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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145649/single-molecule-compaction-of-megabase-long-chromatin-molecules-by-multivalent-cations
#1
Anatoly Zinchenko, Nikolay V Berezhnoy, Sai Wang, William M Rosencrans, Nikolay Korolev, Johan R C van der Maarel, Lars Nordenskiöld
To gain insight into the conformational properties and compaction of megabase-long chromatin molecules, we reconstituted chromatin from T4 phage DNA (165 kb) and recombinant human histone octamers (HO). The unimolecular compaction, induced by divalent Mg2+ or tetravalent spermine4+ cations, studied by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (FM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques, resulted in the formation of 250-400 nm chromatin condensates. The compaction on this scale of DNA size is comparable to that of chromatin topologically associated domains (TAD) in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145593/root-respiratory-burst-oxidase-homologue-dependent-h2o2-production-confers-salt-tolerance-on-a-grafted-cucumber-by-controlling-na-exclusion-and-stomatal-closure
#2
Mengliang Niu, Yuan Huang, Shitao Sun, Jingyu Sun, Haishun Cao, Sergey Shabala, Zhilong Bie
Plant salt tolerance can be improved by grafting onto salt-tolerant rootstocks. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we used a range of physiological and molecular techniques to study responses of self-grafted and pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants exposed to 75 mM NaCl stress. Pumpkin grafting significantly increased the salt tolerance of cucumber plants, as revealed by higher plant dry weight, chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and lower leaf Na+ content...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140388/titanium-activates-the-dna-damage-response-pathway-in-oral-epithelial-cells-a-pilot-study
#3
Fernando Suárez-López Del Amo, Ivan Rudek, Vivian Petersen Wagner, Manoela D Martins, Francisco O'Valle, Pablo Galindo-Moreno, William V Giannobile, Hom-Lay Wang, Rogerio M Castilho
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of titanium (Ti) particles on oral epithelial cell homeostasis and the potential of dental implants to release Ti debris upon insertion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental implants with varying surface treatments were employed to determine the feasibility of particle release during implant placement as well as the impact of free Ti debris on oral epithelial cells. Ti particles derived from implant surfaces were isolated and cultured in direct contact with normal oral epithelial cells for 48 hours...
November 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139163/assessment-of-hard-target-modeling-in-casp12-reveals-an-emerging-role-of-alignment-based-contact-prediction-methods
#4
Luciano A Abriata, Giorgio E Tamò, Bohdan Monastyrskyy, Andriy Kryshtafovych, Matteo Dal Peraro
We present our assessment of CASP12 modeling efforts for targets with no obvious templates of high sequence/structure similarity in the PDB, i.e. for evaluation units of the free modeling (FM) and free modeling/template-based modeling (FM/TBM) categories. Models were clustered and ranked using the Global Distance Test-Total Score and five additional metrics developed in previous CASP rounds, producing short lists of models that were subject to visual inspection in comparison to the target structures. The whole procedure was implemented as a web app that facilitates model selection and visual inspection, and could become useful to facilitate and standardize future assessments...
November 15, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136681/assessment-of-multiple-cytochrome-p450-activities-in-metabolically-inactivated-human-liver-microsomes-and-roles-of-p450-2c-isoforms-in-reaction-phenotyping-studies
#5
Norie Murayama, Kanako Yajima, Mikiko Hikawa, Kanami Shimura, Yu Ishii, Masaki Takada, Yasuhiro Uno, Masahiro Utoh, Kazuhide Iwasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
The fraction of substrate metabolized (fm ) can be used to estimate drug interactions and can be determined by comparison of the intrinsic clearances (CLint ) of victim drugs obtained from inhibited and uninhibited hepatic enzymes. Commercially available human liver microsomes were recently developed in which one cytochrome P450 (P450) isoform is selectively inactivated. These inactivated liver microsomes were used to evaluate the roles of P450 2C isoforms in the depletion and oxidation of probe substrates...
