keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Obesity intestine inflammation

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821663/agrp-neurons-can-increase-food-intake-during-conditions-of-appetite-suppression-and-inhibit-anorexigenic-parabrachial-neurons
#1
Rachel A Essner, Alison G Smith, Adam A Jamnik, Anna R Ryba, Zoe D Trutner, Matthew E Carter
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810829/blocking-il-10-signalling-at-the-time-of-immunization-does-not-increase-unwanted-side-effects-in-mice
#2
Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. However, IL-10 deficiency leads to autoimmune disease in the gut...
August 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808842/colonic-motor-dysfunctions-in-a-mouse-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-an-involvement-of-a2b-adenosine-receptors
#3
Luca Antonioli, Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Erika Tirotta, Daniela Gentile, Laura Benvenuti, Maria Cecilia Giron, Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Genny Orso, Nunzia Bernardini, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Balázs Csóka, Zoltán H Németh, György Haskó, Carmelo Scarpignato, Corrado Blandizzi, Rocchina Colucci
Adenosine A2B receptors (A2BR) regulate several enteric functions. However, their implication in the pathophysiology of intestinal dysmotility associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has not been elucidated. We investigated the expression of A2BR in mouse colon and their role in the mechanisms underlying the development of enteric dysmotility associated with obesity. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD (60% kcal from fat) or normocaloric diet (NCD; 18% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks. Colonic A2BR localization was examined by immunofluorescence...
August 14, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799153/-fungi-in-the-gut-the-gut-mycobiome
#4
Herbert Hof
Many different fungi, including yeasts and molds, can be found in the intestinal tract of humans constituting the gut mycobiome. In case the bacterial flora is altered, the fungal flora may react inversely. By a so-called fungal diet, however, the composition of the mycobiome can hardly be influenced. Whereas some fungi are only transiently present in the gut after oral uptake, others, such as Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, amongst others, are members of the residential, autochthonous gut flora...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789943/reciprocal-inflammatory-signaling-between-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-adipocytes-in-the-absence-of-immune-cells
#5
Yu Takahashi, Shintaro Sato, Yosuke Kurashima, Chen-Yi Lai, Makoto Otsu, Mikio Hayashi, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kiyono
Visceral fat accumulation as observed in Crohn's disease and obesity is linked to chronic gut inflammation, suggesting that accumulation of gut adipocytes can trigger local inflammatory signaling. However, direct interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and adipocytes have not been investigated, in part because IEC physiology is difficult to replicate in culture. In this study, we originally prepared intact, polarized, and cytokine responsive IEC monolayers from primary or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids by simple and repeatable methods...
August 2, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782205/microbiota-derived-tryptophan-indoles-increase-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-and-reduce-intestinal-permeability-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
M Jennis, C R Cavanaugh, G C Leo, J R Mabus, J Lenhard, P J Hornby
BACKGROUND: The diet and microbiome contribute to metabolic disease in part due to increased intestinal inflammation and permeability. Dietary tryptophan is metabolized by both mammalian and bacterial enzymes. Using in vitro, in vivo models, and clinical data, we tested whether bacterial tryptophan indole derivatives underlie the positive benefits of microbiota on inflammation that is associated with metabolic disease. METHODS: In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin levels were measured after indole-3-propionic acid (IPA; 20 mg kg(-1) p...
August 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743992/endotoxemia-mediated-activation-of-acetyltransferase-p300-impairs-insulin-signaling-in-obesity
#8
Jia Cao, Jinghua Peng, Hongying An, Qiyi He, Tatiana Boronina, Shaodong Guo, Morris F White, Philip A Cole, Ling He
Diabetes and obesity are characterized by insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation. An elevated plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused by increased intestinal permeability during diet-induced obesity promotes insulin resistance in mice. Here, we show that LPS induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and protein levels of P300, an acetyltransferase involved in glucose production. In high-fat diet fed and genetically obese ob/ob mice, P300 translocates from the nucleus into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736228/dbz-is-a-putative-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-that-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-gut-dysbiosis
#9
Pengfei Xu, Fan Hong, Jialin Wang, Jing Wang, Xia Zhao, Sheng Wang, Tingting Xue, Jingwei Xu, Xiaohui Zheng, Yonggong Zhai
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor PPARγ is an effective pharmacological target for some types of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, the current PPARγ-targeting thiazolidinedione drugs have undesirable side effects. Danshensu Bingpian Zhi (DBZ), also known as tanshinol borneol ester derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a synthetic derivative of natural compounds used in traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734512/the-burden-of-enteropathy-and-subclinical-infections
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Rogawski, Richard L Guerrant
