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Obesity intestine inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986813/effect-of-jiaotai-pill-on-intestinal-damage-in-partially-sleep-deprived-rats
#1
Wen-Ya Huang, Xin Zou, Fu-Er Lu, Chu Zhang, Yan-Lin Ren, Li-Jun Xu, Kai-Fu Wang, Hui Dong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect and mechanism of Jiaotai Pill (, JTW) on intestinal mucosal damage in rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD). METHODS: Obesity resistant (OR) rats were selected, and underwent 4 h PSD by being exposed to environmental noise for 4 weeks. During the whole PSD period, JTW and estazolam were orally given to the rats respectively in the treating groups. Plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is the marker of gut-origin endotoxemia was examined...
October 6, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970836/fructose-a-dietary-sugar-in-crosstalk-with-microbiota-contributing-to-the-development-and-progression-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jessica Lambertz, Sabine Weiskirchen, Silvano Landert, Ralf Weiskirchen
Fructose is one of the key dietary catalysts in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD comprises a complex disease spectrum, including steatosis (fatty liver), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocyte injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. It is also the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which covers abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commensal bacteria modulate the host immune system, protect against exogenous pathogens, and are gatekeepers in intestinal barrier function and maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968517/probiotics-modulate-gut-microbiota-and-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-dio-mice
#3
Renata A Bagarolli, Natália Tobar, Alexandre G Oliveira, Tiago G Araújo, Bruno M Carvalho, Guilherme Z Rocha, Juliana F Vecina, Kelly Calisto, Dioze Guadagnini, Patrícia O Prada, Andrey Santos, Sara T O Saad, Mario J A Saad
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by subclinical inflammatory process. Changes in composition or modulation of the gut microbiota may play an important role in the obesity-associated inflammatory process. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidumi) on gut microbiota, changes in permeability, and insulin sensitivity and signaling in high-fat diet and control animals. More importantly, we investigated the effects of these gut modulations on hypothalamic control of food intake, and insulin and leptin signaling...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966614/detection-of-increased-plasma-interleukin-6-levels-and-prevalence-of-prevotella-copri-and-bacteroides-vulgatus-in-the-feces-of-type-2-diabetes-patients
#4
Aline Zazeri Leite, Nathália de Campos Rodrigues, Marina Ignácio Gonzaga, João Carlos Cicogna Paiolo, Carolina Arantes de Souza, Nadine Aparecida Vicentini Stefanutto, Wellington Pine Omori, Daniel Guariz Pinheiro, João Luiz Brisotti, Euclides Matheucci Junior, Vânia Sammartino Mariano, Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira
Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950280/type-2-diabetes-and-bacteremia
#5
Junko Sato, Akio Kanazawa, Hirotaka Watada
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of type 2 diabetes cases are associated with host genetic and environmental factors. During the past decade, microorganisms that inhabit the gut have emerged as contributors to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, manipulation of the human gut microbiota will provide essential clues regarding new therapeutic targets for diabetes. SUMMARY: Several studies have established the presence of gut dysbiosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, even though there are some differences among the studies that could be explained by differences in ethnicity, diet, and methodology...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938455/bile-acid-alterations-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-but-not-with-nash-in-obese-subjects
#6
Vanessa Legry, Sven Francque, Joel T Haas, An Verrijken, Sandrine Caron, Oscar Chávez-Talavera, Emmanuelle Vallez, Luisa Vonghia, Eveline Dirinck, Ann Verhaegen, Mostafa Kouach, Sophie Lestavel, Philippe Lefebvre, Luc Van Gaal, Anne Tailleux, Réjane Paumelle, Bart Staels
Context: Bile acids (BA) are signalling molecules controlling energy homeostasis which can be both toxic and protective for the liver. BA alterations have been reported in obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However whether BA alterations contribute to NASH independently of the metabolic status is unclear. Objective: To assess BA alterations associated with NASH independently of BMI and IR. Design & Setting: Patients visiting the obesity clinic of the Antwerp University Hospital (a tertiary referral facility) were recruited from 2006 to 2014...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927249/gut-microbiota-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders
#7
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Rosa DI Sarno, Valentina Giorgio, Luca Miele
