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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925931/gut-microbiota-dependent-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-serum-biomarkers-in-patients-with-t2dm-and-advanced-ckd
#1
Mohammed A I Al-Obaide, Ruchi Singh, Palika Datta, Kathy A Rewers-Felkins, Maria V Salguero, Ibtisam Al-Obaidi, Kameswara Rao Kottapalli, Tetyana L Vasylyeva
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a product of dietary, gut microbiome, and tissues metabolism. Elevated blood TMAO levels are associated with heart attack, stroke and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of our study was to investigate the gut microbiota associated with trimethylamine (TMA) production, the precursor of TMAO, and the serum levels of TMAO and inflammatory biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CKD. Twenty adults with T2DM and advanced CKD and 20 healthy adults participated in the study...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876684/differences-in-microbiome-in-rat-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#2
A Thiba, C A Umar, S Myende, E Nweke, K Rumbold, G Candy
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have underscored the important role the gut metagenome in various human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart and kidney failure, and affects approximately 25% of the world's adult population. The cause of essential hypertension remains unknown. Patients given antibiotics show blood pressure changes and transfer of gut bacteria from hypertensive to normal WKY rats resulted in the latter developing hypertension...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#3
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797931/changes-in-the-gut-microbial-communities-following-addition-of-walnuts-to-the-diet
#4
Lauri O Byerley, Derrick Samuelson, Eugene Blanchard, Meng Luo, Brittany N Lorenzen, Shelia Banks, Monica A Ponder, David A Welsh, Christopher M Taylor
Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, phytochemicals and antioxidants making them unique compared to other foods. Consuming walnuts has been associated with health benefits including a reduced risk of heart disease and cancer. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has been linked to several chronic diseases. One potential mechanism by which walnuts may exert their health benefit is through modifying the gut microbiome. This study identified the changes in the gut microbial communities that occur following the inclusion of walnuts in the diet...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775014/brain-heart-interaction-cardiac-complications-after-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Zhili Chen, Poornima Venkat, Don Seyfried, Michael Chopp, Tao Yan, Jieli Chen
Neurocardiology is an emerging specialty that addresses the interaction between the brain and the heart, that is, the effects of cardiac injury on the brain and the effects of brain injury on the heart. This review article focuses on cardiac dysfunction in the setting of stroke such as ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of post-stroke deaths are attributed to neurological damage, and cardiovascular complications are the second leading cause of post-stroke mortality...
August 4, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772054/heart-failure-is-associated-with-depletion-of-core-intestinal-microbiota
#6
Mark Luedde, Thorben Winkler, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Malte C Rühlemann, Martina E Spehlmann, Amer Bajrovic, Wolfgang Lieb, Andre Franke, Stephan J Ott, Norbert Frey
AIMS: In spite of current medical treatment approaches, mortality of chronic heart failure (HF) remains high and novel treatment modalities are thus urgently needed. A recent theory proposes a possible impact of the intestinal microbiome on the incidence and clinical course of heart failure. This study sought to systematically investigate, if there are specific changes of the intestinal microbiome in heart failure patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The intestinal microbiome of 20 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction due to ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy was investigated by applying high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
August 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#7
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
August 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715991/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-microbiome-and-heart-and-kidney-disease
#8
Steven H Zeisel, Manya Warrier
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704429/effects-of-coconut-oil-on-glycemia-inflammation-and-urogenital-microbial-parameters-in-female-ossabaw-mini-pigs
#9
Annie E Newell-Fugate, Katherine Lenz, Cassandra Skenandore, Romana A Nowak, Bryan A White, Andrea Braundmeier-Fleming
Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674682/the-microbiome-and-blood-pressure-%C3%A2-can-microbes-regulate-our-blood-pressure
#10
REVIEW
Souhaila Al Khodor, Bernd Reichert, Ibrahim F Shatat
The surfaces of the human body are heavily populated by a highly diverse microbial ecosystem termed the microbiota. The largest and richest among these highly heterogeneous populations of microbes is the gut microbiota. The collection of microbes and their genes, called the microbiome, has been studied intensely through the past few years using novel metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics approaches. This has enhanced our understanding of how the microbiome affects our metabolic, immunologic, neurologic, and endocrine homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421185/changes-in-composition-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiome-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pediatric-heart-transplant-patient
#11
Kyle L Flannigan, Taylor Rajbar, Andrew Moffat, Leanna S McKenzie, Frank Dicke, Kevin Rioux, Matthew L Workentine, Thomas J Louie, Simon A Hirota, Steven C Greenway
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360349/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
W H Wilson Tang, Takeshi Kitai, Stanley L Hazen
Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases...
