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HP1 proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346356/microinjection-of-antibodies-targeting-the-lamin-a-c-histone-binding-site-blocks-mitotic-entry-and-reveals-separate-chromatin-interactions-with-hp1-cenpb-and-pml
#1
Charles R Dixon, Melpomeni Platani, Alexandr A Makarov, Eric C Schirmer
Lamins form a scaffold lining the nucleus that binds chromatin and contributes to spatial genome organization; however, due to the many other functions of lamins, studies knocking out or altering the lamin polymer cannot clearly distinguish between direct and indirect effects. To overcome this obstacle, we specifically targeted the mapped histone-binding site of A/C lamins by microinjecting antibodies specific to this region predicting that this would make the genome more mobile. No increase in chromatin mobility was observed; however, interestingly, injected cells failed to go through mitosis, while control antibody-injected cells did...
March 25, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294943/a-team-of-heterochromatin-factors-collaborates-with-small-rna-pathways-to-combat-repetitive-elements-and-germline-stress
#2
Alicia N McMurchy, Przemyslaw Stempor, Tessa Gaarenstroom, Brian Wysolmerski, Yan Dong, Darya Aussianikava, Alex Appert, Ni Huang, Paulina Kolasinska-Zwierz, Alexandra Sapetschnig, Eric A Miska, Julie Ahringer
Repetitive sequences derived from transposons make up a large fraction of eukaryotic genomes and must be silenced to protect genome integrity. Repetitive elements are often found in heterochromatin; however, the roles and interactions of heterochromatin proteins in repeat regulation are poorly understood. Here we show that a diverse set of C. elegans heterochromatin proteins act together with the piRNA and nuclear RNAi pathways to silence repetitive elements and prevent genotoxic stress in the germ line. Mutants in genes encoding HPL-2/HP1, LIN-13, LIN-61, LET-418/Mi-2, and H3K9me2 histone methyltransferase MET-2/SETDB1 also show functionally redundant sterility, increased germline apoptosis, DNA repair defects, and interactions with small RNA pathways...
March 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293301/histone-peptide-microarray-screen-of-chromo-and-tudor-domains-defines-new-histone-lysine-methylation-interactions
#3
Erin K Shanle, Stephen A Shinsky, Joseph B Bridgers, Narkhyun Bae, Cari Sagum, Krzysztof Krajewski, Scott B Rothbart, Mark T Bedford, Brian D Strahl
BACKGROUND: Histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) function to regulate chromatin structure and function in part through the recruitment of effector proteins that harbor specialized "reader" domains. Despite efforts to elucidate reader domain-PTM interactions, the influence of neighboring PTMs and the target specificity of many reader domains is still unclear. The aim of this study was to use a high-throughput histone peptide microarray platform to interrogate 83 known and putative histone reader domains from the chromo and Tudor domain families to identify their interactions and characterize the influence of neighboring PTMs on these interactions...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293300/silencing-markers-are-retained-on-pericentric-heterochromatin-during-murine-primordial-germ-cell-development
#4
Aristea Magaraki, Godfried van der Heijden, Esther Sleddens-Linkels, Leonidas Magarakis, Wiggert A van Cappellen, Antoine H F M Peters, Joost Gribnau, Willy M Baarends, Maureen Eijpe
BACKGROUND: In the nuclei of most mammalian cells, pericentric heterochromatin is characterized by DNA methylation, histone modifications such as H3K9me3 and H4K20me3, and specific binding proteins like heterochromatin-binding protein 1 isoforms (HP1 isoforms). Maintenance of this specialized chromatin structure is of great importance for genome integrity and for the controlled repression of the repetitive elements within the pericentric DNA sequence. Here we have studied histone modifications at pericentric heterochromatin during primordial germ cell (PGC) development using different fixation conditions and fluorescent immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical protocols...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287329/atg4b-contains-a-c-terminal-lir-motif-important-for-binding-and-efficient-cleavage-of-mammalian-orthologs-of-yeast-atg8
#5
Mads Skytte Rasmussen, Stéphane Mouilleron, Birendra Kumar Shrestha, Martina Wirth, Rebecca Lee, Kenneth Bowitz Larsen, Yakubu Abudu Princely, Nicola O'Reilly, Eva Sjøttem, Sharon A Tooze, Trond Lamark, Terje Johansen
The cysteine protease ATG4B cleaves off one or more C-terminal residues of the inactive proform of proteins of the ortholog and paralog LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies of yeast Atg8 to expose a C-terminal glycine that is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine during autophagosome formation. We show that ATG4B contains a C-terminal LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif important for efficient binding to and cleavage of LC3 and GABARAP proteins. We solved the crystal structures of the GABARAPL1-ATG4B C-terminal LIR complex...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273462/negative-regulators-of-an-rnai-heterochromatin-positive-feedback-loop-safeguard-somatic-genome-integrity-in-tetrahymena
