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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316036/targeting-the-microbiome-in-heart-failure
#1
REVIEW
Allyson Zabell, W H Wilson Tang
Heart failure is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world today. While there have been major advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure over the past decades, disease progression remains inevitable in the majority of patients and effective therapies to prevent heart failure are still lacking. Research has turned to better understand the gut microbiome because alterations in their ecosystems have been associated with various downstream chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303827/characterisation-of-the-human-oral-microbiome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-using-next-generation-sequencing-of-16srrna-amplicons
#2
Thangam Menon, Sathya Narayanan Gopalakrishnan, Rayvathy Balasubramanian, Stalin Roy Justin
INTRODUCTION: Oral health is suspected to be linked to heart disease since species of bacteria that cause periodontitis and dental caries have been found in the atherosclerotic plaque in arteries in the heart. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the oral microbiome in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in a patient with dental caries (DC) without any clinical symptoms of CAD. METHODS: DNA was extracted from the oral swabs collected from the patients and sequencing was performed by next generation sequencing method using Illumina (MiSeq) platform...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275316/cohort-description-the-danish-study-of-functional-disorders
#3
Thomas Meinertz Dantoft, Jeanette Frost Ebstrup, Allan Linneberg, Sine Skovbjerg, Anja Lykke Madsen, Jesper Mehlsen, Louise Brinth, Lene Falgaard Eplov, Tina Wisbech Carstensen, Andreas Schroder, Per Klausen Fink, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Jørgensen
The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD) cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135006/contribution-of-maladaptive-adipose-tissue-expansion-to-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The overweight and obesity epidemic has led to an increase in the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). These abnormalities include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, vascular stiffness, hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Visceral white adipocyte tissue (WAT) expansion and associated fibrosis/stiffness of WAT promote insulin resistance and CVD through increases in proinflammatory adipokines, oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dysregulation of adipocyte apoptosis and autophagy, dysfunctional immune modulation, and adverse changes in the gut microbiome...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#5
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stephen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea-Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum K Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, on June 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealed the basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver disease as well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070760/the-generation-r-study-design-and-cohort-update-2017
#6
Marjolein N Kooijman, Claudia J Kruithof, Cornelia M van Duijn, Liesbeth Duijts, Oscar H Franco, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Johan C de Jongste, Caroline C W Klaver, Aad van der Lugt, Johan P Mackenbach, Henriëtte A Moll, Robin P Peeters, Hein Raat, Edmond H H M Rings, Fernando Rivadeneira, Marc P van der Schroeff, Eric A P Steegers, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Frank C Verhulst, Eppo Wolvius, Janine F Felix, Vincent W V Jaddoe
The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life, childhood and young adulthood. This multidisciplinary study focuses on several health outcomes including behaviour and cognition, body composition, eye development, growth, hearing, heart and vascular development, infectious disease and immunity, oral health and facial growth, respiratory health, allergy and skin disorders of children and their parents...
December 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069756/inside-out-hiv-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-mucosal-immune-system
#7
REVIEW
Jay Liu, Brett Williams, Daniel Frank, Stephanie M Dillon, Cara C Wilson, Alan L Landay
The components of the human gut microbiome have been found to influence a broad array of pathologic conditions ranging from heart disease to diabetes and even to cancer. HIV infection upsets the delicate balance in the normal host-microbe interaction both through alterations in the taxonomic composition of gut microbial communities as well as through disruption of the normal host response mechanisms. In this article we review the current methods of gut microbiome analysis and the resulting data regarding how HIV infection might change the balance of commensal bacteria in the gut...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927713/high-fibre-diet-and-acetate-supplementation-change-the-gut-microbiota-and-prevent-the-development-of-hypertension-and-heart-failure-in-doca-salt-hypertensive-mice
#8
Francine Z Marques, Erin M Nelson, Po-Yin Chu, Duncan Horlock, April Fiedler, Mark Ziemann, Jian K Tan, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Niwanthi W Rajapakse, Assam El-Osta, Charles R Mackay, David M Kaye
BACKGROUND: -Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here we evaluated the effect of a high fibre diet and supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid (SFCA) acetate on the gut microbiota and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: -Gut microbiome, cardiorenal structure/function and blood pressure were examined in sham and mineralocorticoid-excess treated mice with a control diet, high fibre diet or acetate supplementation...
December 7, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798455/the-gut-microbiome-and-hypertension
#9
Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Eran Blacher, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Eran Elinav
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mammalian mucosal surfaces are densely inhabited by a diverse microbial ecosystem termed the microbiota. Among these highly heterogeneous populations, the largest and richest is the gut microbiota, recently suggested to affect various physiological traits and susceptibility to disease. Novel metagenomic and metabolomic approaches, which have been developed in the past decade, have enabled the elucidation of the contribution of the microbiota to metabolic, immunologic, neurologic and endocrine homeostasis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787408/chronic-psychosocial-stress-and-gut-health-in-children-associations-with-calprotectin-and-fecal-short-chain-fatty-acids
#10
Nathalie Michels, Tom Van de Wiele, Stefaan De Henauw
OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms underpinning the association between chronic stress and gut health are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between bacterial produced short-chain fatty acids, gut barrier function, and stress measures. METHODS: A fecal sample, hair sample, and questionnaire data were collected from 113 Belgian children (8-16 years old). Biological measures of stress included hair cortisol (most proximal 3 cm) and 5-minute heart rate variability (high frequency)...
