lin Zhou, Chunyu Zeng, Kevin Yang Xiang, Xiongwen Chen
RATIONALE: In the failing heart, persistent β-adrenergic receptor activation is thought to induce myocyte death by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent and PKA-independent activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. β-adrenergic signaling pathways also are capable of activating cardioprotective mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: This study used a novel PKA inhibitor peptide to inhibit PKA activity to test the hypothesis that β-adrenergic receptor signaling causes cell death through PKA-dependent pathways and cardioprotection through PKA-independent pathways...
February 1, 2013: Circulation Research
Catalin F Baicu, Jiayu Li, Yuhua Zhang, Harinath Kasiganesan, George Cooper, Michael R Zile, Amy D Bradshaw
Myocardial fibrillar collagen is considered an important determinant of increased ventricular stiffness in pressure-overload (PO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Chronic PO was created in feline right ventricles (RV) by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) to define the time course of changes in fibrillar collagen content after PO using a nonrodent model and to determine whether this time course was dependent on changes in fibroblast function. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen (hydroxyproline), collagen volume fraction (CVF), and RV end-diastolic pressure were assessed 2 days and 1, 2, 4, and 10 wk following PAB...
November 1, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Hui Gao, Fang Wang, Wei Wang, Catherine A Makarewich, Hongyu Zhang, Hajime Kubo, Remus M Berretta, Larry A Barr, Jeffery D Molkentin, Steven R Houser
Common cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction require that myocytes develop greater than normal force to maintain cardiac pump function. This requires increases in [Ca(2+)]. These diseases induce cardiac hypertrophy and increases in [Ca(2+)] are known to be an essential proximal signal for activation of hypertrophic genes. However, the source of "hypertrophic" [Ca(2+)] is not known and is the topic of this study. The role of Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC), T-type Ca(2+) channels (TTCC) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on the activation of calcineurin (Cn)-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling and myocyte hypertrophy was studied...
November 2012: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Virginia Luis Fuentes
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Feline arterial thromboembolism (ATE) is a common but devastating complication of myocardial disease, often necessitating euthanasia. A combination of endothelial dysfunction and blood stasis in the left atrium leads to local platelet activation and thrombus formation. Embolisation of the thrombus results in severe ischaemia of the affected vascular bed. With the classic 'saddle thrombus' presentation of thrombus in the terminal aorta, the diagnosis can usually be made by physical examination...
July 2012: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
O Kershaw, N Heblinski, F Lotz, O Dirsch, A D Gruber
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common form of feline heart disease. To date, reliable morphometric reference data for anatomical or histological changes are unavailable. The aim of this study was to identify diagnostically relevant morphometric criteria that clearly distinguish feline HCM from normal hearts. Hearts from 15 cats with HCM had increased weights (g per distance between the first and eighth vertebral bodies) when compared with hearts from 15 matched control cats. Several anatomically defined and digitally scanned areas of standardized cross sections were significantly increased in HCM when compared with controls, including the area across the entire heart half-way between the coronary sulcus and apex, the right and left ventricular walls and the ventricular septum...
July 2012: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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