#6
Jan H Suhren, Tomoko Noto, Kensuke Kataoka, Shan Gao, Yifan Liu, Kazufumi Mochizuki
RNAi-mediated positive feedback loops are pivotal for the maintenance of heterochromatin, but how they are downregulated at heterochromatin-euchromatin borders is not well understood. In the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, heterochromatin is formed exclusively on the sequences that are removed from the somatic genome by programmed DNA elimination, and an RNAi-mediated feedback loop is important for assembling heterochromatin on the eliminated sequences. In this study, we show that the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)-like protein Coi6p, its interaction partners Coi7p and Lia5p, and the histone demethylase Jmj1p are crucial for confining the production of small RNAs and the formation of heterochromatin to the eliminated sequences...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236007/function-of-heterochromatin-protein-1-during-dna-repair
#7
REVIEW
Eva Bártová, Barbora Malyšková, Denisa Komůrková, Soňa Legartová, Jana Suchánková, Jana Krejčí, Stanislav Kozubek
This review focuses on the function of heterochromatin protein HP1 in response to DNA damage. We specifically outline the regulatory mechanisms in which HP1 and its interacting partners are involved. HP1 protein subtypes (HP1α, HP1β, and HP1γ) are the main components of constitutive heterochromatin, and HP1α and HP1β in particular are responsible for heterochromatin maintenance. The recruitment of these proteins to DNA lesions is also important from the perspective of proper DNA repair mechanisms. For example, HP1α is necessary for the binding of the main DNA damage-related protein 53BP1 at DNA repair foci, which are positive not only for the HP1α protein but also for the RAD51 protein, a component of DNA repair machinery...
February 24, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223359/peptide-recognition-by-hp1-chromoshadow-domains-revisited-plasticity-in-the-pseudosymmetric-histone-binding-site-of-human-hp1
#8
Yanli Liu, Su Qin, Ming Lei, Wolfram Tempel, Yuzhe Zhang, Peter Loppnau, Yanjun Li, Jinrong Min
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a highly conserved non-histone chromosomal protein in eukaryotes, plays important roles in the regulation of gene transcription. Each of the three human homologs of HP1 includes a chromoshadow domain (CSD). The CSD interacts with various proteins bearing the PxVxL motif, but also with a region of histone H3 that bears the similar PxxVxL motif. The latter interaction has not yet been resolved in atomic detail. Here we demonstrate that the CSDs of all three human HP1 homologs have comparable affinities to the PxxVxL motif of histone H3...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199849/quantitative-flim-fret-microscopy-to-monitor-nanoscale-chromatin-compaction-in%C3%A2-vivo-reveals-structural-roles-of-condensin-complexes
#9
David Llères, Aymeric P Bailly, Aurélien Perrin, David G Norman, Dimitris P Xirodimas, Robert Feil
How metazoan genomes are structured at the nanoscale in living cells and tissues remains unknown. Here, we adapted a quantitative FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer)-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) approach to assay nanoscale chromatin compaction in living organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans was chosen as a model system. By measuring FRET between histone-tagged fluorescent proteins, we visualized distinct chromosomal regions and quantified the different levels of nanoscale compaction in meiotic cells...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167679/independent-mechanisms-recruit-the-cohesin-loader-protein-nipbl-to-sites-of-dna-damage
#10
Christopher Bot, Annika Pfeiffer, Fosco Giordano, Dharani Manjeera Edara, Nico P Dantuma, Lena Ström
NIPBL is required to load the cohesin complex on to DNA. While the canonical role of cohesin is to couple replicated sister chromatids together until the onset of mitosis, it also promotes tolerance to DNA damage. Here we show that NIPBL is recruited to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle via independent mechanisms, influenced by type of damage. Firstly, the heterochromatin protein HP1γ recruits NIPBL to DSBs through the corresponding HP1-binding motif within the N-terminus. In contrast, the C-terminal HEAT repeat domain is unable to recruit NIPBL to DSBs but independently targets NIPBL to laser microirradiation induced DNA damage...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078437/senescence-in-the-lesional-fibroblasts-of-non-segmental-vitiligo-patients
#11
Seema Rani, Supriya Bhardwaj, Niharika Srivastava, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma, Davinder Parsad, Ravinder Kumar
Dermal fibroblasts secrete various growth factors which are important for skin pigmentation. Imbalance in the synchronization of epidermal and dermal cells in the skin can play vital role in the pathogenesis of pigmentary disorder vitiligo. Therefore, our objective was to check the lesional fibroblasts for any abnormality and senescence in non-segmental vitiligo patients (NSV). Skin punch biopsies were taken from NSV patients and healthy controls. Explant culture of fibroblast from lesional dermis, non-lesional dermis, and control was analyzed...
