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Obesity intestine inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438631/plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-lean-overweight-and-obese-humans-relationships-with-intestinal-permeability-markers-inflammation-and-incretin-secretion
#1
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427903/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-novel-regulator-of-cardiovascular-function-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
The gut microbiome has emerged as a critical regulator of human physiology. Deleterious changes to the composition or number of gut bacteria, commonly referred to as gut dysbiosis, has been linked to the development and progression of numerous diet-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most CVD risk factors, including aging, obesity, certain dietary patterns, and a sedentary lifestyle, have been shown to induce gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal inflammation and reduced integrity of the gut barrier, which in turn increases circulating levels of bacterial structural components and microbial metabolites that may facilitate the development of CVD...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395336/reduced-active-transcellular-intestinal-oxalate-secretion-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity-associated-hyperoxaluria
#3
Ruhul Amin, John Asplin, Daniel Jung, Mohamed Bashir, Altayeb Alshaikh, Sireesha Ratakonda, Sapna Sharma, Sohee Jeon, Ignacio Granja, Dietrich Matern, Hatim Hassan
Most kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and minor changes in urine oxalate affect the stone risk. Obesity is a risk factor for kidney stones and a positive correlation of unknown etiology between increased body size, and elevated urinary oxalate excretion has been reported. Here, we used obese ob/ob (ob) mice to elucidate the pathogenesis of obesity-associated hyperoxaluria. These ob mice have significant hyperoxaluria (3.3-fold) compared with control mice, which is not due to overeating as shown by pair-feeding studies...
January 27, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392873/gluten-free-diet-exclusively-during-pregnancy-alleviates-the-signs-of-diabetes-and-celiac-disease-in-nod-mouse-offspring
#4
Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Jesper Larsen, Knud Josefsen, Tina Z Jørgensen, Julie Christine Antvorskov, Axel K Hansen, Karsten Buschard
BACKGROUND: Gluten-free (GF) diet during pregnancy ameliorates autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse offspring. Due to comorbidity of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes, we hypothesized that GF diet in utero alleviates the humoral and histopathological signs of celiac disease in NOD mice. We aimed to establish the mechanisms behind the diabetes-protective effect of GF diet in utero. METHODS: Breeding pairs of NOD mice were fed a GF or gluten-containing standard (STD) diet until parturition...
February 2, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384067/interplay-of-gut-microbiota-probiotics-in-obesity-a-review
#5
Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj Kumar Sharma
Excess caloric intake and less energy expenditure (eg. physical inactivity) are associated with acquired metabolic disorders due to sedentary life style. Pharmacological treatments are less effective in preventing obesity. Type of diet influence the gut microbiome alteration and it is interrelated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Modified gut microbiota by the harmful bacterial components (eg: lipopolysaccharides) is linked with the metabolic endotoxemia (low-grade inflammation) which results in damage to the gut barrier function...
January 30, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382608/metabolic-syndrome-autoimmunity-and-rheumatic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Gabriela Medina, Olga Vera-Lastra, Ana Lilia Peralta-Amaro, María Pilar Jiménez-Arellano, Miguel Angel Saavedra, María Pilar Cruz-Domínguez, Luis J Jara
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity and visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension contributing to CV mortality. The interface between the metabolic and immune systems has been of great interest recently. These interactions are regulated through genetics, nutritional status, and the intestinal microbiome. Alterations in the immune-metabolic cross-talk contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. Adipokines exert a variety of metabolic activities contributing to the ethiopathogenesis of MetS and are involved in the regulation of both inflammatory processes and autoimmunity occurring in rheumatic diseases...
January 27, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364525/intestinal-parasites-associations-with-intestinal-and-systemic-inflammation
#7
Gerardo A Zavala, Olga P García, Mariela Camacho, Dolores Ronquillo, Maiza Campos-Ponce, Colleen Doak, Katja Polman, Jorge L Rosado
AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and count of stool leukocytes as marker of intestinal inflammation in 291 children (6-10y). Intestinal parasitic infection was measured by stool examination. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the odds of having high inflammatory markers for each parasite or group of parasites as compared to parasite-free children while adjusting for sex, age, mother educational level and % of body fat...
