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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448842/risk-of-incident-myocardial-infarction-by-gender-interactions-with-serum-lipids-blood-pressure-and-smoking-the-troms%C3%A3-study-1979-2012
#1
Grethe Albrektsen, Ivar Heuch, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Dag Steinar Thelle, Tom Wilsgaard, Inger Njølstad, Kaare Harald Bønaa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Overall, men have roughly twice the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) compared to women, but what causes this contrast is unclear. Identification of subgroups where the gender contrast in risk is particularly low or high, may provide new insight. In the search for such subgroups, we focus on gender-specific effects of established coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Heterogeneity across age groups is also explored. METHODS: Population-based prospective study from Tromsø, Norway, comprising 33,859 individuals (51% women); 2746 individuals (854 women) received a diagnosis of MI during follow-up at ages 35-94 years...
April 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446882/modified-low-dose-triiodo-l-thyronine-therapy-safely-improves-function-following-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Viswanathan Rajagopalan, Youhua Zhang, Christine Pol, Clifford Costello, Samantha Seitter, Ann Lehto, Olga V Savinova, Yue-Feng Chen, A Martin Gerdes
Background: We have shown that thyroid hormones (THs) are cardioprotective and can be potentially used as safe therapeutic agents for diabetic cardiomyopathy and permanent infarction. However, no reliable, clinically translatable protocol exists for TH treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We hypothesized that modified low-dose triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) therapy would confer safe therapeutic benefits against IR injury. Methods: Adult female rats underwent left coronary artery ligation for 60 min or sham surgeries...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441761/e2-er-%C3%AE-enhances-calcineurin-protein-degradation-and-pi3k-akt-mdm2-signal-transduction-to-inhibit-iso-induced-myocardial-cell-apoptosis
#3
Kuan-Ho Lin, Wei-Wen Kuo, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Cecilia-Hsuan Day, You-Liang Hsieh, Li-Chin Chung, Ray-Jade Chen, Su-Ying Wen, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Chih-Yang Huang
Secretion of multifunctional estrogen and its receptor has been widely considered as the reason for markedly higher frequency of heart disease in men than in women. 17β-Estradiol (E2), for instance, has been reported to prevent development of cardiac apoptosis via activation of estrogen receptors (ERs). In addition, protein phosphatase such as protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and calcineurin (PP2B) are also involved in cardiac hypertrophy and cell apoptosis signaling. However, the mechanism by which E2/ERβ suppresses apoptosis is not fully understood, and the role of protein phosphatase in E2/ERβ action also needs further investigation...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439652/myocardial-extracellular-volume-fraction-quantified-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-is-increased-in-hypertension-and-associated-with-left-ventricular-remodeling
#4
Shuli Wang, Hongjie Hu, Minjie Lu, Arlene Sirajuddin, Jinghui Li, Jing An, Xiuyu Chen, Gang Yin, Tian Lan, Linlin Dai, Yan Zhang, Xiaorong Yin, Lei Song, Aimin Dang, Peter Kellman, Andrew E Arai, Shihua Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can demonstrate left ventricle (LV) abnormalities and relationship between ECV and LV remodeling in hypertension (HTN) patients METHODS: ECV quantification was prospectively performed in 134 consecutive HTN patients and 97 healthy subjects. Individual and regional ECV were compared to the regions on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Statistical analysis of the relationship between LV global functional parameters and ECV was carried out using Pearson's correlation, Student's t test and multiple regressions...
April 24, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438687/dietary-nitrite-supplementation-attenuates-cardiac-remodeling-in-l-name-induced-hypertensive-rats
#6
Kunihiro Sonoda, Kazuo Ohtake, Hiroyuki Uchida, Junta Ito, Masaki Uchida, Hideshi Natsume, Hazuki Tamada, Jun Kobayashi
Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability underlies the development of hypertensive heart disease. We investigated the effects of dietary nitrite on N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: an untreated control group, an l-NAME-treated group, and three other l-NAME-treated groups supplemented with 10 mg/L or 100 mg/L of nitrite or 100 mg/L of captopril in drinking water. After the 8-week experimental period, mean arterial blood pressure was measured, followed by sampling of blood and heart tissue for assessment of nitrite/nitrate levels in the plasma and heart, the plasma level of angiotensin II (AT II), and the heart transcriptional levels of AT II type 1 receptor (AT1R), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue proteins such as type 1 collagen and fibronectin...
April 21, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436119/maternal-hypertrophy-and-diastolic-disfunction-and-brain-natriuretic-peptide-concentration-in-early-and-late-pre-eclampsia
#7
V T M Borges, S G Zanati, M T S PeraÇoli, J R Poiati, M Romão-Veiga, J C PeraÇoli, B Thilaganathan
OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia is associated with maternal cardiac remodelling and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess and compare maternal left ventricular structure and diastolic function and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels in women with early-onset pre-eclampsia (<34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset pre-eclampsia (≥34weeks of gestation). METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional observational study was performed in 30 women with early-onset pre-eclampsia, 32 with late-onset pre-eclampsia and 23 normotensive controls...
