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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751747/a-fatal-case-associated-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-a-young-child
#1
Lili Xu, Hengmiao Gao, Jiansheng Zeng, Jun Liu, Cong Lu, Xiaolei Guan, Suyun Qian, Zhengde Xie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Risk factors for high mortality and prolonged morbidity after RSV infection include premature birth, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome. However, some previously healthy, full-term children who are infected with RSV also require hospitalization and even experience severe sequelae or death. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we present the case of an RSV-associated death of a child who was born at full-term and developed normally up to the age of 2 years old...
May 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747223/sex-related-differences-in-the-thanatomicrobiome-in-postmortem-heart-samples-using-bacterial-gene-regions-v1-2-and-v4
#2
Courtnee R Bell, Jeremy E Wilkinson, Boakai K Robertson, Gulnaz T Javan
Recent studies have revealed distinct thanatomicrobiome (microbiome of death) signatures in human body sites after death. Thanatomicrobiome studies suggest that microbial succession after death may have the potential to reveal important postmortem biomarkers for the identification of time of death. We surveyed the postmortem microbiomes of cardiac tissues from ten corpses with varying times of death (6-58 h) using amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene' V1-2 and V4 hypervariable regions. The results demonstrated that amplicons had statistically significant (p <0...
May 10, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615110/gut-dependent-microbial-translocation-induces-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-events-after-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#3
Xin Zhou, Jing Li, Junli Guo, Bin Geng, Wenjie Ji, Qian Zhao, Jinlong Li, Xinlin Liu, Junxiang Liu, Zhaozeng Guo, Wei Cai, Yongqiang Ma, Dong Ren, Jun Miao, Shaobo Chen, Zhuoli Zhang, Junru Chen, Jiuchang Zhong, Wenbin Liu, Minghui Zou, Yuming Li, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Post-infarction cardiovascular remodeling and heart failure are the leading cause of myocardial infarction (MI)-driven death during the past decades. Experimental observations have involved intestinal microbiota in the susceptibility to MI in mice; however, in humans, identifying whether translocation of gut bacteria to systemic circulation contributes to cardiovascular events post-MI remains a major challenge. RESULTS: Here, we carried out a metagenomic analysis to characterize the systemic bacteria in a cohort of 49 healthy control individuals, 50 stable coronary heart disease (CHD) subjects, and 100 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients...
April 3, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566072/behaviour-during-transportation-predicts-stress-response-and-lower-airway-contamination-in-horses
#4
Barbara Padalino, Sharanne L Raidal, Peter Knight, Pietro Celi, Leo Jeffcott, Gary Muscatello
This study aimed to document the effects of an eight hour journey on behavioural, clinical, haematological, environmental and respiratory parameters, and to identify possible associations between factors. Twelve horses underwent clinical examination, respiratory endoscopy with tracheal wash (TW) aspiration, and collection of venous and arterial blood before (BJ) and after the journey (AJ). TW were submitted for conventional quantitative bacteriological evaluation and genetic microbiome analyses. Behaviour was assessed in stables prior to transportation and throughout the journey...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548630/sleep-apnea-morbidity-a-consequence-of-microbial-immune-cross-talk
#5
REVIEW
Nuria Farré, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has emerged as a highly prevalent public health problem that imposes important mid-term and long-term consequences, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive and cancer-related alterations. OSA is characterized by increased upper airway resistance, alveolar hypoventilation, and recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recurrent collapse of the upper airway develops with sleep onset, and is associated with both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation. The microbiome is a vast and complex polymicrobial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism, and has been identified as playing significant roles in the development of host immunological phenotypes...
