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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078437/senescence-in-the-lesional-fibroblasts-of-non-segmental-vitiligo-patients
#1
Seema Rani, Supriya Bhardwaj, Niharika Srivastava, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma, Davinder Parsad, Ravinder Kumar
Dermal fibroblasts secrete various growth factors which are important for skin pigmentation. Imbalance in the synchronization of epidermal and dermal cells in the skin can play vital role in the pathogenesis of pigmentary disorder vitiligo. Therefore, our objective was to check the lesional fibroblasts for any abnormality and senescence in non-segmental vitiligo patients (NSV). Skin punch biopsies were taken from NSV patients and healthy controls. Explant culture of fibroblast from lesional dermis, non-lesional dermis, and control was analyzed...
January 11, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059589/an-hp1-isoform-specific-feedback-mechanism-regulates-suv39h1-activity-under-stress-conditions
#2
Helena Raurell-Vila, Laia Bosch-Presegue, Jessica Gonzalez, Noriko Kane-Goldsmith, Carmen Casal, Jeremy P Brown, Anna Marazuela-Duque, Prim B Singh, Lourdes Serrano, Alejandro Vaquero
The presence of H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are hallmarks of heterochromatin conserved in eukaryotes. The spreading and maintenance of H3K9me3 is effected by the functional interplay between the H3K9me3-specific histone methyltransferase Suv39h1 and HP1. This interplay is complex in mammals because the three HP1 isoforms, HP1α, β, and γ, are thought to play a redundant role in Suv39h1-dependent deposition of H3K9me3 in pericentric heterochromatin (PCH). Here, we demonstrate that despite this redundancy, HP1α and, to a lesser extent, HP1γ have a closer functional link to Suv39h1, compared to HP1β...
January 6, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939293/telomeric-retrotransposon-het-a-contains-a-bidirectional-promoter-that-initiates-divergent-transcription-of-pirna-precursors-in-drosophila-germline
#3
Elizaveta Radion, Sergei Ryazansky, Natalia Akulenko, Yakov Rozovsky, Dmitry Kwon, Valeriya Morgunova, Ivan Olovnikov, Alla Kalmykova
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) provide the silencing of transposable elements in the germline. Drosophila telomeres are maintained by transpositions of specialized telomeric retroelements. piRNAs generated from sense and antisense transcripts of telomeric elements provide telomere length control in the germline. Previously, we have found that antisense transcription of the major telomeric retroelement HeT-A is initiated upstream of the HeT-A sense transcription start site. Here, we performed a deletion analysis of the HeT-A promoter and show that common regulatory elements are shared by sense and antisense promoters of HeT-A...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924040/kdm2a-integrates-dna-and-histone-modification-signals-through-a-cxxc-phd-module-and-direct-interaction-with-hp1
#4
Julie Borgel, Marek Tyl, Karin Schiller, Zsofia Pusztai, Christopher M Dooley, Wen Deng, Carol Wooding, Richard J White, Tobias Warnecke, Heinrich Leonhardt, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Till Bartke
Functional genomic elements are marked by characteristic DNA and histone modification signatures. How combinatorial chromatin modification states are recognized by epigenetic reader proteins and how this is linked to their biological function is largely unknown. Here we provide a detailed molecular analysis of chromatin recognition by the lysine demethylase KDM2A. Using biochemical approaches we identify a nucleosome interaction module within KDM2A consisting of a CXXC type zinc finger, a PHD domain and a newly identified Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) interaction motif that mediates direct binding between KDM2A and HP1...
