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Waking Dream

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052330/it-s-only-a-dream-if-you-wake-up-young-adults-achievement-expectations-opportunities-and-meritocratic-beliefs
#1
Jacob Shane, Jutta Heckhausen
The present paper examines university graduates' beliefs about how meritocratic socioeconomic status (SES) attainment in U.S. society is for themselves (merit agency beliefs) and for most other people (merit societal beliefs), and how these distinct beliefs are differentially associated with labour market experiences and achievement-goal attitudes and expectations in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Data from a 10-month longitudinal study of 217 graduates from the 2013 class of a large public U.S. university were analysed using multilevel modelling...
February 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005464/improvement-of-darts-performance-following-lucid-dream-practice-depends-on-the-number-of-distractions-while-rehearsing-within-the-dream-a-sleep-laboratory-pilot-study
#2
Melanie Schädlich, Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl
In a lucid dream, the dreamer is aware of the dream state and can deliberately practice motor skills. Two field studies indicated that lucid dream practice can improve waking performance in simple motor tasks. The present pilot study investigated the effect of lucid dream practice in a controlled sleep laboratory setting, using a pre-post design with dart throwing in the evening and morning. The experimental group practiced darts in lucid dreams. Because some participants were distracted during lucid dream practice, the group was divided into lucid dreamers with few (n = 4) and many distractions (n = 5)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998373/sleep-quality-in-an-adult-american-indian-community-sample
#3
Cindy L Ehlers, Derek N Wills, Philip Lau, David A Gilder
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have found that insufficient sleep (< 7 h/night) is more common among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). In this study we sought to identify specific demographic, clinical, and cultural factors that may be associated with reduced sleep quality in an American Indian community sample. METHODS: Information on demography along with personal medical, psychiatric, and drinking history was obtained using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965397/rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-prodromal-and-mechanistic-insights-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Anand Tekriwal, Drew S Kern, Jean Tsai, Nuri F Ince, Jianping Wu, John A Thompson, Aviva Abosch
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by complex motor enactment of dreams and is a potential prodromal marker of Parkinson's disease (PD). Of note, patients with PD observed during RBD episodes exhibit improved motor function, relative to baseline states during wake periods. Here, we review recent epidemiological and mechanistic findings supporting the prodromal value of RBD for PD, incorporating clinical and electrophysiological studies. Explanations for the improved motor function during RBD episodes are evaluated in light of recent publications...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718407/a-template-model-of-embodiment-while-dreaming-proposal-of-a-mini-me
#5
Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Ansgar Klimke, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Ursula Voss
Dreams are usually centered around a dream self capable of tasks generally impossible in waking, e.g. flying or walking through walls. Moreover, the bodily dream self appears relatively stable and insensitive to changes of the embodied wake self, raising the question of whether and to what extent the dream self is embodied. To further explore its determinants, we tested whether the dream self would be affected by either pre-sleep focused attention to a body part or by its experimental alteration during the day...
November 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718406/crossing-the-invisible-line-de-differentiation-of-wake-sleep-and-dreaming-may-engender-both-creative-insight-and-psychopathology
#6
Sue Llewellyn
Writing about dreaming, the poet Raymond Carver said "I feel as if I've crossed some kind of invisible line". In creative people, the "line" between wake, dreaming and psychopathology may be porous, engendering a de-differentiated, super-critical, hybrid state. Evidence exists for a relationship between creativity and psychopathology but its nature has been elusive. De-differentiation between wake, sleep and dreaming may be the common substrate, as dream-like cognition pervades wake and wake-like neurophysiology suffuses sleep...
November 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703108/-the-function-of-rem-sleep-implications-from-transgenic-mouse-models
#7
Mitsuaki Kashiwagi, Yu Hayashi
Our sleep is composed of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. REM sleep is the major source of dreams, whereas synchronous cortical oscillations, called slow waves, are observed during NREM sleep. Both stages are unique to certain vertebrate species, and therefore, REM and NREM sleep are thought to be involved in higher-order brain functions. While several studies have revealed the importance of NREM sleep in growth hormone secretion, memory consolidation and brain metabolite clearance, the functions of REM sleep are currently almost totally unknown...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625622/investigating-on-the-methodology-effect-when-evaluating-lucid-dream
#8
Nicolas Ribeiro, Yannick Gounden, Véronique Quaglino
Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants ("During LD, one is-while dreaming-aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness"), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582722/tracking-potentiating-states-of-dissociation-an-intensive-clinical-case-study-of-sleep-daydreaming-mood-and-depersonalization-derealization
#9
Giulia L Poerio, Stephen Kellett, Peter Totterdell
This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which "dream-like" mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569701/beyond-the-neuropsychology-of-dreaming-insights-into-the-neural-basis-of-dreaming-with-new-techniques-of-sleep-recording-and-analysis
#10
Carlo Cipolli, Michele Ferrara, Luigi De Gennaro, Giuseppe Plazzi
Recent advances in electrophysiological [e.g., surface high-density electroencephalographic (hd-EEG) and intracranial recordings], video-polysomnography (video-PSG), transcranial stimulation and neuroimaging techniques allow more in-depth and more accurate investigation of the neural correlates of dreaming in healthy individuals and in patients with brain-damage, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders or parasomnias. Convergent evidence provided by studies using these techniques in healthy subjects has led to a reformulation of several unresolved issues of dream generation and recall [such as the inter- and intra-individual differences in dream recall and the predictivity of specific EEG rhythms, such as theta in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, for dream recall] within more comprehensive models of human consciousness and its variations across sleep/wake states than the traditional models, which were largely based on the neurophysiology of REM sleep in animals...