October 26, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754287/br-07-2-the-linking-in-the-human-observational-and-clinical-study
#11
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743978/influence-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-long-term-health-of-offspring
#12
REVIEW
Keith M Godfrey, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susan L Prescott, Moffat Nyirenda, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan G Eriksson, Birit F P Broekman
In addition to immediate implications for pregnancy complications, increasing evidence implicates maternal obesity as a major determinant of offspring health during childhood and later adult life. Observational studies provide evidence for effects of maternal obesity on her offspring's risks of obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and asthma. Maternal obesity could also lead to poorer cognitive performance and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Preliminary evidence suggests potential implications for immune and infectious-disease-related outcomes...
January 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687914/comparing-the-survivability-of-lactobacillus-species-in-various-probiotic-delivery-vehicles
#13
Derek Fleming, Jennifer Kesey, Kendra Rumbaugh, Sharmila Dissanaike
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are widely used in healthy and nonhealthy individuals to maintain a favorable gut microbiome and inhibit pathogen takeover. Currently, there are many varieties of probiotic delivery vehicles on the market, with no real research indicating which is the most effective at allowing for colon colonization. In this study, we sought to determine if probiotic preparation influences the ability of Lactobacillus species, one of the most common genera of probiotic bacteria, to survive gastric acidity...
September 29, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677687/where-genes-meet-environment-integrating-the-role-of-gut-luminal-contents-immunity-and-pancreas-in-type-1-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Fraser W Scott, Lynley D Pound, Christopher Patrick, Chandra E Eberhard, Jennifer A Crookshank
The rise in new cases of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically susceptible individuals over the past half century has been attributed to numerous environmental "triggers" or promoters such as enteroviruses, diet, and most recently, gut bacteria. No single cause has been identified in humans, likely because there are several pathways by which one can develop T1D. There is renewed attention to the role of the gut and its immune system in T1D pathogenesis based largely on recent animal studies demonstrating that altering the gut microbiota affects diabetes incidence...
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643285/br-07-2-the-linking-in-the-human-observational-and-clinical-study
#15
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641779/contemporary-issues-regarding-nutrition-in-cardiovascular-rehabilitation
#16
REVIEW
Sébastien Lacroix, Jennifer Cantin, Anil Nigam
In this article, we discuss certain contemporary and controversial topics in cardiovascular (CV) nutrition including recent data regarding the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the role of saturated fatty acids, red meat and the microbiome in CV disease and the current role of personalized CV nutrition. Findings from the PREDIMED study now demonstrate the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet even in the absence of heart disease. The study highlighted that even small, sustained and easily implementable changes to diet can provide significant health benefits even in Mediterranean regions...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515213/vitamin-d-deficiency-changes-the-intestinal-microbiome-reducing-b-vitamin-production-in-the-gut-the-resulting-lack-of-pantothenic-acid-adversely-affects-the-immune-system-producing-a-pro-inflammatory-state-associated-with-atherosclerosis-and-autoimmunity
#17
S C Gominak
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D blood levels of 60-80ng/ml promote normal sleep. The present study was undertaken to explore why this beneficial effect waned after 2years as arthritic pain increased. Pantothenic acid becomes coenzyme A, a cofactor necessary for cortisol and acetylcholine production. 1950s experiments suggested a connection between pantothenic acid deficiency, autoimmune arthritis and insomnia. The B vitamins have been shown to have an intestinal bacterial source and a food source, suggesting that the normal intestinal microbiome may have always been the primary source of B vitamins...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507222/gut-microbiome-associates-with-lifetime-cardiovascular-disease-risk-profile-among-bogalusa-heart-study-participants
#18
Tanika N Kelly, Lydia A Bazzano, Nadim J Ajami, Hua He, Jinying Zhao, Joseph F Petrosino, Adolfo Correa, Jiang He
RATIONALE: Few studies have systematically assessed the influence of gut microbiota on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between gut microbiota and lifetime CVD risk profile among 55 Bogalusa Heart Study participants with the highest and 57 with the lowest lifetime burdens of CVD risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was conducted on microbial DNA extracted from stool samples of the Bogalusa Heart Study participants...
September 30, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390783/experimental-periodontitis-results-in-prediabetes-and-metabolic-alterations-in-brain-liver-and-heart-global-untargeted-metabolomic-analyses
#19
Vladimir Ilievski, Jason M Kinchen, Ramya Prabhu, Fadi Rim, Lara Leoni, Terry G Unterman, Keiko Watanabe
Results from epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between periodontitis and prediabetes, however, causality is not known. The results from our previous studies suggest that induction of periodontitis leads to hyperinsulinemia glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, all hallmarks of prediabetes. However, global effects of periodontitis on critical organs in terms of metabolic alterations are unknown. We determined the metabolic effects of periodontitis on brain, liver, heart and plasma resulting from Porphyromonas gingivalis induced periodontitis in mice...
2016: Journal of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377678/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-response-to-animal-source-foods-varies-among-healthy-young-men-and-is-influenced-by-their-gut-microbiota-composition-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Clara E Cho, Siraphat Taesuwan, Olga V Malysheva, Erica Bender, Nathan F Tulchinsky, Jian Yan, Jessica L Sutter, Marie A Caudill
SCOPE: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite linked to the gut microbiota, is associated with excess risk of heart disease. We hypothesized that (i) TMAO response to animal source foods would vary among healthy men and (ii) this response would be modified by their gut microbiome. METHODS AND RESULTS: A crossover feeding trial in healthy young men (n = 40) was conducted with meals containing TMAO (fish), its dietary precursors, choline (eggs) and carnitine (beef), and a fruit control...
January 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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