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Waking Dream

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398195/mass-fainting-in-garment-factories-in-cambodia
#1
Maurice Eisenbruch
This paper reports an ethnographic study of mass fainting among garment factory workers in Cambodia. Research was undertaken in 2010-2015 in 48 factories in Phnom Penh and 8 provinces. Data were collected in Khmer using nonprobability sampling. In participant observation with monks, factory managers, health workers, and affected women, cultural understandings were explored. One or more episodes of mass fainting occurred at 34 factories, of which 9 were triggered by spirit possession. Informants viewed the causes in the domains of ill-health/toxins and supernatural activities...
April 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394322/the-neural-correlates-of-dreaming
#2
Francesca Siclari, Benjamin Baird, Lampros Perogamvros, Giulio Bernardi, Joshua J LaRocque, Brady Riedner, Melanie Boly, Bradley R Postle, Giulio Tononi
Consciousness never fades during waking. However, when awakened from sleep, we sometimes recall dreams and sometimes recall no experiences. Traditionally, dreaming has been identified with rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, characterized by wake-like, globally 'activated', high-frequency electroencephalographic activity. However, dreaming also occurs in non-REM (NREM) sleep, characterized by prominent low-frequency activity. This challenges our understanding of the neural correlates of conscious experiences in sleep...
April 10, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390699/deciphering-neural-codes-of-memory-during-sleep
#3
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Matthew A Wilson
Memories of experiences are stored in the cerebral cortex. Sleep is critical for the consolidation of hippocampal memory of wake experiences into the neocortex. Understanding representations of neural codes of hippocampal-neocortical networks during sleep would reveal important circuit mechanisms in memory consolidation and provide novel insights into memory and dreams. Although sleep-associated ensemble spike activity has been investigated, identifying the content of memory in sleep remains challenging. Here we revisit important experimental findings on sleep-associated memory (i...
April 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386699/dreamlike-effects-of-lsd-on-waking-imagery-in-humans-depend-on-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#4
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Leonie Vollenweider, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence indicates that the mixed serotonin and dopamine receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces an altered state of consciousness that resembles dreaming. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD produces dreamlike waking imagery and that this imagery depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audiorecorded guided mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally) and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally)...
April 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377708/increased-evoked-potentials-to-arousing-auditory-stimuli-during-sleep-implication-for-the-understanding-of-dream-recall
#5
Raphael Vallat, Tarek Lajnef, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Christian Berthomier, Karim Jerbi, Dominique Morlet, Perrine M Ruby
High dream recallers (HR) show a larger brain reactivity to auditory stimuli during wakefulness and sleep as compared to low dream recallers (LR) and also more intra-sleep wakefulness (ISW), but no other modification of the sleep macrostructure. To further understand the possible causal link between brain responses, ISW and dream recall, we investigated the sleep microstructure of HR and LR, and tested whether the amplitude of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) was predictive of arousing reactions during sleep...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316568/towards-a-functional-understanding-of-pgo-waves
#6
REVIEW
Jarrod A Gott, David T J Liley, J Allan Hobson
Ponto-Geniculo-Occipital (PGO) waves are biphasic field potentials identified in a range of mammalian species that are ubiquitous with sleep, but can also be identified in waking perception and eye movement. Their role in REM sleep and visual perception more broadly may constitute a promising avenue for further research, however what was once an active field of study has recently fallen into stasis. With the reality that invasive recordings performed on animals cannot be replicated in humans; while animals themselves cannot convey experience to the extent required to elucidate how PGO waves factor into awareness and behavior, innovative solutions are required if significant research outcomes are to ever be realized...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240187/the-endocannabinoid-system-modulating-levels-of-consciousness-emotions-and-likely-dream-contents
#7
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, José Carlos Pastrana-Trejo, Mireille Salas-Crisóstomo, Miriel de-la-Cruz
Cannabinoids are derivatives that are either compounds occurring naturally in the plant, Cannabis sativa or synthetic analogs of these molecules. The first and most widely investigated of the cannabinoids is ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), which is the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis and undergoes significant binding to cannabinoid receptors. These cannabinoid receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors that received their name from the fact that they respond to cannabinoid compounds, including Δ9-THC...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236784/effects-of-donepezil-on-sleep-disturbances-in-patients-with-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-an-open-label-study-with-actigraphy
#8
Hiroaki Kazui, Hiroyoshi Adachi, Hideki Kanemoto, Kenji Yoshiyama, Tamiki Wada, Keiko Tokumasu Nomura, Toshihisa Tanaka, Manabu Ikeda
We investigated whether donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, can be used to treat sleep disturbances in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Sleep disturbances were evaluated with the sleep disturbances item of the Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and an actigraph in 16 DLB patients and 24 normal elderly control (NC) subjects. The presence/absence of nine kinds of sleep symptoms, such as dream enactment, were also evaluated in the DLB patients. The DLB patients were then given 5mg/day donepezil for 14 weeks and evaluated again...