July 28, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525832/dream-content-and-intrusive-thoughts-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Simone Cavallotti, Cecilia Casetta, Valentina Fanti, Orsola Gambini, Edoardo G Ostinelli, Rebecca Ranieri, Irene Vanelli, Armando D'Agostino
Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500705/converging-paradigms-a-reflection-on-parallel-theoretical-developments-in-psychoanalytic-metapsychology-and-empirical-dream-research
#12
Ágoston Schmelowszky
In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift...
August 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496657/resting-state-network-specific-breakdown-of-functional-connectivity-during-ketamine-alteration-of-consciousness-in-volunteers
#13
Vincent Bonhomme, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Athena Demertzi, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Oceane Jaquet, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Alain Plenevaux, Melanie Boly, Pierre Boveroux, Andrea Soddu, Jean François Brichant, Pierre Maquet, Steven Laureys
BACKGROUND: Consciousness-altering anesthetic agents disturb connectivity between brain regions composing the resting-state consciousness networks (RSNs). The default mode network (DMn), executive control network, salience network (SALn), auditory network, sensorimotor network (SMn), and visual network sustain mentation. Ketamine modifies consciousness differently from other agents, producing psychedelic dreaming and no apparent interaction with the environment. The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore ketamine-induced changes in RSNs connectivity...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491799/consciousness-and-cortical-responsiveness-a-within-state-study-during-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#14
Jaakko O Nieminen, Olivia Gosseries, Marcello Massimini, Elyana Saad, Andrew D Sheldon, Melanie Boly, Francesca Siclari, Bradley R Postle, Giulio Tononi
When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma...
August 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486325/a-clinician-s-guide-to-recurrent-isolated-sleep-paralysis
#15
REVIEW
Brian A Sharpless
This review summarizes the empirical and clinical literature on sleep paralysis most relevant to practitioners. During episodes of sleep paralysis, the sufferer awakens to rapid eye movement sleep-based atonia combined with conscious awareness. This is usually a frightening event often accompanied by vivid, waking dreams (ie, hallucinations). When sleep paralysis occurs independently of narcolepsy and other medical conditions, it is termed "isolated" sleep paralysis. Although the more specific diagnostic syndrome of "recurrent isolated sleep paralysis" is a recognized sleep-wake disorder, it is not widely known to nonsleep specialists...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471478/free-energy-and-virtual-reality-in-neuroscience-and-psychoanalysis-a-complexity-theory-of-dreaming-and-mental-disorder
#16
Jim Hopkins
The main concepts of the free energy (FE) neuroscience developed by Karl Friston and colleagues parallel those of Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology. In Hobson et al. (2014) these include an innate virtual reality generator that produces the fictive prior beliefs that Freud described as the primary process. This enables Friston's account to encompass a unified treatment-a complexity theory-of the role of virtual reality in both dreaming and mental disorder. In both accounts the brain operates to minimize FE aroused by sensory impingements-including interoceptive impingements that report compliance with biological imperatives-and constructs a representation/model of the causes of impingement that enables this minimization...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460633/terror-and-bliss-commonalities-and-distinctions-between-sleep-paralysis-lucid-dreaming-and-their-associations-with-waking-life-experiences
#17
Dan Denis, Giulia L Poerio
Sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming are both dissociated experiences related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Anecdotal evidence suggests that episodes of sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming are related but different experiences. In this study we test this claim systematically for the first time in an online survey with 1928 participants (age range: 18-82 years; 53% female). Confirming anecdotal evidence, sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming frequency were related positively and this association was most apparent between lucid dreaming and sleep paralysis episodes featuring vestibular-motor hallucinations...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435256/freud-bion-and-kant-epistemology-and-anthropology-in-the-interpretation-of-dreams
#18
Stella Sandford
This interdisciplinary article takes a philosophical approach to The Interpretation of Dreams, connecting Freud to one of the few philosophers with whom he sometimes identified - Immanuel Kant. It aims to show that Freud's theory of dreams has more in common with Bion's later thoughts on dreaming than is usually recognized. Distinguishing, via a discussion of Kant, between the conflicting 'epistemological' and 'anthropological' aspects of The Interpretation of Dreams, it shows that one specific contradiction in the book - concerning the relation between dream-work and waking thought - can be understood in terms of the tension between these conflicting aspects...
July 20, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358492/what-is-the-link-between-hallucinations-dreams-and-hypnagogic-hypnopompic-experiences
#19
Flavie Waters, Jan Dirk Blom, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Allan J Cheyne, Ben Alderson-Day, Peter Woodruff, Daniel Collerton
By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245317/structural-brain-alterations-associated-with-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Soufiane Boucetta, Ali Salimi, Mahsa Dadar, Barbara E Jones, D Louis Collins, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu
Characterized by dream-enactment motor manifestations arising from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet the specific neurostructural changes associated with RBD in PD patients remain to be revealed by neuroimaging. Here we identified such neurostructural alterations by comparing large samples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 69 PD patients with probable RBD, 240 patients without RBD and 138 healthy controls, using deformation-based morphometry (p < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
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