October 24, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903903/novel-roles-of-hp1a-and-mcm10-in-dna-replication-genome-maintenance-and-photoreceptor-cell-differentiation
#5
Nicole Vo, Dang Ngoc Anh Suong, Natsuki Yoshino, Hideki Yoshida, Sue Cotterill, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Both Mcm10 and HP1a are known to be required for DNA replication. However, underlying mechanism is not clarified yet especially for HP1. Knockdown of both HP1a and Mcm10 genes inhibited the progression of S phase in Drosophila eye imaginal discs. Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) demonstrated that HP1a is in close proximity to DNA replication proteins including Mcm10, RFC140 and DNA polymerase ϵ 255 kDa subunit in S-phase. This was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The PLA signals between Mcm10 and HP1a are specifically observed in the mitotic cycling cells, but not in the endocycling cells...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895715/protein-kinase-msk1-physically-and-functionally-interacts-with-the-kmt2a-mll1-methyltransferase-complex-and-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-multiple-target-genes
#6
Maaike Wiersma, Marianne Bussiere, John A Halsall, Nil Turan, Robert Slany, Bryan M Turner, Karl P Nightingale
BACKGROUND: The KMT2A/MLL1 lysine methyltransferase complex is an epigenetic regulator of selected developmental genes, in part through the SET domain-catalysed methylation of H3K4. It is essential for normal embryonic development and haematopoiesis and frequently mutated in cancer. The catalytic properties and targeting of KMT2A/MLL1 depend on the proteins with which it complexes and the post-translational protein modifications which some of these proteins put in place, though detailed mechanisms remain unclear...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856763/normal-chromosome-conformation-depends-on-subtelomeric-facultative-heterochromatin-in-neurospora-crassa
#7
Andrew D Klocko, Tereza Ormsby, Jonathan M Galazka, Neena A Leggett, Miki Uesaka, Shinji Honda, Michael Freitag, Eric U Selker
High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analyses revealed that the 3D structure of the Neurospora crassa genome is dominated by intra- and interchromosomal links between regions of heterochromatin, especially constitutive heterochromatin. Elimination of trimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3) or its binding partner Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1)-both prominent features of constitutive heterochromatin-have little effect on the Hi-C pattern. It remained possible that di- or trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me2/3), which becomes localized in regions of constitutive heterochromatin when H3K9me3 or HP1 are lost, plays a critical role in the 3D structure of the genome...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733730/pericentric-h3k9me3-formation-by-hp1-interaction-defective-histone-methyltransferase-suv39h1
#8
Daisuke Muramatsu, Hiroshi Kimura, Kaoru Kotoshiba, Makoto Tachibana, Yoichi Shinkai
Pericentric regions form epigenetically organized, silent heterochromatin structures that accumulate histone H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a methylated H3K9-binding protein. At pericentric regions, Suv39h is the major enzyme that generates H3K9me3. Suv39h also interacts directly with HP1. However, the importance of HP1 interaction for Suv39h-mediated H3K9me3 formation at the pericentromere is not well characterized. To address this question, we introduced HP1 binding-defective, N-terminally truncated mouse Suv39h1 (ΔN) into Suv39h-deficient cells...