March 31, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353075/oral-microbiome-and-nitric-oxide-the-missing-link-in-the-management-of-blood-pressure
#13
REVIEW
Nathan S Bryan, Gena Tribble, Nikola Angelov
Having high blood pressure puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke, which are leading causes of death in the USA and worldwide. One out of every three Americans has hypertension, and it is estimated that despite aggressive treatment with medications, only about half of those medicated have managed blood pressure. Recent discoveries of the oral microbiome that reduces inorganic nitrate to nitrite and nitric oxide provide a new therapeutic target for the management of hypertension. The presence or absence of select and specific bacteria may determine steady-state blood pressure levels...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316036/targeting-the-microbiome-in-heart-failure
#14
REVIEW
Allyson Zabell, W H Wilson Tang
Heart failure is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world today. While there have been major advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure over the past decades, disease progression remains inevitable in the majority of patients and effective therapies to prevent heart failure are still lacking. Research has turned to better understand the gut microbiome because alterations in their ecosystems have been associated with various downstream chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303827/characterisation-of-the-human-oral-microbiome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-using-next-generation-sequencing-of-16srrna-amplicons
#15
Thangam Menon, Sathya Narayanan Gopalakrishnan, Rayvathy Balasubramanian, Stalin Roy Justin
INTRODUCTION: Oral health is suspected to be linked to heart disease since species of bacteria that cause periodontitis and dental caries have been found in the atherosclerotic plaque in arteries in the heart. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the oral microbiome in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in a patient with dental caries (DC) without any clinical symptoms of CAD. METHODS: DNA was extracted from the oral swabs collected from the patients and sequencing was performed by next generation sequencing method using Illumina (MiSeq) platform...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275316/cohort-description-the-danish-study-of-functional-disorders
#16
Thomas Meinertz Dantoft, Jeanette Frost Ebstrup, Allan Linneberg, Sine Skovbjerg, Anja Lykke Madsen, Jesper Mehlsen, Louise Brinth, Lene Falgaard Eplov, Tina Wisbech Carstensen, Andreas Schroder, Per Klausen Fink, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Jørgensen
The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD) cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135006/contribution-of-maladaptive-adipose-tissue-expansion-to-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The overweight and obesity epidemic has led to an increase in the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). These abnormalities include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, vascular stiffness, hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Visceral white adipocyte tissue (WAT) expansion and associated fibrosis/stiffness of WAT promote insulin resistance and CVD through increases in proinflammatory adipokines, oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dysregulation of adipocyte apoptosis and autophagy, dysfunctional immune modulation, and adverse changes in the gut microbiome...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#18
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stephen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea-Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum K Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, on June 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealed the basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver disease as well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
February 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070760/the-generation-r-study-design-and-cohort-update-2017
#19
Marjolein N Kooijman, Claudia J Kruithof, Cornelia M van Duijn, Liesbeth Duijts, Oscar H Franco, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Johan C de Jongste, Caroline C W Klaver, Aad van der Lugt, Johan P Mackenbach, Henriëtte A Moll, Robin P Peeters, Hein Raat, Edmond H H M Rings, Fernando Rivadeneira, Marc P van der Schroeff, Eric A P Steegers, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Frank C Verhulst, Eppo Wolvius, Janine F Felix, Vincent W V Jaddoe
The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life, childhood and young adulthood. This multidisciplinary study focuses on several health outcomes including behaviour and cognition, body composition, eye development, growth, hearing, heart and vascular development, infectious disease and immunity, oral health and facial growth, respiratory health, allergy and skin disorders of children and their parents...
December 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069756/inside-out-hiv-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-mucosal-immune-system
#20
REVIEW
Jay Liu, Brett Williams, Daniel Frank, Stephanie M Dillon, Cara C Wilson, Alan L Landay
The components of the human gut microbiome have been found to influence a broad array of pathologic conditions ranging from heart disease to diabetes and even to cancer. HIV infection upsets the delicate balance in the normal host-microbe interaction both through alterations in the taxonomic composition of gut microbial communities as well as through disruption of the normal host response mechanisms. In this article we review the current methods of gut microbiome analysis and the resulting data regarding how HIV infection might change the balance of commensal bacteria in the gut...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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