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Obesity intestine inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912745/ganoderma-lucidum-beta-1-3-1-6-glucan-as-an-immunomodulator-in-inflammation-induced-by-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#1
Yu-Sheng Wu, Shu-Ying Ho, Fan-Hua Nan, Shiu-Nan Chen
BACKGROUND: Binding of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) with the receptor results in a series of signal transfers (signalling cascades), which activates the transcription factors for regulating inflammation. Excess cholesterol intake leads to an increase in the distance between fat cells and capillaries, which may cause hypoxia in the fat tissue of obese mice. This hypoxia induces the death of fat cells, resulting in the inflammation of adipose tissue or an increase in the inflammatory gene expression associated with obesity...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#2
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892954/a-purified-membrane-protein-from-akkermansia-muciniphila-or-the-pasteurized-bacterium-improves-metabolism-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#3
Hubert Plovier, Amandine Everard, Céline Druart, Clara Depommier, Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Julien Chilloux, Noora Ottman, Thibaut Duparc, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Antonis Myridakis, Nathalie M Delzenne, Judith Klievink, Arnab Bhattacharjee, Kees C H van der Ark, Steven Aalvink, Laurent O Martinez, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Dominique Maiter, Audrey Loumaye, Michel P Hermans, Jean-Paul Thissen, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos, Patrice D Cani
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low-grade inflammation and specific changes in gut microbiota composition. We previously demonstrated that administration of Akkermansia muciniphila to mice prevents the development of obesity and associated complications. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect remain unclear. Moreover, the sensitivity of A. muciniphila to oxygen and the presence of animal-derived compounds in its growth medium currently limit the development of translational approaches for human medicine...
November 28, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862824/gut-microbial-metabolism-defines-host-metabolism-an-emerging-perspective-in-obesity-and-allergic-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
M Kumari, A L Kozyrskyj
The presence of >100 trillion microorganisms (collectively called gut microbiota) in our large intestine is essential for the maintenance of health. The gut microbiota starts to develop before birth and matures within first three years of life. The Western diet and lifestyle have been implicated in causing an imbalance of gut microbial communities and their metabolites that consequence in disease states, such as obesity and asthma. With more than 13% of the world population currently living with obesity and one out of 10 children diagnosed with asthma, we explore here the recent developments in the biosynthesis and mode of action of the key metabolites in relation to these two chronic inflammatory conditions...
November 11, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861126/gut-microbiota-influences-pathological-angiogenesis-in-obesity-driven-choroidal-neovascularization
#5
Elisabeth Mma Andriessen, Ariel M Wilson, Gaelle Mawambo, Agnieszka Dejda, Khalil Miloudi, Florian Sennlaub, Przemyslaw Sapieha
Age-related macular degeneration in its neovascular form (NV AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among adults above the age of 60. Epidemiological data suggest that in men, overall abdominal obesity is the second most important environmental risk factor after smoking for progression to late-stage NV AMD To date, the mechanisms that underscore this observation remain ill-defined. Given the impact of high-fat diets on gut microbiota, we investigated whether commensal microbes influence the evolution of AMD Using mouse models of NV AMD, microbiotal transplants, and other paradigms that modify the gut microbiome, we uncoupled weight gain from confounding factors and demonstrate that high-fat diets exacerbate choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by altering gut microbiota...
December 1, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829582/postprandial-hyperlipidemia-and-remnant-lipoproteins
#6
Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita
Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781093/gut-chemosensing-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775551/antibiotic-effects-on-gut-microbiota-and-metabolism-are-host-dependent
#8
Shiho Fujisaka, Siegfried Ussar, Clary Clish, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masaji Sakaguchi, Marion Soto, Masahiro Konishi, Samir Softic, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Georg Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773783/chitosan-oligosaccharide-biological-activities-and-potential-therapeutic-applications
#9
REVIEW
Chatchai Muanprasat, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is an oligomer of β-(1➔4)-linked d-glucosamine. COS can be prepared from the deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin, which is commonly found in the exoskeletons of arthropods and insects and the cell walls of fungi. COS is water soluble, non-cytotoxic, readily absorbed through the intestine and mainly excreted in the urine. Of particular importance, COS and its derivatives have been demonstrated to possess several biological activities including anti-inflammation, immunostimulation, anti-tumor, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-Alzheimer's disease, tissue regeneration promotion, drug and DNA delivery enhancement, anti-microbial, anti-oxidation and calcium-absorption enhancement...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771932/guggulsterone-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#10
Takanori Yamada, Ken Sugimoto
Guggulsterone is a plant sterol derived from gum resin of Commiphora wightii. The gum resin from guggul plants has been used for thousand years in Ayurveda to treat various disorders, including internal tumors, obesity, liver disorders, malignant sores and ulcers, urinary complaints, intestinal worms, leucoderma, sinuses, edema, and sudden paralytic seizures. Guggulsterone has been identified a bioactive components of this gum resin. This plant steroid has been reported to work as an antagonist of certain nuclear receptors, especially farnesoid X receptor, which regulates bile acids and cholesterol metabolism...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757592/improvement-in-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-by-probiotic-strains-of-indian-gut-origin-in-high-fat-diet-fed-c57bl-6j-mice
#11
Mahalingam Balakumar, Durai Prabhu, Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Namita Rokana, Ramesh Kumar, Srividhya Raghavan, Avinash Soundarajan, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
PURPOSE: Diabetes and obesity are characterized by glucose intolerance, fat deposition, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Recent reports postulated that distinct gut microbiota alterations were observed in obese/diabetic subjects and modulating gut microbiota beneficially through specific probiotics could be a potential therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes/obesity. Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745826/increased-intestinal-permeability-as-a-risk-factor-for-type-2-diabetes
#12
A J Cox, P Zhang, D W Bowden, B Devereaux, P M Davoren, A W Cripps, N P West
AIM: Relationships between the intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability and inflammation in the context of risk for obesity-associated disease continue to be of interest. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between intestinal permeability and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A total of 130 individuals with T2D (age: 57.5±6.2 years (mean±SD); BMI: 30.4±3.2; 45% female) and 161 individuals without T2D (age: 37.4±12.5 years; BMI: 25.1±3.9; 65% female) were included in the study...
