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Jie Zhou, Cun Li, Guangyu Zhao, Hin Chu, Dong Wang, Helen Hoi-Ning Yan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Lei Wen, Bosco Ho-Yin Wong, Xiaoyu Zhao, Man Chun Chiu, Dong Yang, Yixin Wang, Rex K H Au-Yeung, Ivy Hau-Yee Chan, Shihui Sun, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Kelvin Kai-Wang To, Ziad A Memish, Victor M Corman, Christian Drosten, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Yusen Zhou, Suet Yi Leung, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused human respiratory infections with a high case fatality rate since 2012. However, the mode of virus transmission is not well understood. The findings of epidemiological and virological studies prompted us to hypothesize that the human gastrointestinal tract could serve as an alternative route to acquire MERS-CoV infection. We demonstrated that human primary intestinal epithelial cells, small intestine explants, and intestinal organoids were highly susceptible to MERS-CoV and can sustain robust viral replication...
November 2017: Science Advances
Matthew B Byrne, Matthew T Leslie, Heeral S Patel, H Rex Gaskins, Paul J A Kenis
Regions of hypoxia are common in solid tumors and are associated with enhanced malignancy, metastasis, and chemo/radio resistance. Real-time hypoxic cellular experimentation is challenging due to the constant need for oxygen control. Most microfluidic platforms developed thus far for hypoxic cell studies are burdened by complex design parameters and are difficult to use for uninitiated investigators. However, open-well microfluidic platforms enable short and long term hypoxic cell studies with an ease of use workflow...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Aaron Chan, Carina Carianopol, Allen Yi-Lun Tsai, Kresanth Varatharajah, Rex Shun Chiu, Sonia Gazzarrini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Vladimir L Kolossov, Mayandi Sivaguru, Joseph Huff, Katherine Luby, Kaviamuthan Kanakaraju, H Rex Gaskins
Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by continuous fusion-and-fission events that are essential for maintaining normal function. Despite the prominence of mitochondrial function in energy generation and cell signaling, understanding of processes of fusion and fission dynamics has been hampered by the lack of high-resolution optical systems that accommodate live-cell imaging. We have examined different confocal modalities in terms of resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a point scanning confocal microscope with Airyscan super-resolution (AS-SR)...
November 13, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Monica Morais-Santos, Hipácia Werneck-Gomes, Gabriel H Campolina-Silva, Leticia C Santos, Germán A B Mahecha, Rex A Hess, Cleida A Oliveira
Besides androgens, estrogen signaling plays key role in normal development and pathologies of the prostate. Irreversible synthesis of estrogens from androgens is catalyzed by aromatase. Interestingly, animals lacking aromatase do not develop cancer or prostatitis, whereas those with overexpression of aromatase and consequently high estrogen levels, develop prostatitis and squamous metaplasia via estrogen receptor 1 (ERα). Even with this evidence, the aromatase expression in the prostate is controversial. Moreover, little is known about the occurrence of age-dependent variation of aromatase and its association with histopathological changes commonly found in advanced age, a knowledge gap that is addressed herein...
November 7, 2017: Endocrinology
Mark E Gurney, Patricia Cogram, Robert M Deacon, Christopher Rex, Michael Tranfaglia
Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) patients display intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder due to silencing of the X-linked, fragile-X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene. Dysregulation of cAMP metabolism is a consistent finding in patients and in the mouse and fly FXS models. We therefore explored if BPN14770, a prototypic phosphodiesterase-4D negative allosteric modulator (PDE4D-NAM) in early human clinical trials, might provide therapeutic benefit in the mouse FXS model. Daily treatment of adult male fmr1 C57Bl6 knock-out mice with BPN14770 for 14 days reduced hyperarousal, improved social interaction, and improved natural behaviors such as nesting and marble burying as well as dendritic spine morphology...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Roland N Dickerson, G Christopher Wood, Joseph M Swanson, Rex O Brown
Staying current with the literature is of paramount importance to the pharmacist engaged in an evidence-based clinical practice. Given the expanding roles and responsibilities of today's pharmacists combined with exponential growth in new medical and health sciences literature, staying current has become an extremely daunting task. Traditional journal clubs have focused upon their role as a training vehicle for teaching critical reading skills to residents. However, schools of pharmacy are now required to provide instruction in biostatistics, research design, and interpretation...
November 6, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Heather Fritz, Diane Patzer, Sujay S Galen
PURPOSE: Media images and marketing materials suggest a future in which individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) can utilize robotic exoskeletons to reengage in everyday activities, yet these narratives may not align with the current technological realities. The purpose of this paper is to present and describe the current use of robotic exoskeletons in rehabilitation and home settings and discuss the benefits and limitations of the devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We provide an overview of the features and limitations of the four robotic exoskeleton products (EKSO Bionics, ReWalk, Rex Bionics, and Indego) that are currently being used in in the United States in rehabilitation settings...
November 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Victor R Carlson, Zachary D Post, Fabio R Orozco, Destiny M Davis, Rex W Lutz, Alvin C Ong
BACKGROUND: The forgotten joint score (FJS) is a recent scoring system that assesses how natural the prosthesis feels after total joint arthroplasty. Although the FJS has been extensively applied in populations with total hip prosthetics, less is known about the patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to investigate the temporal relationship between TKA and the FJS. METHODS: We evaluated 566 patients after TKA using the FJS questionnaire...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
Rex A Dunham, Ahmed Elaswad
This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female × blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Michael F Byrne, Neal Shahidi, Douglas K Rex
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Gastroenterology
Rex Shen, Lan Luo, Hui Jiang
BACKGROUND: This article concerns the identification of gene pairs or combinations of gene pairs associated with biological phenotype or clinical outcome, allowing for building predictive models that are not only robust to normalization but also easily validated and measured by qPCR techniques. However, given a small number of biological samples yet a large number of genes, this problem suffers from the difficulty of high computational complexity and imposes challenges to the accuracy of identification statistically...