Obesity, diabetes and metabolic disorders represent hugely significant problems concerning the health in Western countries and the study of gut microbiota in metabolic pathologies is part of this framework. Diet effects on intestinal microbial composition and its role in pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for both obesity and systemic, hepatic and adipose tissue inflammation, represent at the moment one of this mostpromising topic in gastroenterology research. Gut health safety is essential, but it needs to be further explored in order to understand and interrupt the pathogenetic mechanisms, which support a large number of diseases...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889199/oral-delivery-of-staphylococcal-nuclease-by-lactococcus-lactis-prevents-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-nod-mice
#8
Junchao Lang, Xiaoke Wang, Kunfeng Liu, Dongmei He, Pancong Niu, Rongyue Cao, Liang Jin, Jie Wu
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the self-destruction of insulin-producing β cells. Recently, studies have revealed that neutrophils contribute to the early pathological injury to the pancreas, predominantly via the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). To determine whether early intervention targeting NETs with staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) can delay the onset of T1DM, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally administered recombinant Lactococcus lactis (L...
September 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875318/influence-of-gut-microbiota-on-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
REVIEW
Fabiana de Faria Ghetti, Daiane Gonçalves Oliveira, Juliano Machado de Oliveira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira de Castro Ferreira, Dionéia Evangelista Cesar, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, with or without fibrosis. The prevalence of NASH has increased with the obesity epidemic, but its etiology is multifactorial. The current studies suggest the role of gut microbiota in the development and progression of NASH. The aim is to review the studies that investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and NASH. These review also discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms and the influence of diet on the gut-liver axis...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875188/alterations-to-metabolically-active-bacteria-in-the-mucosa-of-the-small-intestine-predict-anti-obesity-and-anti-diabetic-activities-of-grape-seed-extract-in-mice
#10
Laura E Griffin, Katherine A Witrick, Courtney Klotz, Melanie R Dorenkott, Katheryn M Goodrich, Gabrielle Fundaro, Ryan P McMillan, Matthew W Hulver, Monica A Ponder, Andrew P Neilson
Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that grapes and grape-derived products may reduce the risk for chronic disease. Grape seed extract specifically has been gaining interest due to its reported ability to prevent weight gain, moderate hyperglycemia, and reduce inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of two doses of grape seed extract (10 and 100 mg kg(-1) body wt per d in mice) on markers of metabolic syndrome in the context of a moderately high-fat diet. After 12 weeks, the lower dose of grape seed extract was more effective at inhibiting fat gain and improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity...
October 18, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862999/innovation-in-microbiome-based-strategies-for-promoting-metabolic-health
#11
Marina Romaní-Pérez, Ana Agusti, Yolanda Sanz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Update on the development of microbiome-based interventions and dietary supplements to combat obesity and related comorbidities, which are leading causes of global mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of intestinal dysbiosis, partly resulting from unhealthy diets, in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, is well documented by recent translational research. Human experimental trials with whole-faecal transplants are ongoing, and their results will be crucial as proof of concept that interventions intended to modulate the microbiome composition and function could be alternatives for the management of obesity and related comorbidities...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844808/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Torres-Fuentes, Harriët Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Changes in microbial diversity and composition are increasingly associated with several disease states including obesity and behavioural disorders. Obesity-associated microbiota alter host energy harvesting, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fat deposition. Additionally, intestinal microbiota can regulate metabolism, adiposity, homoeostasis, and energy balance as well as central appetite and food reward signalling, which together have crucial roles in obesity. Moreover, some strains of bacteria and their metabolites might target the brain directly via vagal stimulation or indirectly through immune-neuroendocrine mechanisms...