March 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059589/an-hp1-isoform-specific-feedback-mechanism-regulates-suv39h1-activity-under-stress-conditions
#12
Helena Raurell-Vila, Laia Bosch-Presegue, Jessica Gonzalez, Noriko Kane-Goldsmith, Carmen Casal, Jeremy P Brown, Anna Marazuela-Duque, Prim B Singh, Lourdes Serrano, Alejandro Vaquero
The presence of H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are hallmarks of heterochromatin conserved in eukaryotes. The spreading and maintenance of H3K9me3 is effected by the functional interplay between the H3K9me3-specific histone methyltransferase Suv39h1 and HP1. This interplay is complex in mammals because the three HP1 isoforms, HP1α, β, and γ, are thought to play a redundant role in Suv39h1-dependent deposition of H3K9me3 in pericentric heterochromatin (PCH). Here, we demonstrate that despite this redundancy, HP1α and, to a lesser extent, HP1γ have a closer functional link to Suv39h1, compared to HP1β...
February 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939293/telomeric-retrotransposon-het-a-contains-a-bidirectional-promoter-that-initiates-divergent-transcription-of-pirna-precursors-in-drosophila-germline
#13
Elizaveta Radion, Sergei Ryazansky, Natalia Akulenko, Yakov Rozovsky, Dmitry Kwon, Valeriya Morgunova, Ivan Olovnikov, Alla Kalmykova
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) provide the silencing of transposable elements in the germline. Drosophila telomeres are maintained by transpositions of specialized telomeric retroelements. piRNAs generated from sense and antisense transcripts of telomeric elements provide telomere length control in the germline. Previously, we have found that antisense transcription of the major telomeric retroelement HeT-A is initiated upstream of the HeT-A sense transcription start site. Here, we performed a deletion analysis of the HeT-A promoter and show that common regulatory elements are shared by sense and antisense promoters of HeT-A...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924040/kdm2a-integrates-dna-and-histone-modification-signals-through-a-cxxc-phd-module-and-direct-interaction-with-hp1
#14
Julie Borgel, Marek Tyl, Karin Schiller, Zsofia Pusztai, Christopher M Dooley, Wen Deng, Carol Wooding, Richard J White, Tobias Warnecke, Heinrich Leonhardt, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Till Bartke
Functional genomic elements are marked by characteristic DNA and histone modification signatures. How combinatorial chromatin modification states are recognized by epigenetic reader proteins and how this is linked to their biological function is largely unknown. Here we provide a detailed molecular analysis of chromatin recognition by the lysine demethylase KDM2A. Using biochemical approaches we identify a nucleosome interaction module within KDM2A consisting of a CXXC type zinc finger, a PHD domain and a newly identified Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) interaction motif that mediates direct binding between KDM2A and HP1...