December 3, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729944/expression-and-chromatin-structures-of-cellulolytic-enzyme-gene-regulated-by-heterochromatin-protein-1
#9
Xiujun Zhang, Yinbo Qu, Yuqi Qin
BACKGROUND: Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1, homologue HepA in Penicillium oxalicum) binding is associated with a highly compact chromatin state accompanied by gene silencing or repression. HP1 loss leads to the derepression of gene expression. We investigated HepA roles in regulating cellulolytic enzyme gene expression, as an increasingly number of studies have suggested that cellulolytic enzyme gene expression is not only regulated by transcription factors, but is also affected by the chromatin status...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681634/dual-chromatin-recognition-by-the-histone-deacetylase-complex-hchc-is-required-for-proper-dna-methylation-in-neurospora-crassa
#10
Shinji Honda, Vincent T Bicocca, Jordan D Gessaman, Michael R Rountree, Ayumi Yokoyama, Eun Y Yu, Jeanne M L Selker, Eric U Selker
DNA methylation, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, histone deacetylation, and highly repeated sequences are prototypical heterochromatic features, but their interrelationships are not fully understood. Prior work showed that H3K9 methylation directs DNA methylation and histone deacetylation via HP1 in Neurospora crassa and that the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation. The complex consists of the chromodomain proteins HP1 and chromodomain protein 2 (CDP-2), the histone deacetylase HDA-1, and the AT-hook motif protein CDP-2/HDA-1-associated protein (CHAP)...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614332/genome-wide-identification-evolution-of-chromobox-family-genes-and-their-expression-in-nile-tilapia
#11
Xing-Yong Liu, Xian-Bo Zhang, Ming-Hui Li, Shu-Qing Zheng, Zhi-Long Liu, Yun-Ying Cheng, De-Shou Wang
Chromobox (Cbx) family proteins are transcriptional repressors that involved in epigenetic and developmental processes. In this study, comprehensive analyses of Cbxs were performed using available genome databases from representative animal species. The Cbx family were originated from one Polycomb (Pc) gene like the yeast Pc, which duplicated into two and gave rise to the Pc and the Heterochromatin protein 1 (Hp1) identified in invertebrates from protozoon to lancelet. Rapid expansion of Cbx family members was observed in vertebrates as ~8 (5 Pc and 3 Hp1) were identified in spotted gar, coelacanth and tetrapods...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597848/histone-h3-lysine-9-methyltransferase-dim5-is-required-for-the-development-and-virulence-of-botrytis-cinerea
#12
Xiaoli Zhang, Xinqiang Liu, Yanli Zhao, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Yanping Fu, Daohong Jiang, Tao Chen
Histone methylation is widely present in animals, plants and fungi, and the methylation modification of histone H3 has important biological functions. Methylation of Lys9 of histone H3 (H3K9) has been proven to regulate chromatin structure, gene silencing, transcriptional activation, plant metabolism, and other processes. In this work, we investigated the functions of a H3K9 methyltransferase gene BcDIM5 in Botrytis cinerea, which contains a PreSET domain, a SET domain and a PostSET domain. Characterization of BcDIM5 knockout transformants showed that the hyphal growth rate and production of conidiophores and sclerotia were significantly reduced, while complementary transformation of BcDIM5 could restore the phenotypes to the levels of wild type...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579368/phosphorylation-dependent-targeting-of-tetrahymena-hp1-to-condensed-chromatin
#13
Katerina Yale, Alan J Tackett, Monica Neuman, Emily Bulley, Brian T Chait, Emily Wiley
The evolutionarily conserved proteins related to heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), originally described in Drosophila, are well known for their roles in heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. Targeting of HP1 proteins to specific chromatin locales is mediated, at least in part, by the HP1 chromodomain, which binds to histone H3 methylated at lysine 9 that marks condensed regions of the genome. Mechanisms that regulate HP1 targeting are emerging from studies with yeast and metazoans and point to roles for posttranslational modifications...
July 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566777/direct-interrogation-of-the-role-of-h3k9-in-metazoan-heterochromatin-function
#14
Taylor J R Penke, Daniel J McKay, Brian D Strahl, A Gregory Matera, Robert J Duronio
A defining feature of heterochromatin is methylation of Lys9 of histone H3 (H3K9me), a binding site for heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Although H3K9 methyltransferases and HP1 are necessary for proper heterochromatin structure, the specific contribution of H3K9 to heterochromatin function and animal development is unknown. Using our recently developed platform to engineer histone genes in Drosophila, we generated H3K9R mutant flies, separating the functions of H3K9 and nonhistone substrates of H3K9 methyltransferases...