January 24, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363272/microbiota-in-obesity-interactions-with-enteroendocrine-immune-and-central-nervous-systems
#8
REVIEW
R J Mulders, K C G de Git, E Schéle, S L Dickson, Y Sanz, R A H Adan
Western diets, with high consumption of simple sugars and saturated fats, contribute to the rise in the prevalence of obesity. It now seems clear that high-fat diets cause obesity, at least in part, by modifying the composition and function of the microorganisms that colonize in the gastrointestinal tract, the microbiota. The exact pathways by which intestinal microbiota contribute to obesity remain largely unknown. High-fat diet-induced alterations in intestinal microbiota have been suggested to increase energy extraction, intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation while decreasing the capability to generate obesity-suppressing short-chain fatty acids...
January 23, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352300/5-aminosalicylic-acid-improves-lipid-profile-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-through-its-dual-effects-on-intestinal-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#9
Zheng Wang, Debby Koonen, Marten Hofker, Zhijun Bao
Obesity is associated with a series of metabolic complications, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) that lack effective therapies. In recent years, intestinal inflammation has been suggested to contribute to obesity related metabolic syndrome and targeting gut inflammation with 5-ASA improves diet induced IR, however, its role in dyslipidemia is unknown and has never been explored. In the present study, we reported for the first time that administration of 5-ASA for 12 weeks significantly improved lipid profile by repressing plasma triglycerides and free cholesterol levels in mice fed high-fat cholesterol diet (HFC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346216/obesity-and-pancreatic-cancer-overview-of-epidemiology-and-potential-prevention-by-weight-loss
#10
Mu Xu, Xiaoman Jung, O Joe Hines, Guido Eibl, Yijun Chen
Currently, there are no effective preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer. Obesity has been increasingly recognized as a strong but modifiable risk factor of pancreatic cancer. In this article, we aim to review the literature regarding weight loss on prevention of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased incidence of pancreatic cancer and potentially worse cancer outcome. Whereas the underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered intestinal microbiota are all implicated in the carcinogenic effect of obesity...
February 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341448/beneficial-actions-of-microbiota-derived-tryptophan-metabolites
#11
REVIEW
J J Galligan
Tryptophan is an important dietary amino acid and it is the precursor for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the nervous system and by enterochromaffin cells in the gut mucosa. Tryptophan is also metabolized by enzymes in the gut mucosa and also by enzymes produced by the gut microbiome. Diet and the microbiome can contribute to metabolic disease in part by causing intestinal inflammation and increased permeability. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Jennis et al. test the hypothesis that indole tryptophan metabolites produced by gut bacteria might be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects of the gut microbiome and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for weight loss by obese patients...