October 24, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903903/novel-roles-of-hp1a-and-mcm10-in-dna-replication-genome-maintenance-and-photoreceptor-cell-differentiation
#15
Nicole Vo, Dang Ngoc Anh Suong, Natsuki Yoshino, Hideki Yoshida, Sue Cotterill, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Both Mcm10 and HP1a are known to be required for DNA replication. However, underlying mechanism is not clarified yet especially for HP1. Knockdown of both HP1a and Mcm10 genes inhibited the progression of S phase in Drosophila eye imaginal discs. Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) demonstrated that HP1a is in close proximity to DNA replication proteins including Mcm10, RFC140 and DNA polymerase ϵ 255 kDa subunit in S-phase. This was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The PLA signals between Mcm10 and HP1a are specifically observed in the mitotic cycling cells, but not in the endocycling cells...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895715/protein-kinase-msk1-physically-and-functionally-interacts-with-the-kmt2a-mll1-methyltransferase-complex-and-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-multiple-target-genes
#16
Maaike Wiersma, Marianne Bussiere, John A Halsall, Nil Turan, Robert Slany, Bryan M Turner, Karl P Nightingale
BACKGROUND: The KMT2A/MLL1 lysine methyltransferase complex is an epigenetic regulator of selected developmental genes, in part through the SET domain-catalysed methylation of H3K4. It is essential for normal embryonic development and haematopoiesis and frequently mutated in cancer. The catalytic properties and targeting of KMT2A/MLL1 depend on the proteins with which it complexes and the post-translational protein modifications which some of these proteins put in place, though detailed mechanisms remain unclear...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856763/normal-chromosome-conformation-depends-on-subtelomeric-facultative-heterochromatin-in-neurospora-crassa
#17
Andrew D Klocko, Tereza Ormsby, Jonathan M Galazka, Neena A Leggett, Miki Uesaka, Shinji Honda, Michael Freitag, Eric U Selker
High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analyses revealed that the 3D structure of the Neurospora crassa genome is dominated by intra- and interchromosomal links between regions of heterochromatin, especially constitutive heterochromatin. Elimination of trimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3) or its binding partner Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1)-both prominent features of constitutive heterochromatin-have little effect on the Hi-C pattern. It remained possible that di- or trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me2/3), which becomes localized in regions of constitutive heterochromatin when H3K9me3 or HP1 are lost, plays a critical role in the 3D structure of the genome...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733730/pericentric-h3k9me3-formation-by-hp1-interaction-defective-histone-methyltransferase-suv39h1
#18
Daisuke Muramatsu, Hiroshi Kimura, Kaoru Kotoshiba, Makoto Tachibana, Yoichi Shinkai
Pericentric regions form epigenetically organized, silent heterochromatin structures that accumulate histone H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a methylated H3K9-binding protein. At pericentric regions, Suv39h is the major enzyme that generates H3K9me3. Suv39h also interacts directly with HP1. However, the importance of HP1 interaction for Suv39h-mediated H3K9me3 formation at the pericentromere is not well characterized. To address this question, we introduced HP1 binding-defective, N-terminally truncated mouse Suv39h1 (ΔN) into Suv39h-deficient cells...
December 3, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729944/expression-and-chromatin-structures-of-cellulolytic-enzyme-gene-regulated-by-heterochromatin-protein-1
#19
Xiujun Zhang, Yinbo Qu, Yuqi Qin
BACKGROUND: Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1, homologue HepA in Penicillium oxalicum) binding is associated with a highly compact chromatin state accompanied by gene silencing or repression. HP1 loss leads to the derepression of gene expression. We investigated HepA roles in regulating cellulolytic enzyme gene expression, as an increasingly number of studies have suggested that cellulolytic enzyme gene expression is not only regulated by transcription factors, but is also affected by the chromatin status...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681634/dual-chromatin-recognition-by-the-histone-deacetylase-complex-hchc-is-required-for-proper-dna-methylation-in-neurospora-crassa
#20
Shinji Honda, Vincent T Bicocca, Jordan D Gessaman, Michael R Rountree, Ayumi Yokoyama, Eun Y Yu, Jeanne M L Selker, Eric U Selker
DNA methylation, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, histone deacetylation, and highly repeated sequences are prototypical heterochromatic features, but their interrelationships are not fully understood. Prior work showed that H3K9 methylation directs DNA methylation and histone deacetylation via HP1 in Neurospora crassa and that the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation. The complex consists of the chromodomain proteins HP1 and chromodomain protein 2 (CDP-2), the histone deacetylase HDA-1, and the AT-hook motif protein CDP-2/HDA-1-associated protein (CHAP)...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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