November 14, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135983/arginase-expression-modulates-nitric-oxide-production-in-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis
#6
Stephanie Maia Acuña, Juliana Ide Aoki, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Ricardo Andrade Zampieri, Juliane Cristina Ribeiro Fernandes, Sandra Marcia Muxel, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter
BACKGROUND: Arginase is an enzyme that converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine, an essential substrate for the polyamine pathway supporting Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis replication and its survival in the mammalian host. L-arginine is also the substrate of macrophage nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that kills the parasite. This competition can define the fate of Leishmania infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transcriptomic profiling identified a family of oxidoreductases in L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135737/effect-of-long-term-use-of-facemask-with-miniplate-on-maxillary-protraction-in-patients-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#7
Sung Woon On, Seung-Hak Baek, Jin-Young Choi
The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of a long-term use of facemask with miniplate (FM-MP) on maxillary protraction in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The subjects were 21 CLP patients (16 unilateral CLP and 5 bilateral CLP patients), who were treated with identical lip and palate surgical method and FM-MP therapy performed by single surgeon and single orthodontist. Lateral cephalogram was taken before (T1; mean age, 11.1 years) and after maxillary protraction (T2; mean age, 16...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135602/ocular-surface-alterations-in-the-context-of-corneal-in-vivo-confocal-microscopic-characteristics-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#8
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Sibel Kocabeyoglu, Isin Unal-Cevik, Figen Bezci, Aysen Akinci, Murat Irkec
PURPOSE: To quantify the morphology of corneal basal epithelium and subbasal nerves and to evaluate the ocular surface alterations in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: Patients with FM (n = 34) and healthy controls (n = 42) were enrolled. All participants underwent ocular surface tests in the following order: corneal sensitivity, tear film breakup time, lissamine green staining, Schirmer test, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. Basal epithelial cells and subbasal nerves were evaluated using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
November 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134223/electric-field-effect-on-the-magnetic-properties-of-zigzag-mos2-nanoribbons-with-different-edge-passivation
#9
Yeonsig Nam, Daeheum Cho, Jin Yong Lee
Electrical control of magnetic exchange coupling interactions is central to designing magnetic materials. In this study, we performed density functional theory calculations to investigate the magnetic spin configuration, magnetic moment, and magnetic coupling strength of zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons (zMoS2NRs) with different edge passivation, that is, pristine (Pristine), hydrogen termination (H-tem), sulfur termination (S-term), and sulfhydryl termination (SH-term). Further, we investigated the influence of an external electric field (FExt) on the magnetic properties...
November 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133957/hidden-magnetic-states-emergent-under-electric-field-in-a-room-temperature-composite-magnetoelectric-multiferroic
#10
J D Clarkson, I Fina, Z Q Liu, Y Lee, J Kim, C Frontera, K Cordero, S Wisotzki, F Sanchez, J Sort, S L Hsu, C Ko, L Aballe, M Foerster, J Wu, H M Christen, J T Heron, D G Schlom, S Salahuddin, N Kioussis, J Fontcuberta, X Marti, R Ramesh
The ability to control a magnetic phase with an electric field is of great current interest for a variety of low power electronics in which the magnetic state is used either for information storage or logic operations. Over the past several years, there has been a considerable amount of research on pathways to control the direction of magnetization with an electric field. More recently, an alternative pathway involving the change of the magnetic state (ferromagnet to antiferromagnet) has been proposed. In this paper, we demonstrate electric field control of the Anomalous Hall Transport in a metamagnetic FeRh thin film, accompanying an antiferromagnet (AFM) to ferromagnet (FM) phase transition...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128399/nitric-oxide-production-by-glomerular-podocytes
#11
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Aron M Geurts, Alexander Staruschenko
Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and vital signaling molecule, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of glomerular ultrafiltration. However, whether changes in NO occur in podocytes during the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has not yet been thoroughly examined. We showed here that podocytes produce NO, and further hypothesized that hypertensive animals would exhibit reduced NO production in these cells in response to various paracrine factors, which might contribute to the damage of glomeruli filtration barrier and development of proteinuria...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127901/cerium-dioxide-doped-carboxyl-fullerene-as-novel-nanoprobe-and-catalyst-in-electrochemical-biosensor-for-amperometric-detection-of-the-cyp2c19-2-allele-in-human-serum
#12
Chengli Zhang, Junlin He, Yuchan Zhang, Jun Chen, Yilin Zhao, Yazhen Niu, Chao Yu
The disposition dose of clopidogrel is different in CYP2C19*2 gene carriers and non-carriers. High-dose clopidogrel has been recommended to overcome a low-responsiveness to clopidogrel in patients with the CYP2C19*2 gene. To guide the choice of clopidogrel dosage and catalyse a development in the field of personalized therapy, we developed an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect CYP2C19*2 gene. We constructed a novel assay based on cerium dioxide (CeO2)-functionalized carboxyl fullerene (c-C60) supported by Pt nanoparticles (c-C60/CeO2/PtNPs) for signal amplification...