October 10, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722370/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-and-functional-properties-of-polyphenols-from-pomegranate-peels-and-pomegranate-peels-enriched-cookies
#13
Antonio Colantuono, Rosalia Ferracane, Paola Vitaglione
Obesity is an urgent social problem and new functional foods providing polyphenols and dietary fibers (DF) may be promising tools to modulate oxidative stress, inflammation and energy homeostasis. Pomegranate peels (PPe) are an agro-industrial by-product containing polyphenols such as ellagitannins (ETs), gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA) and its derivatives (EAs), as well as DF. In this study, PPe enriched cookies (PPeC) were developed, and the bioaccessibility as well as the ability of their polyphenols to exert antioxidant activity along the Gastro-intestinal Tract (GiT) and to modulate digestive enzymes were evaluated in vitro...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714510/cardiovascular-risk-reduction-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-potential-role-of-ezetimibe
#14
Tracey G Simon, Kathleen E Corey, Raymond T Chung, Robert Giugliano
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is widely considered to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is closely linked to dyslipidemia, obesity, and insulin resistance. Patients with NAFLD have increased mortality when compared to the general population, primarily related to cardiovascular disease or malignancy. The biologic mechanisms that link NAFLD to cardiovascular disease include expansion of visceral adipose tissue, atherogenic dyslipidemia, impaired insulin signaling, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction...
October 6, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703010/hepatic-zip14-mediated-zinc-transport-contributes-to-endosomal-insulin-receptor-trafficking-and-glucose-metabolism
#15
Tolunay Beker Aydemir, Catalina Troche, Min-Hyun Kim, Robert J Cousins
Zinc influences signaling pathways through controlled targeted zinc transport. Zinc transporter Zip14 KO mice display a phenotype that includes impaired intestinal barrier function with low grade chronic inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and increased body fat, which are signatures of diet-induced diabetes (type 2 diabetes) and obesity in humans. Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and obesity is caused by insulin resistance. Insulin resistance results in inhibition of glucose uptake by liver and other peripheral tissues, principally adipose and muscle and with concurrently higher hepatic glucose production...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698956/blueberry-blackberry-and-blackcurrant-differentially-affect-plasma-lipids-and-pro-inflammatory-markers-in-diet-induced-obesity-mice
#16
Bohkyung Kim, Sang Gil Lee, Young-Ki Park, Chai Siah Ku, Tho X Pham, Casey J Wegner, Yue Yang, Sung I Koo, Ock K Chun, Ji-Young Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698916/diet-and-genetically-induced-obesity-produces-alterations-in-the-microbiome-inflammation-and-wnt-pathway-in-the-intestine-of-apc-1638n-mice-comparisons-and-contrasts
#17
Wei Liu, Jimmy W Crott, Lin Lyu, Anna C Pfalzer, Jinchao Li, Sang-Woon Choi, Yingke Yang, Joel B Mason, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous study indicated that obesity increases activity of the pro-tumorigenic Wnt-signaling. Presently, we sought to further advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity promotes CRC by examining associations between microbiome, inflammation and Wnt-signaling in Apc(+/1638N) mice whose obesity was induced by one of two modalities, diet- or genetically-induced obesity. Three groups were employed: Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(+/+) fed a low fat diet (10% fat), Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(+/+) fed a high fat diet (60% fat, diet-induced obesity), and Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(db/db) fed a low fat diet (genetically-induced obesity)...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698344/maternal-vitamin-d-beneficially-programs-metabolic-gut-and-bone-health-of-mouse-male-offspring-in-an-obesogenic-environment
#18
C R Villa, J Chen, B Wen, S M Sacco, A Taibi, W E Ward, E M Comelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is an anti-inflammatory nutrient and a determinant of bone health. Some prospective studies suggest that maternal vitamin D status is positively associated with offspring bone mass. We found that serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory molecule related to adiposity, insulin resistance and bone resorption, is lower in healthy mouse offspring exposed to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. LPS reaches the circulation via the gut...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681909/metabolic-interaction-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-gut-microbiota
#19
REVIEW
Yao-Jong Yang, Bor-Shyang Sheu
As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear...
February 16, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669970/intestinal-dysbiosis-gut-hyperpermeability-and-bacterial-translocation-missing-links-between-depression-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Rodrigo Machado-Veira, George Anderson, Marco Solmi, Yolanda Sanz, Michael Berk, Cristiano A Köhler, André F Carvalho
The comorbid prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with obesity and type II diabetes mellitus reflects the existence of a subset of individuals with a complex common pathophysiology and overlapping risk factors. Such comorbid disease presentations imply a number of difficulties, including: decreased treatment responsivity and adherence; altered glycemic control and increased risk of wider medical complications. A number of factors link MDD to metabolic-associated disorders, including: higher rates of shared risk factors such as poor diet and physical inactivity and biological elements including increased inflammation; insulin resistance; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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