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Obesity inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679615/novel-protective-role-of-kallistatin-in-obesity-by-limiting-adipose-tissue-low-grade-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Gema Frühbeck, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Víctor Valentí, Rafael Moncada, Sara Becerril, Xabier Unamuno, Camilo Silva, Javier Salvador, Victoria Catalán
OBJECTIVE: Kallistatin plays an important role in the inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and angiogenesis. We aimed to determine the impact of kallistatin on obesity and its associated metabolic alterations as well as its role in adipocyte inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Samples obtained from 95 subjects were used in a case-control study. Circulating concentrations and expression levels of kallistatin as well as key inflammation, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix remodelling-related genes were analyzed...
April 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677629/effects-of-gastric-bypass-surgery-followed-by-supervised-physical-training-on-inflammation-and-endothelial-function-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Charlotte Røn Stolberg, Lene Hymøller Mundbjerg, Peter Funch-Jensen, Bibi Gram, Else-Marie Bladbjerg, Claus Bogh Juhl
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and physical inactivity are both associated with low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Bariatric surgery improves markers of inflammation and endothelial function, but it is unknown if physical training after bariatric surgery can improve these markers even further. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) followed by physical training on markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial function. METHODS: Sixty patients approved for RYGB underwent examinations pre-surgery, 6, 12, and 24 months post-surgery...
April 6, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677533/proresolving-protein-annexin-a1-the-role-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity
#3
Nathalia T Pietrani, Cláudia N Ferreira, Kathryna F Rodrigues, Luiza O Perucci, Fernanda S Carneiro, Adriana A Bosco, Marina C Oliveira, Solange S Pereira, Antônio L Teixeira, Jacqueline I Alvarez-Leite, Adaliene V Ferreira, Lirlândia P Sousa, Karina B Gomes
BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a protein involved in inflammation resolution that might be altered in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), which is a chronic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate AnxA1 serum levels in individuals with and without DM stratified according to the body mass index (BMI), and the dynamic of AnxA1 expression in adipose tissue from humans with obesity and non-obesity. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with DM (lean, overweight and obese) and 40 controls, and adipose tissue samples were obtained from 16 individuals with obesity (with or without DM), and 15 controls...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675134/leptin-and-leptin-resistance-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-possible-link-to-oxidative-stress-and-cardiovascular-complications
#4
REVIEW
Slava Berger, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
Obesity-related sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) cause intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, a powerful trigger of oxidative stress. Obesity also leads to dramatic increases in circulating levels of leptin, a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Leptin acts in the hypothalamus to suppress food intake and increase metabolic rate. However, obese individuals are resistant to metabolic effects of leptin. Leptin also activates the sympathetic nervous system without any evidence of resistance, possibly because these effects occur peripherally without a need to penetrate the blood-brain barrier...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674996/association-between-thyroid-hormones-thyroid-antibodies-and-cardiometabolic-factors-in-non-obese-individuals-with-normal-thyroid-function
#5
Jia Liu, Yan Duan, Jing Fu, Guang Wang
Background: Hypothyroidism is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Recent studies showed that even AIT patients with euthyroidism still had an increased number of early atherosclerotic lesions. However, the precise mechanism is not yet known. This study aimed to investigate the association of thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity, and cardiometabolic risk factors in non-obese AIT patients with euthyroidism...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673675/the-association-between-in-vitro-fertilization-outcome-and-the-inflammatory-markers-of-complete-blood-count-among-nonobese-unexplained-infertile-couples
#6
Esra Nur Tola
OBJECTIVE(S): The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the inflammatory parameters of complete blood count (CBC), including white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio (PLR), and mean platelet volume (MPV), had potential roles in the etiopathogenesis of unexplained infertility (UI) among nonobese women. We also aimed to investigate whether there could be an association between these markers and in vitro fertilization (IVF) success among nonobese women with UI...
April 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672178/obese-and-allergic-related-asthma-phenotypes-among-children-across-the-united-states
#7
Mindy K Ross, Tahmineh Romero, Myung S Sim, Peter G Szilagyi
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric asthma is heterogeneous with phenotypes that reflect differing underlying inflammation and pathophysiology. Little is known about the national prevalence of certain obesity and allergy related asthma phenotypes or associated characteristics. We therefore assessed the national prevalence, risk factors, and parent-reported severity of four asthma phenotypes: not-allergic-not-obese, allergic-not-obese, obese-not-allergic, and allergic-and-obese. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) of 10-17 year-olds with parent-reported asthma...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670915/association-of-markers-of-proinflammatory-phenotype-and-beige-adipogenesis-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-chinese-centrally-obese-adults
#8
Wilson K C Leung, Angus P Yu, Christopher W K Lai, Parco M Siu
Background: Visceral adiposity is associated with higher productions of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inflammation of obese adipose tissues could contribute to systemic metabolic dysregulation, especially thermogenic activity of white adipose tissues, namely, beige adipogenesis, characterized by altered irisin expression. Thus, we investigated the roles of inflammation and adipocyte beiging in Chinese centrally obese (CO) adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 54 CO and 58 non-CO subjects drawn from 1492 Chinese people with age and sex matched during November 2010 and August 2013...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670627/sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-cd8-t-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-middle-aged-mice
#9
Hilda Ahnstedt, Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Monica S Spychala, Alexis S Mobley, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Anjali Chauhan, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Sean P Marrelli, Louise D McCullough