Environmental enteropathy is a chronic condition of the small intestine associated with increased intestinal permeability, mucosal inflammation, malabsorption, and systemic inflammation. It is commonly accompanied by enteric infections and is misleadingly considered a subclinical disease. Potential effects of enteric infections and enteropathy on vaccine responses, child growth, cognitive development, and even later life obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are increasingly being recognized. Herein, we review the evolving challenges to defining environmental enteropathy and enteric infections, current evidence for the magnitude and determinants of its burden, new assessment tools, and relevant interventions...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698546/obesity-induces-organ-and-tissue-specific-tight-junction-restructuring-and-barrier-deregulation-by-claudin-switching
#11
Rizwan Ahmad, Bilal Rah, Dhundy Bastola, Punita Dhawan, Amar B Singh
Obesity increases susceptibility to multiple organ disorders, however, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The subclinical inflammation assisted by obesity-induced gut permeability may underlie obesity-associated co-morbidities. Despite eminent clinical significance of the obesity led gut barrier abnormalities, its precise molecular regulation remains unclear. It is also unknown whether barrier deregulations, similar to the gut, characterize other vital organs in obese individuals. The claudin family of proteins is integral to the tight junction (TJ), the apical cell-cell adhesion and a key regulator of the epithelial barrier...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696379/obesity-and-asthma-a-missing-link
#12
REVIEW
Mª Amelia Gomez-Llorente, Raquel Romero, Natalia Chueca, Ana Martinez-Cañavate, Carolina Gomez-Llorente
Obesity and asthma are two chronic conditions that affect millions of people. Genetic and lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, and early exposure to micro-organisms are important factors that may contribute to the escalating prevalence of both conditions. The prevalence of asthma is higher in obese individuals. Recently, two major phenotypes of asthma with obesity have been described: one phenotype of early-onset asthma that is aggravated by obesity, and a second phenotype of later-onset asthma that predominantly affects women...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685024/bugs-guts-and-brains-and-the-regulation-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#13
REVIEW
M K Hamilton, H E Raybould
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is currently being explored in many types of rodent models, including models of behavioral, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Our laboratory is interested in determining the mechanisms and consequences of activation of vagal afferent neurons that lead to activation of parasympathetic reflexes and changes in feeding behavior in the context of obesity. Obesity is associated with microbial dysbiosis, decreased intestinal barrier function, gut inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and desensitization of vagal afferent nerves...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682223/-gut-microbiota-and-immune-crosstalk-in-metabolic-disease
#14
Rémy Burcelin
The aim of the review is to discuss about the role played by the defence crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system, in the development of metabolic disease focusing on obesity and diabetes. Starting from physiological and pathological stand points and based on the latest published data, this review is addressing how the concept of the hologenome theory of evolution can drive the fate of metabolic disease. The notion of "metabolic infection" to explain the "metabolic inflammation" is discussed...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680065/nopal-opuntia-ficus-indica-protects-from-metabolic-endotoxemia-by-modifying-gut-microbiota-in-obese-rats-fed-high-fat-sucrose-diet
#15
Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Claudia Pérez-Cruz, Edgar Pichardo-Ontiveros, Mei Wang, Sharon M Donovan, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres
Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N)...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675945/impact-of-dietary-fat-on-gut-microbiota-and-low-grade-systemic-inflammation-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications-on-obesity
#16
Flávia Galvão Cândido, Flávia Xavier Valente, Łukasz Marcin Grześkowiak, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Dietary fat strongly affects human health by modulating gut microbiota composition and low-grade systemic inflammation. High-fat diets have been implicated in reduced gut microbiota richness, increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, and several changes at family, genus and species levels. Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and conjugated linolenic fatty acids share important pathways of immune system activation/inhibition with gut microbes, modulating obesogenic and proinflammatory profiles...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649593/colonic-microbiota-encroachment-correlates-with-dysglycemia-in-humans
#17
Benoit Chassaing, Shreya M Raja, James D Lewis, Shanthi Srinivasan, Andrew T Gewirtz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucoid structures that coat the epithelium play an essential role in keeping the intestinal microbiota at a safe distance from host cells. Encroachment of bacteria into the normally almost-sterile inner mucus layer has been observed in inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis. Moreover, such microbiota encroachment has also been observed in mouse models of metabolic syndrome, which are associated low-grade intestinal inflammation. Hence, we investigated if microbiota encroachment might correlate with indices of metabolic syndrome in humans...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#18
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#19
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615382/factors-influencing-the-gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Li Wen, Andrew Duffy
The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including genetics; the mode of delivery at birth; the method of infant feeding; the use of medications, especially antibiotics; and the diet. There may exist a gut microbiota signature that promotes intestinal inflammation and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation, which in turn promotes the development of type 2 diabetes...
July 2017: Journal of Nutrition
keyword
keyword
64799
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"