February 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339445/bile-acids-in-glucose-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Hagit Shapiro, Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk, Daniel Halstuch, Eran Elinav
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol-derived metabolites that facilitate the intestinal absorption and transport of dietary lipids. Recently, BAs also emerged as pivotal signaling molecules controlling glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism by binding to the nuclear hormone farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G protein receptor 5 (TGR5) in multiple organs, leading to regulation of intestinal incretin secretion, hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, energy expenditure, inflammation, and gut microbiome configuration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338886/overweight-and-obesity-status-in-pregnant-women-are-related-to-intestinal-microbiota-and-serum-metabolic-and-inflammatory-profiles
#13
Noora Houttu, Kati Mokkala, Kirsi Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity may predispose women to clinical complications during their pregnancy. We hypothesize that a higher degree of overweight status is related to a range of aberrations in biomarkers already in early pregnancy. Our objective was to investigate whether intestinal microbiota, serum metabolic and inflammatory profiles differ in relation to the degree of overweight status in pregnant women. METHODS: This study investigated 52 overweight and 47 obese pregnant women in early pregnancy...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312822/effect-of-dark-sweet-cherry-powder-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-biomarkers-of-gut-health-in-obese-db-db-mice
#14
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Nara N Lage, Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Stephen Talcott, Boon Chew, Scot E Dowd, Jorge R Kawas, Giuliana D Noratto
Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics) with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db) mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12) for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10) and lean (n = 10) mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295622/food-bioactives-and-their-effects-on-obesity-accelerated-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Yi-Shiou Chiou, Pei-Sheng Lee, Min-Hsiung Pan
Current views support the concept that obesity is linked to a worsening of the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Gut microbiota and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) are considered key mediators or contributors in obesity-associated intestinal inflammation. Dietary components can have direct or indirect effects on 'normal' or 'healthy' microbial composition and participate in adiposity and metabolic status with gut inflammation. In this review, we highlight food-derived bioactives that have a potential application in the prevention of obesity-exacerbated IBD, targeting energy metabolism, M1 (classical activated)-M2 (alternatively activated) macrophage polarization, and gut microbiota...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278509/gut-microbiota-and-obesity-implications-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Obesity is a major public health issue as it is causally associated with several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. In the United States and other countries worldwide, the obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the status of health of millions as well as healthcare costs. Aside from poor diet, hygiene, and genetics, there are many other factors thought to play an important role in the emergence of obesity. Nowadays, accumulating evidence is elucidating the relation of dysbiosis of intestinal bacteria with obesity and metabolic disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245360/does-increased-serum-d-lactate-mean-subclinical-hyperpermeability-of-intestinal-barrier-in-middle-aged-nonobese-males-with-osa
#17
Mulalibike Heizati, Nanfang Li, Liang Shao, Xiaoguang Yao, Yingchun Wang, Jing Hong, Ling Zhou, Delian Zhang, Guijuan Chang, Suofeiya Abulikemu
Few attention has been directed to the potential effects of intermittent hypoxia experienced in obstructive sleep apnea on the integrity and permeability of intestinal barrier, particularly in adults. Therefore, we evaluated alteration in serum d-lactate concentration in middle-aged males with obstructive sleep apnea to value permeability of intestinal barrier. In this current cross-sectional study, consecutive 159 males were studied. Obstructive sleep apnea was determined by polysomnography and apnea hypopnea index ≥15 event/h was defined as obstructive sleep apnea...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221725/protective-effects-of-polyphenol-rich-infusions-from-carob-ceratonia-siliqua-leaves-and-cladodes-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-against-inflammation-associated-with-diet-induced-obesity-and-dss-induced-colitis-in-swiss-mice
#18
Ikram Aboura, Abdelhafid Nani, Meriem Belarbi, Babar Murtaza, Aurélie Fluckiger, Adélie Dumont, Chahid Benammar, Moufida Saidani Tounsi, François Ghiringhelli, Mickaël Rialland, Naim Akhtar Khan, Aziz Hichami
In the present study, we have investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob leaves and OFI-cladodes on inflammation associated with obesity and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in Swiss mice. In vitro studies revealed that aqueous extracts of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes exhibited anti-inflammatory properties marked by the inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells concomitant with NF-κβ nucleus translocation inhibition...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211803/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-precede-or-take-place-in-absence-of-significant-rearrangements-in-bacterial-community-structure-the-planhab-randomized-trial-pilot-study
#19
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Susanne Kublik, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavić, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Matevž Likar, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202334/berberine-treatment-increases-akkermansia-in-the-gut-and-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#20
Lin Zhu, Danying Zhang, Hong Zhu, Jimin Zhu, Shuqiang Weng, Ling Dong, Taotao Liu, Yu Hu, Xizhong Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gut microbiota plays a major role in metabolic disorders. Berberine is used to treat obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The mechanism underlying the role of berberine in modulating metabolic disorders is not fully clear because berberine has poor oral bioavailability. Thus, we evaluated whether the antiatherosclerotic effect of berberine is related to alterations in gut microbial structure and if so, whether specific bacterial taxa contribute to the beneficial effects of berberine...
November 24, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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