November 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127814/alexithymia-not-fibromyalgia-predicts-the-attribution-of-pain-to-anger-related-facial-expressions
#13
Marialaura Di Tella, Ivan Enrici, Lorys Castelli, Fabrizio Colonna, Enrico Fusaro, Ada Ghiggia, Annunziata Romeo, Valentina Tesio, Mauro Adenzato
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome characterized by chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain, occurring predominantly in women. Previous studies have shown that patients with FM display a pattern of selective processing or cognitive bias which fosters the encoding of pain-related information. The present study tested the hypothesis of an increased attribution of pain to facial expressions of emotions (FEE), in patients with FM. As previous studies have shown that alexithymia influences the processing of facial expressions, independent of specific clinical conditions, we also investigated whether alexithymia, rather than FM per se, influenced attribution of pain to FEE...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127802/resistance-mechanisms-and-their-difference-between-the-root-and-leaf-of-microsorum-pteropus-a-novel-potential-aquatic-cadmium-hyperaccumulator
#14
Xin-Yu Lan, Bin Yang, Yun-Yun Yan, Xin-Yuan Li, Fu-Liu Xu
Microsorum pteropus (M. pteropus), an aquatic Polypodiaceae fern, was identified as a novel potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator in our previous study. This study reveals the Cd-resistance mechanisms and their difference between the root and leaf of M. pteropus based on analyses of photosynthesis, antioxidant systems and gene expression. A high level of Cd at 500μM was used to treat the samples to test the effects of this compound. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and flavonoids were used as indicators for antioxidant system changes...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126464/direct-electrochemical-dna-sensor-based-on-a-new-redox-oligomer-modified-with-ferrocene-and-carboxylic-acid-application-to-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutant-strain
#15
Salma Bizid, Saber Blili, Rym Mlika, Ayoub Haj Said, Hafsa Korri-Youssoufi
A new redox oligomer "oligo-methoxy-phenyl-acetonitrile" (Fc-acid-OMPA) modified with ferrocene groups and carboxylic acids as functional groups in side chains, has been synthesized. The redox indicator has been used for monitoring the electrochemical behavior. The functional groups give the flexibility for direct covalent attachment of biomolecules. The electrochemical properties of the redox oligomer film deposited on gold electrodes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), which showed a rate of electron transfer of 6...
November 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125985/cadmium-toxicity-and-its-amelioration-by-kinetin-in-tomato-seedlings-vis-%C3%A3-vis-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle
#16
Shikha Singh, Anita Singh, Prabhat Kumar Srivastava, Sheo Mohan Prasad
The supplementation of plant hormones may enhance the tolerance capacity of plants against certain environmental stresses by increasing their physiological functioning and detoxification capacity. To answer the question that whether a phytohormone 'kinetin' (KN, 6-furfuylaminopurine), one of the artificial cytokinins could ameliorate the cadmium induced toxicity in tomato seedlings, the effect of KN was assessed in differentially cadmium (Cd1: 3mgkg(-1) sand and Cd2: 9mgkg(-1) sand) intoxicated tomato seedlings by estimating the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS, viz...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125664/changes-of-nitric-oxide-levels-and-its-relationship-with-callose-deposition-during-the-interaction-between-soybean-and-soybean-mosaic-virus
#17
Dongqiang Xiao, Xixi Duan, Mengshu Zhang, Tianjie Sun, Xizhe Sun, Fukuan Li, Na Liu, Jie Zhang, Chunyan Hou, Dongmei Wang
The present study was aimed to investigate the changes of Nitric Oxide (NO) levels and its relationship with callose deposition during the interaction between soybean and Soybean mosaic virus(SMV). The soybean cv. 'Jidou 7' and the SMV strains N3 and SC-8 were used to constitute incompatible and compatible combinations. Intracellular NO was labeled with the NO-specific fluorescent probe DAF-FM DA. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was then used to observe the changes in NO production during SMV infection-induced defense responses in soybean...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125662/how-do-mediterranean-shrub-species-cope-with-shade-ecophysiological-response-to-different-light-intensities
#18
M C Díaz-Barradas, M Zunzunegui, L Alvarez-Cansino, M P Esquivias, J Valera, H Rodríguez
Under natural conditions, light exposition for Mediterranean shrubs can be highly variable, especially during cloudy days or under a canopy, and can interfere with other environmental factors such as temperature and water availability. With the aim of decoupling the effect of radiation and temperature from water availability, we conducted an experiment where 2 perennial and 3 summer semi-deciduous shrub species were subjected to different levels of irradiation. In order to follow plant responses to light exposure, we measured gas exchange, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf mass area in spring and summer...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124856/comparison-of-anthropometrical-parameters-and-dietary-habits-of-young-women-with-and-without-menstrual-disorders
#19
Karolina Łagowska, Daria Kazmierczak, Katarzyna Szymczak
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary habits of young women, in order to explore their relationship with the menstrual cycle and to determine the proportion of women with menstrual cycle irregularities. METHODS: A total of 348 young women aged 15-25 years (19.7 ± 3.7 years) participated in the study and were assigned to a younger group (15-18 years; YG) or an older group (19-25 years; OG). Two subgroups were also distinguished: women with menstrual disorders (MD) and women with regular cycles (RC)...
November 10, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124852/occurrence-of-chlorophyll-allomers-during-virus-induced-mortality-and-population-decline-in-the-ubiquitous-picoeukaryote-ostreococcus-tauri
#20
Deborah J Steele, Susan A Kimmance, Daniel J Franklin, Ruth L Airs
During viral infection and growth limitation of the picoeukaryote Ostreococcus tauri, we examined the relationship between membrane permeability, oxidative stress and chlorophyll allomers (oxidation products). Chlorophyll allomers were measured in batch-cultures of O. tauri in parallel with maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv /Fm ), carotenoids, and reactive oxygen species and membrane permeability using fluorescent probes (CM-H2 DCFDA and SYTOX-Green). Viral infection led to mass cell lysis of the O...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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