April 23, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435089/cobalt-chloride-induces-rhoa-rock-activation-and-remodeling-effect-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-involvement-of-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-pathways
#8
Cheng-I Cheng, Yueh-Hong Lee, Po-Han Chen, Yu-Chun Lin, Ming-Huei Chou, Ying-Hsien Kao
Chronic heart failure is a serious complication of myocardial infarction, one of the major causes of death worldwide that often leads to adverse cardiac hypertrophy and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-induced cardiac tissue remodeling is considered an important underlying etiology. This study aimed to delineate the signaling profiles of RhoA/ROCK, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK and their involvement in regulation of remodeling events in cultured H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. In addition to its growth-suppressive effect, the hypoxia-mimetic chemical, cobalt chloride (CoCl2) significantly induced RhoA kinase activation as revealed by increased MBS phosphorylation and ROCK1/2 expression in H9c2 cells...
April 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434143/the-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-myocardial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
Tomohiro Suhara, Yuichi Baba, Briana K Shimada, Jason K Higa, Takashi Matsui
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) is a risk factor for heart failure. The mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) is a key mediator of the insulin signaling pathway. We will discuss the role of mTOR in myocardial dysfunction in T2DM. RECENT FINDINGS: In T2DM, chronically activated mTOR induces multiple pathological events, including a negative feedback loop that suppresses IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1. While short-term treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, is a promising strategy for cardiac diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and cardiac hypertrophy in T2DM, there are many concerns about chronic usage of rapamycin...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432604/phosphate-imbalance-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#10
REVIEW
E C Christopoulou, T D Filippatos, E Megapanou, M S Elisaf, G Liamis
Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Hypophosphatemia in patients with heart failure may be the result of co-existing electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, pharmacological treatments, decreased intestinal absorption or secondary to sympathetic nervous system activation and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus or heavy alcohol consumption...
April 22, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432058/mk5-haplodefficiency-attenuates-hypertrophy-and-preserves-diastolic-function-during-remodeling-induced-by-chronic-pressure-overload-in-the-mouse-heart
#11
Sherin Nawaito, Dharmendra Dingar, Pramod Sahadevan, Bahira Hussein, Fatiha Sahmi, Yanfen Shi, Marc-Antoine Gillis, Matthias Gaestel, Jean-Claude Tardif, Bruce G Allen
MK5 is a protein serine and threonine kinase that is activated by p38 MAPK and the atypical MAPKs ERK3 and ERK4. The physiological function(s) of MK5 remain unknown. Herein we examine the effect of MK5 haplodeficiency on cardiac function and myocardial remodeling. At 12-weeks of age, MK5 haplodeficient mice (MK5(+/-)) were smaller than age-matched wild-type litter mates (MK5(+/+)), with similar diastolic function but reduced systolic function. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was employed to induce a chronic pressure overload in twelve-week-old male MK5(+/-) and MK5(+/+) mice...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431059/cardiac-structural-and-functional-profile-of-patients-with-delayed-qrs-transition-zone-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#12
Aapo L Aro, Derek Phan, Carmen Teodorescu, Audrey Uy-Evanado, Kyndaron Reinier, Karen Gunson, Jonathan Jui, Heikki V Huikuri, Sumeet S Chugh
Aims: Delayed QRS transition zone in the precordial leads of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recently associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We correlated echocardiographic findings with ECG and clinical characteristics to investigate how alterations in cardiac structure and function contribute to this risk marker. Methods and Results: From the ongoing population-based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (catchment population ∼1 million), SCD cases with prior ECG available (n = 627) were compared with controls (n = 801)...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430947/electrocardiographic-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-predicts-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-in-hypertensive-patients-the-allhat-study
#13
Casper N Bang, Elsayed Z Soliman, Lara M Simpson, Barry R Davis, Richard B Devereux, Peter M Okin
BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. However, the predictive value of ECG LVH in treated hypertensive patients remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 33,357 patients (aged ≥ 55 years) with hypertension and at least 1 other coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor were randomized to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril. The outcome of the present study was all-cause mortality; and secondary endpoints were CHD, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, angina, heart failure (HF), and peripheral arterial disease...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430843/carotid-body-denervation-markedly-improves-survival-in-rats-with-hypertensive-heart-failure
#14
Kana Fujii, Keita Saku, Takuya Kishi, Yasuhiro Oga, Takeshi Tohyama, Takuya Nishikawa, Takafumi Sakamoto, Masataka Ikeda, Tomomi Ide, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kenji Sunagawa
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major cause of heart failure. Excessive sympathoexcitation in patients with heart failure leads to poor prognosis. Since carotid body denervation (CBD) has been shown to reduce sympathetic nerve activity in animal models of hypertension and heart failure, we examined if bilateral CBD attenuates the progression of hypertensive heart failure and improves survival. METHODS: We randomly allocated Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet from 6 weeks of age into CBD (n = 31) and sham-operation (SHAM; n = 50) groups, and conducted CBD or SHAM at 7 weeks of age...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428073/isosteviol-prevents-the-prolongation-of-action-potential-in-hypertrophied-cardiomyoctyes-by-regulating-transient-outward-potassium-and-l-type-calcium-channels
#15
Zhuo Fan, Nanying Lv, Xiao Luo, Wen Tan
Cardiac hypertrophy is a thickening of the heart muscle that is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction. It occurs initially as an adaptive process against increased workloads and often leads to sudden arrhythmic deaths. Studies suggest that the lethal arrhythmia is attributed to hypertrophy-induced destabilization of cardiac electrical activity, especially the prolongation of the action potential. The reduced activity of Ito is demonstrated to be responsible for the ionic mechanism of prolonged action potential duration and arrhythmogeneity...