May 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212501/dream-content-of-canadian-males-from-adolescence-to-old-age-an-exploration-of-ontogenetic-patterns
#9
Allyson Dale, Alexandre Lafrenière, Joseph De Koninck
The present study was a first look at the ontogenetic pattern of dream content across the lifespan for men. The participants included 50 Canadian men in each of 5 age groups, from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85. The last age group included 31 participants, totaling 231 males. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the lifespan-developmental pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated a predominance of aggressive dream imagery in the adolescent age group in line with social-developmental research...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197089/hierarchical-neural-representation-of-dreamed-objects-revealed-by-brain-decoding-with-deep-neural-network-features
#10
Tomoyasu Horikawa, Yukiyasu Kamitani
Dreaming is generally thought to be generated by spontaneous brain activity during sleep with patterns common to waking experience. This view is supported by a recent study demonstrating that dreamed objects can be predicted from brain activity during sleep using statistical decoders trained with stimulus-induced brain activity. However, it remains unclear whether and how visual image features associated with dreamed objects are represented in the brain. In this study, we used a deep neural network (DNN) model for object recognition as a proxy for hierarchical visual feature representation, and DNN features for dreamed objects were analyzed with brain decoding of fMRI data collected during dreaming...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141722/sudden-onset-of-refusal-to-eat-on-waking-after-a-nightmare-in-a-6-year-old-girl
#11
Maria Zaccagnino, Sheila Gahagan, Andrea Spencer, Michael Jellinek, Martin T Stein
Bridgette is a 6-year-old girl, who presented with sudden onset of refusal to eat or drink. The only precipitating event was a nightmare the previous night. She described a dream in which her mother and maternal aunt, dressed as witches, and father and maternal uncle, appearing as bats, wanted to kill her by making her eat and drink from a cauldron. Bridgette stated, "I can't eat anymore, I'm afraid of dying." Bridgette's eating pattern and behavior were described as previously normal. Motor, social, and language milestones were also normal...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052330/it-s-only-a-dream-if-you-wake-up-young-adults-achievement-expectations-opportunities-and-meritocratic-beliefs
#12
Jacob Shane, Jutta Heckhausen
The present paper examines university graduates' beliefs about how meritocratic socioeconomic status (SES) attainment in U.S. society is for themselves (merit agency beliefs) and for most other people (merit societal beliefs), and how these distinct beliefs are differentially associated with labour market experiences and achievement-goal attitudes and expectations in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Data from a 10-month longitudinal study of 217 graduates from the 2013 class of a large public U.S. university were analysed using multilevel modelling...