August 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513559/comparative-genomic-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-the-evolutionary-dynamics-of-heterochromatin-in-drosophila
#15
Ruggiero Caizzi, Roberta Moschetti, Lucia Piacentini, Laura Fanti, Renè Massimiliano Marsano, Patrizio Dimitri
The term heterochromatin has been long considered synonymous with gene silencing, but it is now clear that the presence of transcribed genes embedded in pericentromeric heterochromatin is a conserved feature in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. Several studies have addressed the epigenetic changes that enable the expression of genes in pericentric heterochromatin, yet little is known about the evolutionary processes through which this has occurred. By combining genome annotation analysis and high-resolution cytology, we have identified and mapped 53 orthologs of D...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466409/phosphorylation-of-an-hp1-like-protein-is-a-prerequisite-for-heterochromatin-body-formation-in-tetrahymena-dna-elimination
#16
Kensuke Kataoka, Tomoko Noto, Kazufumi Mochizuki
Multiple heterochromatic loci are often clustered into a higher order nuclear architecture called a heterochromatin body in diverse eukaryotes. Although phosphorylation of Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) family proteins regulates heterochromatin dynamics, its role in heterochromatin bodies remains unknown. We previously reported that dephosphorylation of the HP1-like protein Pdd1p is required for the formation of heterochromatin bodies during the process of programmed DNA elimination in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena Here, we show that the heterochromatin body component Jub4p is required for Pdd1p phosphorylation, heterochromatin body formation, and DNA elimination...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458122/regulation-of-neurospora-catalase-3-by-global-heterochromatin-formation-and-its-proximal-heterochromatin-region
#17
Yajun Wang, Qing Dong, Zhaolan Ding, Kexin Gai, Xiaoyun Han, Farah Naz Kaleri, Qun He, Ying Wang
Catalase-3 (CAT-3) constitutes the main catalase activity in growing hyphae of Neurospora crassa, and its activity increases during exponential growth or is induced under different stress conditions. Although extensive progress has been made to identify catalase regulators, the regulation mechanism of CAT-3 at the chromatin level still remains unclear. Here, we aim at investigating the molecular regulation mechanisms of cat-3 at the chromatin level. We found that CAT-3 protein levels increased in mutants defective in proper global heterochromatin formation...
July 22, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434673/nali-h1-a-universal-synthetic-library-of-humanized-nanobodies-providing-highly-functional-antibodies-and-intrabodies
#18
Sandrine Moutel, Nicolas Bery, Virginie Bernard, Laura Keller, Emilie Lemesre, Ario de Marco, Laetitia Ligat, Jean-Christophe Rain, Gilles Favre, Aurélien Olichon, Franck Perez
In vitro selection of antibodies allows to obtain highly functional binders, rapidly and at lower cost. Here, we describe the first fully synthetic phage display library of humanized llama single domain antibody (NaLi-H1: Nanobody Library Humanized 1). Based on a humanized synthetic single domain antibody (hs2dAb) scaffold optimized for intracellular stability, the highly diverse library provides high affinity binders without animal immunization. NaLi-H1 was screened following several selection schemes against various targets (Fluorescent proteins, actin, tubulin, p53, HP1)...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399284/hp1-regulates-the-localization-of-fancj-at-sites-of-dna-double-strand-breaks
#19
Wenwen Wu, Yukiko Togashi, Yoshikazu Johmura, Yasuo Miyoshi, Sachihiko Nobuoka, Makoto Nakanishi, Tomohiko Ohta
The breast and ovarian cancer predisposition protein BRCA1 forms three mutually exclusive complexes with Fanconi anemia group J protein (FANCJ, also called BACH1 or BRIP1), CtIP, and Abraxas/RAP80 through its BRCA1 C terminus (BRCT) domains, while its RING domain binds to BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1). We recently found that the interaction between heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and BARD1 is required for the accumulation of BRCA1 and CtIP at sites of DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we investigated the importance of HP1 and BARD1-HP1 interaction in the localization of FANCJ together with the other BRCA1-BRCT binding proteins to clarify the separate role of the HP1-mediated pathway from the RNF8/RNF168-induced ubiquitin-mediated pathway for BRCA1 function...
October 2016: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371569/pericentric-heterochromatin-generated-by-hp1-protein-interaction-defective-histone-methyltransferase-suv39h1
#20
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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