August 24, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831287/extracts-of-salvia-nelumbinis-naturalis-ameliorate-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-via-inhibiting-gut-derived-endotoxin-mediated-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#13
Xiangbing Shu, Miao Wang, Hanchen Xu, Yang Liu, Jie Huang, Zemin Yao, Li Zhang
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is featured by the presence of hepatic steatosis combined with inflammation and hepatocellular injury. Gut-derived endotoxin plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NASH. Salvia-Nelumbinis naturalis (SNN), a formula of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been identified to be effective for NASH, but the mechanisms were not thoroughly explored. In the present study, a NASH model was generated using C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented periodically with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 12 weeks...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821663/agrp-neurons-can-increase-food-intake-during-conditions-of-appetite-suppression-and-inhibit-anorexigenic-parabrachial-neurons
#14
Rachel A Essner, Alison G Smith, Adam A Jamnik, Anna R Ryba, Zoe D Trutner, Matthew E Carter
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810829/blocking-il-10-signalling-at-the-time-of-immunization-does-not-increase-unwanted-side-effects-in-mice
#15
Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. However, IL-10 deficiency leads to autoimmune disease in the gut...
August 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808842/colonic-motor-dysfunctions-in-a-mouse-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-an-involvement-of-a2b-adenosine-receptors
#16
Luca Antonioli, Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Erika Tirotta, Daniela Gentile, Laura Benvenuti, Maria Cecilia Giron, Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Genny Orso, Nunzia Bernardini, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Balázs Csóka, Zoltán H Németh, György Haskó, Carmelo Scarpignato, Corrado Blandizzi, Rocchina Colucci
Adenosine A2B receptors (A2BR) regulate several enteric functions. However, their implication in the pathophysiology of intestinal dysmotility associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has not been elucidated. We investigated the expression of A2BR in mouse colon and their role in the mechanisms underlying the development of enteric dysmotility associated with obesity. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD (60% kcal from fat) or normocaloric diet (NCD; 18% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks. Colonic A2BR localization was examined by immunofluorescence...
August 14, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799153/-fungi-in-the-gut-the-gut-mycobiome
#17
Herbert Hof
Many different fungi, including yeasts and molds, can be found in the intestinal tract of humans constituting the gut mycobiome. In case the bacterial flora is altered, the fungal flora may react inversely. By a so-called fungal diet, however, the composition of the mycobiome can hardly be influenced. Whereas some fungi are only transiently present in the gut after oral uptake, others, such as Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, amongst others, are members of the residential, autochthonous gut flora...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789943/reciprocal-inflammatory-signaling-between-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-adipocytes-in-the-absence-of-immune-cells
#18
Yu Takahashi, Shintaro Sato, Yosuke Kurashima, Chen-Yi Lai, Makoto Otsu, Mikio Hayashi, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kiyono
Visceral fat accumulation as observed in Crohn's disease and obesity is linked to chronic gut inflammation, suggesting that accumulation of gut adipocytes can trigger local inflammatory signaling. However, direct interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and adipocytes have not been investigated, in part because IEC physiology is difficult to replicate in culture. In this study, we originally prepared intact, polarized, and cytokine responsive IEC monolayers from primary or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids by simple and repeatable methods...
September 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782205/microbiota-derived-tryptophan-indoles-increase-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-and-reduce-intestinal-permeability-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
M Jennis, C R Cavanaugh, G C Leo, J R Mabus, J Lenhard, P J Hornby
BACKGROUND: The diet and microbiome contribute to metabolic disease in part due to increased intestinal inflammation and permeability. Dietary tryptophan is metabolized by both mammalian and bacterial enzymes. Using in vitro, in vivo models, and clinical data, we tested whether bacterial tryptophan indole derivatives underlie the positive benefits of microbiota on inflammation that is associated with metabolic disease. METHODS: In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin levels were measured after indole-3-propionic acid (IPA; 20 mg kg(-1) p...
August 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
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