November 3, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Anette McLeod, Ellen F Mosleth, Ida Rud, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Lars Snipen, Kristian Hovde Liland, Lars Axelsson
Effects of glucose availability were investigated in Lactobacillus sakei strains 23K and LS25 cultivated in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostats set at high (D = 0.357 h-1) and low (D = 0.045 h-1) dilution rates. We observed for both strains a shift from homolactic towards more mixed acid fermentation when comparing high to low growth rates. However, this change was more pronounced for LS25 than for 23K, where dominating products were lactate>formate>acetate≥ethanol at both conditions. A multivariate approach was used for analyzing proteome and transcriptome data from the bacterial cultures, where the predictive power of the omics data was used for identifying features that can explain the differences in the end-product profiles...
2017: PloS One
Rachel McCarroll, Bassem Youssef, Beth Beadle, Maureen Bojador, Rex Cardan, Robin Famiglietti, David Followill, Geoffrey Ibbott, Anuja Jhingran, Christoph Trauernicht, Peter Balter, Laurence Court
Purpose: More than 6,500 megavoltage teletherapy units are needed worldwide, many in low-resource settings. Cobalt-60 units or linear accelerators (linacs) can fill this need. We have evaluated machine performance on the basis of patient throughput to provide insight into machine viability under various conditions in such a way that conclusions can be generalized to a vast array of clinical scenarios. Materials and Methods: Data from patient treatment plans, peer-reviewed studies, and international organizations were combined to assess the relative patient throughput of linacs and cobalt-60 units that deliver radiotherapy with standard techniques under various power and maintenance support conditions...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
Aorarat Suntronpong, Watcharaporn Thapana, Panupon Twilprawat, Ornjira Prakhongcheep, Suthasinee Somyong, Narongrit Muangmai, Surin Peyachoknagul, Kornsorn Srikulnath
Among teleost fishes, Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew, 1793) possesses the lowest chromosome number, 2n = 24. To characterize the chromosome constitution and investigate the genome organization of repetitive sequences in M. albus, karyotyping and chromosome mapping were performed with the 18S - 28S rRNA gene, telomeric repeats, microsatellite repeat motifs, and Rex retroelements. The 18S - 28S rRNA genes were observed to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4 at the same position with large propidium iodide and C-positive bands, suggesting that the molecular structure of the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 4 has evolved in a concerted manner with amplification of the 18S - 28S rRNA genes...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
María Ríos, Israel M Sánchez, Jorge Morales
Giraffids include the only living giraffomorph ruminants and are diagnosed by the presence of bi-lobed canines and a special type of epiphyseal cranial appendages called ossicones. The family Giraffidae ranges from the latest early Miocene until today. However they are currently extant relics with only two living representatives, the African genera Okapia and Giraffa. Giraffids were much more diverse and widespread in the past, with more than 30 fossil species described. For the past decades a number of studies intended to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of the family, but due to the lack of really good cranial material no clear consensus was reached regarding the phylogenetic relationships amongst the different members of the group...
2017: PloS One
Laura G McKee, Justin Parent, Chloe R Zachary, Rex Forehand
Caregivers play a crucial role in the socialization of youth emotion understanding, competence, and regulation, which are implicated in youth social and emotional health; however, there is less understanding of parental psychosocial or cognitive factors, like mindful parenting, that may be associated with the use of particular emotion socialization (ES) strategies. This study tests a model of the cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal associations between mindful parenting and supportive and nonsupportive ES strategies in a community sample of parents (N = 246; 63...
November 1, 2017: Family Process
Hui Chen, Yingguang Li, Johan Hc Reiber, Jan de Lange, Shengxian Tu, Paul van der Stelt, Frank Lobbezoo, Ghizlane Aarab
OBJECTIVES: To determine the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx related to the collapse of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients; and to determine the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) of the oropharynx and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. METHODS: 31 mild to moderate OSA patients (mean±SD age = 43.5±9.7 yrs) and 13 control subjects (mean±SD age = 48.5±16...
October 27, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Dmitry Gil, James Rex, Vladimir Reukov, Alexey Vertegel
Despite the relative safety of the procedure, hernia repairs are often associated with chronic post-operative pain. Although this complication has been linked among others to mesh deterioration, details of the processes that lead this deterioration are still unknown. This work aims to bridge this gap by analyzing the chemical, physical and structural alterations in hernia repair meshes exposed to oxidative stress in vitro. Here, we developed a methodology to characterize effect of oxidation stress on structure and properties of polymeric hernia repair meshes...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Wan-Ching Chou, Rex C-C Wang, Cheng Liu, Chyun-Yu Yang, Tzer-Min Lee
The sand-blasting and acid etching (SLA) method can fabricate a rough topography for mechanical fixation and long-term stability of titanium implant, but can not achieve early bone healing. This study used two kinds of plasma treatments (Direct-Current and Radio-Frequency plasma) to modify the SLA-treated surface. The modification of plasma treatments creates respective power range and different content functional OH groups. The results show that the plasma treatments do not change the micron scale topography, and plasma-treated specimens presented super hydrophilicity...
October 25, 2017: Materials
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