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Obesity intestine inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#1
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619418/the-role-of-intestinal-c-type-regenerating-islet-derived-3-lectins-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
Sena Bluemel, Lirui Wang, Cameron Martino, Suhan Lee, Yanhan Wang, Brandon Williams, Angela Horvath, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Karsten Zengler, Bernd Schnabl
C-type regenerating islet derived-3 (Reg3) lectins defend against pathogens and keep commensal bacteria at a distance. Deficiency of Reg3g and Reg3b facilitates alcohol-induced bacterial translocation and alcoholic liver disease. Intestinal Reg3g is down-regulated in animal models of diet-induced obesity, but the functional consequences for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Reg3 lectins in NASH. NASH was induced by a Western-style fast-food diet in mice deficient for Reg3g or Reg3b and in transgenic mice overexpressing Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells ( Reg3g Tg)...
April 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550578/non-obese-type-2-diabetes-patients-present-intestinal-b-cell-dysregulations-associated-with-hyperactive-intestinal-tfh-cells
#3
Jingjing Zhou, Yiran Wang, Yifei He, Ye Gao, Renhui Wan, Mengxi Cai, Wenwen Li, Rong Chen, Emma Walker, Xiao Zhai, Qijin Wang
Most current studies of type 2 diabetes (T2D) focus on obesity in the pathogenesis of the disease. However, many individuals develop T2D at non-obese body mass index (BMI) level. It is yet unclear whether certain etiological mechanisms discovered in these obese models can apply to non-obese T2D patients. In the present study, we focused on one aspect that was potentially involved in T2D development, the intestinal inflammation, and examined the difference between non-obese T2D patients and BMI-matched healthy controls...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545532/helminth-infection-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-via-induction-of-alternatively-activated-macrophages
#4
Chien Wen Su, Chih-Yu Chen, Yali Li, Shao Rong Long, William Massey, Deepak Vijaya Kumar, W Allan Walker, Hai Ning Shi
Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse correlation between the prevalence of the so-called western diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the exposure to helminths. Obesity, a key risk factor for many chronic health problems, is rising globally and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues. The precise mechanism by which helminths modulate metabolic syndrome and obesity is not fully understood. We infected high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus and observed that helminth infection resulted in significantly attenuated obesity...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526577/obesity-and-cancer-existing-and-new-hypotheses-for-a-causal-connection
#5
REVIEW
Trevor W Stone, Megan McPherson, L Gail Darlington
Existing explanations of obesity-associated cancer emphasise direct mutagenic effects of dietary components or hormonal imbalance. Some of these hypotheses are reviewed briefly, but recent evidence suggests a major role for chronic inflammation in cancer risk, possibly involving dietary content. These ideas include the inflammation-induced activation of the kynurenine pathway and its role in feeding and metabolism by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and by modulating synaptic transmission in the brain...
February 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524863/the-gut-microbiome-and-elevated-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity-and-autoimmunity
#6
REVIEW
Lora J Kasselman, Nicholas A Vernice, Joshua DeLeon, Allison B Reiss
Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease...
April 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519916/hyperglycemia-drives-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-and-risk-for-enteric-infection
#7
Christoph A Thaiss, Maayan Levy, Inna Grosheva, Danping Zheng, Eliran Soffer, Eran Blacher, Sofia Braverman, Anouk C Tengeler, Oren Barak, Maya Elazar, Rotem Ben-Zeev, Dana Lehavi-Regev, Meirav N Katz, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Arieh Gertler, Zamir Halpern, Alon Harmelin, Suhail Aamar, Patricia Serradas, Alexandra Grosfeld, Hagit Shapiro, Benjamin Geiger, Eran Elinav
Obesity, diabetes and related manifestations are associated with an enhanced, but poorly understood risk for mucosal infection and systemic inflammation. Here, we show in mouse models of obesity and diabetes that hyperglycemia drives intestinal barrier permeability, through GLUT2-dependent transcriptional reprogramming of intestinal epithelial cells and alteration of tight and adherence junction integrity. Consequently, hyperglycemia-mediated barrier disruption leads to systemic influx of microbial products and enhanced dissemination of enteric infection...