February 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005464/improvement-of-darts-performance-following-lucid-dream-practice-depends-on-the-number-of-distractions-while-rehearsing-within-the-dream-a-sleep-laboratory-pilot-study
#13
Melanie Schädlich, Daniel Erlacher, Michael Schredl
In a lucid dream, the dreamer is aware of the dream state and can deliberately practice motor skills. Two field studies indicated that lucid dream practice can improve waking performance in simple motor tasks. The present pilot study investigated the effect of lucid dream practice in a controlled sleep laboratory setting, using a pre-post design with dart throwing in the evening and morning. The experimental group practiced darts in lucid dreams. Because some participants were distracted during lucid dream practice, the group was divided into lucid dreamers with few (n = 4) and many distractions (n = 5)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998373/sleep-quality-in-an-adult-american-indian-community-sample
#14
Cindy L Ehlers, Derek N Wills, Philip Lau, David A Gilder
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have found that insufficient sleep (< 7 h/night) is more common among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). In this study we sought to identify specific demographic, clinical, and cultural factors that may be associated with reduced sleep quality in an American Indian community sample. METHODS: Information on demography along with personal medical, psychiatric, and drinking history was obtained using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965397/rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-prodromal-and-mechanistic-insights-for-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Anand Tekriwal, Drew S Kern, Jean Tsai, Nuri F Ince, Jianping Wu, John A Thompson, Aviva Abosch
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by complex motor enactment of dreams and is a potential prodromal marker of Parkinson's disease (PD). Of note, patients with PD observed during RBD episodes exhibit improved motor function, relative to baseline states during wake periods. Here, we review recent epidemiological and mechanistic findings supporting the prodromal value of RBD for PD, incorporating clinical and electrophysiological studies. Explanations for the improved motor function during RBD episodes are evaluated in light of recent publications...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718407/a-template-model-of-embodiment-while-dreaming-proposal-of-a-mini-me
#16
Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Ansgar Klimke, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Ursula Voss
Dreams are usually centered around a dream self capable of tasks generally impossible in waking, e.g. flying or walking through walls. Moreover, the bodily dream self appears relatively stable and insensitive to changes of the embodied wake self, raising the question of whether and to what extent the dream self is embodied. To further explore its determinants, we tested whether the dream self would be affected by either pre-sleep focused attention to a body part or by its experimental alteration during the day...
November 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718406/crossing-the-invisible-line-de-differentiation-of-wake-sleep-and-dreaming-may-engender-both-creative-insight-and-psychopathology
#17
Sue Llewellyn
Writing about dreaming, the poet Raymond Carver said "I feel as if I've crossed some kind of invisible line". In creative people, the "line" between wake, dreaming and psychopathology may be porous, engendering a de-differentiated, super-critical, hybrid state. Evidence exists for a relationship between creativity and psychopathology but its nature has been elusive. De-differentiation between wake, sleep and dreaming may be the common substrate, as dream-like cognition pervades wake and wake-like neurophysiology suffuses sleep...
November 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703108/-the-function-of-rem-sleep-implications-from-transgenic-mouse-models
#18
REVIEW
Mitsuaki Kashiwagi, Yu Hayashi
Our sleep is composed of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. REM sleep is the major source of dreams, whereas synchronous cortical oscillations, called slow waves, are observed during NREM sleep. Both stages are unique to certain vertebrate species, and therefore, REM and NREM sleep are thought to be involved in higher-order brain functions. While several studies have revealed the importance of NREM sleep in growth hormone secretion, memory consolidation and brain metabolite clearance, the functions of REM sleep are currently almost totally unknown...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625622/investigating-on-the-methodology-effect-when-evaluating-lucid-dream
#19
Nicolas Ribeiro, Yannick Gounden, Véronique Quaglino
Lucid dreaming (LD) is a state of consciousness in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and can possibly control the content of his or her dream. To investigate the LD prevalence among different samples, researchers have used different types of methodologies. With regard to retrospective self-report questionnaire, two ways of proceeding seem to emerge. In one case, a definition of LD is given to participants ("During LD, one is-while dreaming-aware of the fact that one is dreaming. It is possible to deliberately wake up, to control the dream action, or to observe passively the course of the dream with this awareness"), while in the other instances, participants are presented separate questions targeting specific LD indicators (dream awareness and dream control)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582722/tracking-potentiating-states-of-dissociation-an-intensive-clinical-case-study-of-sleep-daydreaming-mood-and-depersonalization-derealization
#20
Giulia L Poerio, Stephen Kellett, Peter Totterdell
This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which "dream-like" mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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