April 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427040/cortex-mori-radicis-extract-attenuates-myocardial-damages-in-diabetic-rats-by-regulating-ers
#16
Jiangfang Lian, Jiayuan Chen, Yanyan Yuan, Jiayi Chen, M Daud M Sayed, Lin Luo, Yabing Zhu, Song Li, Shizhong Bu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is diagnosed when patients with diabetes develop ventricular dysfunction but do not exhibit coronary atherosclerosis or hypertension. Cortex Mori (CM) Radicis,he epidermis of the root of Morus alba L, has been traditionally used for cough treatment in oriental medicine. In this study, we investigated the protection of myocardium by CM in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the underlying mechanisms. Diabetes was induced in rats by an injection of STZ at 25mg/kg. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes, diabetes with CM treatment, diabetes with CM preventative treatment...
April 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426781/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-tudca-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-remodeling-by-reducing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#17
Shilpa Rani, Pradeep Kumar Sreenivasaiah, Jin Ock Kim, Mi Young Lee, Wan Seok Kang, Yong Sook Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Woo Jin Park, Chunghee Cho, Do Han Kim
Pressure overload in the heart induces pathological hypertrophy and is associated with cardiac dysfunction. Apoptosis and fibrosis signaling initiated by the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is known to contribute to these maladaptive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduction of ERS by a known chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) can attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Oral administration of TUDCA at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (BW) in the TUDCA-TAC group reduced ERS markers (GRP78, p-PERK, and p-eIf2α), compared to the Vehicle (Veh)-TAC group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423592/protective-effect-of-hydrogen-sulphide-against-myocardial-hypertrophy-in-mice
#18
Mingjing Shao, Chuanjun Zhuo, Ronghuan Jiang, Guangdong Chen, Jianmin Shan, Jing Ping, Hongjun Tian, Lina Wang, Chongguang Lin, Lirong Hu
Cardiac hypertrophy is a critical component of phenotype in the failing heart. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial hypertrophy. In the present study, we generated a mouse model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to investigate whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has protective effects against cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricular structure was analyzed by two-dimensional echocardiography. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and reactive oxygen specie in the myocardium...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422819/gnaq-tt-695-694-gc-polymorphism-is-associated-with-increased-gq-expression-vascular-reactivity-and-myocardial-injury-after-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#19
Ulrich H Frey, Stefanie Klenke, Anna Mitchell, Tim Knüfermann, Heinz Jakob, Matthias Thielmann, Winfried Siffert, Jürgen Peters
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II receptor type 1-mediated activation of the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric Gq protein evokes increased vasoconstriction and may promote hypertrophy-induced myocardial damage. The authors recently identified a TT(-695/-694)GC polymorphism in the human Gq promoter, the GC allele being associated with an increased prevalence of cardiac hypertrophy. In this article, the authors tested whether the TT(-695/-694)GC polymorphism is associated with differences in (1) myocardial Gq protein expression, (2) vascular reactivity, and (3) myocardial damage after coronary artery bypass grafting...
April 19, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418458/right-ventricular-fiber-structure-as-a-compensatory-mechanism-in-experimental-pressure-overload-a-computational-study
#20
Arnold D Gomez, Huashan Zou, Megan E Bowen, Xiaoqing Liu, Edward W Hsu, Stephen H McKellar
Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a lethal condition in diverse pathologies. Pressure overload is the most common etiology of RVF, but our understanding of the tissue structure remodeling and other biomechanical factors involved in RVF is limited. Some remodeling patterns are interpreted as compensatory mechanisms including myocyte hypertrophy, extracellular fibrosis, and changes in fiber orientation. However, the specific implications of these changes, especially in relation to clinically observable measurements, are difficult to investigate experimentally...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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