March 8, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507905/pyrroloquinoline-quinone-prevents-developmental-programming-of-microbial-dysbiosis-and-macrophage-polarization-to-attenuate-liver-fibrosis-in-offspring-of-obese-mice
#8
Jacob E Friedman, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Alexander Fast, Rachel C Janssen, Taylor K Soderborg, Aimee L Anderson, Julie A Reisz, Angelo D'Alessandro, Daniel N Frank, Charles E Robertson, Becky A de la Houssaye, Linda K Johnson, David J Orlicky, Xiaoxin X Wang, Moshe Levi, Eric O Potma, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher
Increasingly, evidence suggests that exposure to maternal obesity creates an inflammatory environment in utero , exerting long-lasting postnatal signatures on the juvenile innate immune system and microbiome that may predispose offspring to development of fatty liver disease. We found that exposure to a maternal Western-style diet (WD) accelerated fibrogenesis in the liver of offspring and was associated with early recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages at 8-12 weeks and microbial dysbiosis as early as 3 weeks of age...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501838/adipose-tissue-extrinsic-factor-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-the-role-of-the-visceral-lymph-node
#9
REVIEW
Aaron M Magnuson, Josephine K Fouts, Daniel P Regan, Andrea D Booth, Steve W Dow, Michelle T Foster
Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat distribution commonly associated with increased central adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is described to be the greatest driver of obesity-induced inflammation, however evidence also supports that the intestines fundamentally contribute to the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease. The visceral adipose depot shares the same vasculature and lymph drainage as the small intestine. We hypothesize that the visceral lymph node, which drains adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract, is central to the exacerbation of systemic pro-inflammation...
March 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490382/-major-depression-and-liver-disease-the-role-of-microbiome-and-inflammation
#10
Kai G Kahl, Tillmann Krüger, Gabriel Eckermann, Heiner Wedemeyer
Depression and liver disease are closely associated. Every third patient with liver cirrhosis or hepatitis shows depressive symptoms. On the other hand, every third patient with depressive disorder develops an alcohol disorder at some point during his / her life. A crucial link between depression and hepatic disease seems to be inflammatory processes in which the microbiome and increased intestinal permeability of the intestine play a pivotal role. Depression as well as liver disease, alcohol consumption, stress, and aging processes disturb the delicate balance of intestinal microbiota resulting in increased intestinal permeability...
February 28, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490092/blueberry-supplementation-influences-the-gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#11
Sunhye Lee, Katherine I Keirsey, Rebecca Kirkland, Zachary I Grunewald, Joan G Fischer, Claire B de La Serre
Background: Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Microbiota manipulation may therefore affect obesity-related comorbidities. Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may alter the gut microbiota. Objective: We hypothesized that blueberry supplementation would alter the gut microbiota, reduce systemic inflammation, and improve insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed rats...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473944/non-endocannabinoid-n-acylethanolamines-and-2-monoacylglycerols-in-the-intestine
#12
REVIEW
Harald S Hansen, Vasiliki Vana
This review focuses on recent findings of the physiological and pharmacological role of non-endocannabinoid NAEs and 2-MAGs in the intestine and their involvement in the gut-brain signaling. Dietary fat suppress food intake and much research concerns the known gut peptides e.g. GLP-1, and CCK. NAEs and 2-MAGs represent another class of local gut signals most probably involved in the regulation of food intake. We discuss the putative biosynthetic pathways and targets of NAEs in the intestine as well as their anorectic role and changes in intestinal levels depending on the nutritional status...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472701/akkermansia-muciniphila-derived-extracellular-vesicles-influence-gut-permeability-through-the-regulation-of-tight-junctions
#13
Chaithanya Chelakkot, Youngwoo Choi, Dae-Kyum Kim, Hyun T Park, Jaewang Ghim, Yonghoon Kwon, Jinseong Jeon, Min-Seon Kim, Young-Koo Jee, Yong S Gho, Hae-Sim Park, Yoon-Keun Kim, Sung H Ryu
The gut microbiota has an important role in the gut barrier, inflammation and metabolic functions. Studies have identified a close association between the intestinal barrier and metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, Akkermansia muciniphila has been reported as a beneficial bacterium that reduces gut barrier disruption and insulin resistance. Here we evaluated the role of A. muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles (AmEVs) in the regulation of gut permeability. We found that there are more AmEVs in the fecal samples of healthy controls compared with those of patients with T2D...