March 13, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506183/characterization-of-metabolic-responses-to-healthy-diets-and-association-with-blood-pressure-application-to-the-optimal-macronutrient-intake-trial-for-heart-health-omniheart-a-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Ruey Leng Loo, Xin Zou, Lawrence J Appel, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes
Background: Interindividual variation in the response to diet is common, but the underlying mechanism for such variation is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to use a metabolic profiling approach to identify a panel of urinary metabolites representing individuals demonstrating typical (homogeneous) metabolic responses to healthy diets, and subsequently to define the association of these metabolites with improvement of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469913/revisiting-the-carrageenan-controversy-do-we-really-understand-the-digestive-fate-and-safety-of-carrageenan-in-our-foods
#7
Shlomit David, Carmit Shani Levi, Lulu Fahoum, Yael Ungar, Esther G Meyron-Holtz, Avi Shpigelman, Uri Lesmes
Carrageenan (CGN), a family of marine polysaccharides isolated from seaweeds, has been at the heart of considerable debate in recent years. To date, CGN is generally recognized as safe based on a history of safe use, various acute toxicology studies and some recent chronic toxicology tests. This review offers readers an overview of evidence on CGN characteristics and digestive fate that highlight various gaps in our understanding. Specifically, three unresolved gaps are identified. Firstly, little information can be found on the current levels of public exposure to CGN...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434314/elevated-circulating-levels-of-succinate-in-human-obesity-are-linked-to-specific-gut-microbiota
#8
Carolina Serena, Victoria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Noelia Keiran, Maria Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Rosa Bernal, Ricardo Gomez-Huelgas, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Mónica Sabater, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Andres Moya, Francisco J Tinahones, Jose Manuel Fernández-Real, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Gut microbiota-related metabolites are potential clinical biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating succinate, a metabolite produced by both microbiota and the host, is increased in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to analyze systemic levels of succinate in obesity, a major risk factor for CVD, and its relationship with gut microbiome. We explored the association of circulating succinate with specific metagenomic signatures in cross-sectional and prospective cohorts of Caucasian Spanish subjects...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385765/pharmacogenomic-impact-of-cyp2c19-variation-on-clopidogrel-therapy-in-precision-cardiovascular-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Sherry-Ann Brown, Naveen Pereira
Variability in response to antiplatelet therapy can be explained in part by pharmacogenomics, particularly of the CYP450 enzyme encoded by CYP2C19 . Loss-of-function and gain-of-function variants help explain these interindividual differences. Individuals may carry multiple variants, with linkage disequilibrium noted among some alleles. In the current pharmacogenomics era, genomic variation in CYP2C19 has led to the definition of pharmacokinetic phenotypes for response to antiplatelet therapy, in particular, clopidogrel...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370410/gut-microbial-diversity-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-correlates-with-hyperandrogenism
#10
Pedro J Torres, Martyna Siakowska, Beata Banaszewska, Leszek Pawelczyk, Antoni J Duleba, Scott T Kelley, Varykina G Thackray
Context: A majority of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have metabolic abnormalities that result in an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Correlative studies have shown an association between changes in the gut microbiome and metabolic disorders. Two recent studies reported a decrease in alpha diversity of the gut microbiome in women with PCOS compared with healthy women. Objective: We investigated whether changes in the gut microbiome correlated with specific clinical parameters in women with PCOS compared to healthy women...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335694/the-seventh-biennial-berry-health-benefits-symposium
#11
EDITORIAL
Navindra P Seeram, Britt Burton-Freeman
Research advancing current scientific understanding of the health benefits of berries continues to increase. The Berry Health Benefits Symposium (BHBS) is a biennial meeting highlighting the most recent berry health benefits research from all over the world. Pismo Beach, California was the venue for the seventh biennial BHBS in 2017, and featured oral invited papers on heart health and healthy aging, gut/microbiome health, brain aging, inflammation, cancer prevention, berry special topics, technology and chemistry...
January 24, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215023/a-pilot-characterization-of-the-human-chronobiome
#12
Carsten Skarke, Nicholas F Lahens, Seth D Rhoades, Amy Campbell, Kyle Bittinger, Aubrey Bailey, Christian Hoffmann, Randal S Olson, Lihong Chen, Guangrui Yang, Thomas S Price, Jason H Moore, Frederic D Bushman, Casey S Greene, Gregory R Grant, Aalim M Weljie, Garret A FitzGerald
Physiological function, disease expression and drug effects vary by time-of-day. Clock disruption in mice results in cardio-metabolic, immunological and neurological dysfunction; circadian misalignment using forced desynchrony increases cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Here we integrated data from remote sensors, physiological and multi-omics analyses to assess the feasibility of detecting time dependent signals - the chronobiome - despite the "noise" attributable to the behavioral differences of free-living human volunteers...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209327/strategies-to-improve-the-efficacy-of-dendritic-cell-based-immunotherapy-for-melanoma
#13
REVIEW
Kristian M Hargadon
Melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer that frequently metastasizes to vital organs, where it is often difficult to treat with traditional therapies such as surgery and radiation. In such cases of metastatic disease, immunotherapy has emerged in recent years as an exciting treatment option for melanoma patients. Despite unprecedented successes with immune therapy in the clinic, many patients still experience disease relapse, and others fail to respond at all, thus highlighting the need to better understand factors that influence the efficacy of antitumor immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127758/-physical-activity-the-holy-grail-of-modern-medicine
#14
Vladimír Tuka, Martina Daňková, Karel Riegel, Martin Matoulek
Movement is the basic attribute of life. It is not surprising that the return to regular physical activity is a very effective and cheap means of preventing and treating most non-cummunicable diseases. Therefore, every physician should be able to prescribe a suitable physical activity. The minimum amount of physical activity with proven effects in primary prevention of chronic diseases is relatively low: 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of high intensity exercise per week or a combination of the two...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075956/visceral-congestion-in-heart-failure-right-ventricular-dysfunction-splanchnic-hemodynamics-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#15
REVIEW
Vincenzo B Polsinelli, Arjun Sinha, Sanjiv J Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Visceral venous congestion of the gut may play a key role in the pathogenesis of right-sided heart failure (HF) and cardiorenal syndromes. Here, we review the role of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, visceral congestion, splanchnic hemodynamics, and the intestinal microenvironment in the setting of right-sided HF. We review recent literature on this topic, outline possible mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and discuss potential therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: There are several mechanisms linking RV-gut interactions via visceral venous congestion which could result in (1) hypoxia and acidosis in enterocytes, which may lead to enhanced sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression with increased sodium and fluid retention; (2) decreased luminal pH in the intestines, which could lead to alteration of the gut microbiome which could increase gut permeability and inflammation; (3) alteration of renal hemodynamics with triggering of the cardiorenal syndrome; and (4) altered phosphate metabolism resulting in increased pulmonary artery stiffening, thereby increasing RV afterload...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023288/gut-microbiome-and-its-role-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
Shadi Ahmadmehrabi, W H Wilson Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, an interest in intestinal microbiota-host interactions has increased due to many findings about the impact of gut bacteria on human health and disease. Dysbiosis, a change in the composition of the gut microbiota, has been associated with much pathology, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This article will review normal functions of the gut microbiome, its link to CVD, and potential therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: The recently discovered contribution of gut microbiota-derived molecules in the development of heart disease and its risk factors has significantly increased attention towards the connection between our gut and heart...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940737/consumption-of-two-healthy-dietary-patterns-restored-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-obese-patients-with-metabolic-dysfunction
#17
Carmen Haro, Sonia García-Carpintero, Oriol A Rangel-Zúñiga, Juan F Alcalá-Díaz, Blanca B Landa, José C Clemente, Pablo Pérez-Martínez, José López-Miranda, Francisco Pérez-Jiménez, Antonio Camargo
SCOPE: The consumption of two healthy diets (Mediterranean (MED) and low-fat (LF) diets) may restore the gut microbiome dysbiosis in obese patients depending on the degree of metabolic dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The differences in bacterial community at baseline and after 2 years of dietary intervention of 106 subjects from the CORDIOPREV study were analyzed, 33 of whom were obese patients with severe metabolic disease (5 criteria for metabolic syndrome) (MetS-OB), 32 obese patients without metabolic dysfunction (2 or less criteria for metabolic syndrome) (NonMetS-OB) and 41 non-obese subjects (NonMetS-NonOB)...
December 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925931/gut-microbiota-dependent-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-serum-biomarkers-in-patients-with-t2dm-and-advanced-ckd
#18
Mohammed A I Al-Obaide, Ruchi Singh, Palika Datta, Kathy A Rewers-Felkins, Maria V Salguero, Ibtisam Al-Obaidi, Kameswara Rao Kottapalli, Tetyana L Vasylyeva
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a product of dietary, gut microbiome, and tissues metabolism. Elevated blood TMAO levels are associated with heart attack, stroke and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of our study was to investigate the gut microbiota associated with trimethylamine (TMA) production, the precursor of TMAO, and the serum levels of TMAO and inflammatory biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CKD. Twenty adults with T2DM and advanced CKD and 20 healthy adults participated in the study...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876684/differences-in-microbiome-in-rat-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#19
A Thiba, C A Umar, S Myende, E Nweke, K Rumbold, G Candy
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have underscored the important role the gut metagenome in various human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart and kidney failure, and affects approximately 25% of the world's adult population. The cause of essential hypertension remains unknown. Patients given antibiotics show blood pressure changes and transfer of gut bacteria from hypertensive to normal WKY rats resulted in the latter developing hypertension...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#20
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
October 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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