February 23, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438631/plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-lean-overweight-and-obese-humans-relationships-with-intestinal-permeability-markers-inflammation-and-incretin-secretion
#14
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427903/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-novel-regulator-of-cardiovascular-function-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
The gut microbiome has emerged as a critical regulator of human physiology. Deleterious changes to the composition or number of gut bacteria, commonly referred to as gut dysbiosis, has been linked to the development and progression of numerous diet-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most CVD risk factors, including aging, obesity, certain dietary patterns, and a sedentary lifestyle, have been shown to induce gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal inflammation and reduced integrity of the gut barrier, which in turn increases circulating levels of bacterial structural components and microbial metabolites that may facilitate the development of CVD...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395336/reduced-active-transcellular-intestinal-oxalate-secretion-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity-associated-hyperoxaluria
#16
Ruhul Amin, John Asplin, Daniel Jung, Mohamed Bashir, Altayeb Alshaikh, Sireesha Ratakonda, Sapna Sharma, Sohee Jeon, Ignacio Granja, Dietrich Matern, Hatim Hassan
Most kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and minor changes in urine oxalate affect the stone risk. Obesity is a risk factor for kidney stones and a positive correlation of unknown etiology between increased body size, and elevated urinary oxalate excretion has been reported. Here, we used obese ob/ob (ob) mice to elucidate the pathogenesis of obesity-associated hyperoxaluria. These ob mice have significant hyperoxaluria (3.3-fold) compared with control mice, which is not due to overeating as shown by pair-feeding studies...
January 27, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392873/gluten-free-diet-exclusively-during-pregnancy-alleviates-the-signs-of-diabetes-and-celiac-disease-in-nod-mouse-offspring
#17
Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Jesper Larsen, Knud Josefsen, Tina Z Jørgensen, Julie Christine Antvorskov, Axel K Hansen, Karsten Buschard
BACKGROUND: Gluten-free (GF) diet during pregnancy ameliorates autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse offspring. Due to comorbidity of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes, we hypothesized that GF diet in utero alleviates the humoral and histopathological signs of celiac disease in NOD mice. We aimed to establish the mechanisms behind the diabetes-protective effect of GF diet in utero. METHODS: Breeding pairs of NOD mice were fed a GF or gluten-containing standard (STD) diet until parturition...
February 2, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384067/interplay-of-gut-microbiota-probiotics-in-obesity-a-review
#18
Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj K Sharma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Excess caloric intake and less energy expenditure (e.g. physical inactivity) are associated with acquired metabolic disorders due to sedentary life style. Pharmacological treatments are less effective in preventing obesity. Type of diet influences the gut microbiome alteration and it is interrelated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Modified gut microbiota by the harmful bacterial components (e.g: lipopolysaccharides) is linked with the metabolic endotoxemia (low-grade inflammation) which results in damage to the gut barrier function...
2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382608/metabolic-syndrome-autoimmunity-and-rheumatic-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Gabriela Medina, Olga Vera-Lastra, Ana Lilia Peralta-Amaro, María Pilar Jiménez-Arellano, Miguel Angel Saavedra, María Pilar Cruz-Domínguez, Luis J Jara
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity and visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension contributing to CV mortality. The interface between the metabolic and immune systems has been of great interest recently. These interactions are regulated through genetics, nutritional status, and the intestinal microbiome. Alterations in the immune-metabolic cross-talk contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. Adipokines exert a variety of metabolic activities contributing to the ethiopathogenesis of MetS and are involved in the regulation of both inflammatory processes and autoimmunity occurring in rheumatic diseases...
January 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364525/intestinal-parasites-associations-with-intestinal-and-systemic-inflammation
#20
Gerardo A Zavala, Olga P García, Mariela Camacho, Dolores Ronquillo, Maiza Campos-Ponce, Colleen Doak, Katja Polman, Jorge L Rosado
AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and count of stool leukocytes as marker of intestinal inflammation in 291 children (6-10y). Intestinal parasitic infection was measured by stool examination. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the odds of having high inflammatory markers for each parasite or group of parasites as compared to parasite-free children while adjusting for sex, age, mother educational level and % of body fat...
January 24, 2018: Parasite Immunology
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