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has increased among middle-aged women in the United States, yet has declined in middle-aged men. In experimental stroke, middle-aged females have larger strokes and greater inflammation than age-matched males or younger females. The mechanism underlying this shift from an "ischemia-protected" to an "ischemia-sensitive" phenotype in aging females is unknown. One potential factor is an age-related increase in systemic factors that induce inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669931/targeting-the-gut-microbiome-to-treat-the-osteoarthritis-of-obesity
#10
Eric M Schott, Christopher W Farnsworth, Alex Grier, Jacquelyn A Lillis, Sarah Soniwala, Gregory H Dadourian, Richard D Bell, Madison L Doolittle, David A Villani, Hani Awad, John P Ketz, Fadia Kamal, Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, John M Ashton, Steven R Gill, Robert A Mooney, Michael J Zuscik
Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile in the context of obesity, suggesting a potentially novel approach to treat the OA of obesity. Here, we report that - compared with the lean murine gut - obesity is associated with loss of beneficial Bifidobacteria, while key proinflammatory species gain in abundance...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669317/palmitate-activates-ccl4-expression-in-human-monocytic-cells-via-tlr4-myd88-dependent-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-pi3k-signaling-systems
#11
Shihab Kochumon, Ajit Wilson, Betty Chandy, Steve Shenouda, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Sardar Sindhu, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation which plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Saturated free fatty acids (SFAs) levels are found to be elevated in obesity and T2D. Chemokines are known to have potent inflammatory functions in a wide range of biological processes linked to immunological disorders. Since CCL4 (Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), plays an important role in the migration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, we investigated the expression of CCL4 in monocytic cells/macrophages following activation with free fatty acid palmitate...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668887/changes-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-plasma-membrane-lipid-composition-in-old-rats-are-associated-with-adipocyte-hypertrophy-with-aging
#12
Elena Bonzón-Kulichenko, Eduardo Moltó, Cristina Pintado, Alejandro Fernández, Carmen Arribas, Dominik Schwudke, Nilda Gallardo, Andrej Shevchenko, Antonio Andrés
Increased adiposity, through adipocyte hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia, characterizes aging and obesity. Both are leptin-resistant states, associated to disturbed lipid metabolism, reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Nevertheless, fat tissue dysfunction appears earlier in obesity than in normal aging. In contrast, lipodystrophy is accompanied by diabetes, and improving the fat cell capacity to expand rescues the diabetic phenotype. Fat tissue dysfunction is extensively studied in the diet-induced obesity, but remains relatively neglected in the aging-associated obesity...
April 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668871/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-srebp-1a-in-male-ob-ob-mice-exhibit-lipodystrophy-and-exacerbate-insulin-resistance
#13
Hiroshi Ohno, Takashi Matsuzaka, Nie Tang, Rahul Sharma, Kaori Motomura, Takuya Shimura, Aoi Satoh, Song-Iee Han, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Shigeru Yatoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Motohiro Sekiya, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Hirohito Sone, Naoya Yahagi, Nobuhiro Yamada, Yoshikazu Higami, Hitoshi Shimano
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a) is a key transcription factor which activates the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Transgenic mice that overexpress the nuclear form of SREBP-1a under the control of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter (Tg-1a) were previously shown to display a lipodystrophic phenotype characterized by enlarged and fatty livers, diminished peripheral white adipose tissue (WAT), and insulin resistance...
April 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667734/celastrol-reverses-palmitic-acid-pa-caused-tlr4-md2-activation-dependent-insulin-resistance-via-disrupting-md2-related-cellular-binding-to-pa
#14
Xue Zhang, Ying Wang, Hui-Ya Ge, Yi-Jun Gu, Fan-Fan Cao, Chun-Xin Yang, Georges Uzan, Bin Peng, Deng-Hai Zhang
Elevated plasma statured fatty acids (FFAs) cause TLR4/MD2 activation-dependent inflammation and insulin tolerance, which account for the occurrence and development of obesity. It has been confirmed that statured palmitic acid (PA) (the most abundant FFA) could bind MD2 to cause cellular inflammation. The natural compound celastrol could improve obesity, which is suggested via inhibiting inflammation, yet the detailed mechanism for celastrol is still unclear. As celastrol is reported to directly target MD2, we thought disrupting the binding between FFAs and MD2 might be one of the ways for celastrol to inhibit FFAs-caused inflammation and insulin resistance...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666742/focal-xanthogranulomatous-pyelonephritis-with-pulmonary-lesions-on-the-background-of-type-two-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Ahmad Enshaei, Arash A Boora, Diana Taheri, Zahra Changizi, Nahid Bahmani
Focal Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of kidneys which usually is associated with postrenal obstruction or renal stone leading to chronic bacterial infection and eventually chronic glomerular inflammation. About 90% of cases are of the diffuse type and associated with staghorn renal calculi. The case presented in this paper is of the focal type in a 58-year-old diabetic female. Interestingly she did not have symptoms or laboratory presentation of chronic renal bacterial infection except for elevated ESR...
2018: Case Reports in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666152/phenylmethimazole-abrogates-diet-induced-inflammation-glucose-intolerance-and-nafld
#16
Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank L Schwartz, Kelly D McCall
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases and has become the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. High fat (HF) diets promote an increased uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes, which initiates steatosis and induces lipotoxicity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Activation and signaling of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by FFAs induces inflammation evident in NAFLD and insulin resistance...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666035/anemia-and-its-effect-on-cardiovascular-findings-in-obese-adolescents
#17
Öner Yıldırım, Tülay Demircan, Özlem Tüfekçi, Özgür Kızılca, Pınar Kuyum, Mustafa Kır, Ayhan Abacı, Nurettin Ünal, Nur Arslan, Ece Böber, Şebnem Yılmaz, Hale Ören
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of anemia on cardiovascular findings in obese adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 29 anemic, 33 nonanemic obese adolescents, and 33 nonobese healthy adolescents. These three groups were investigated for clinical and laboratory features of anemia and obesity. Echocardiography was used to examine cardiac functions. RESULTS: The anemia was mild (mean hemoglobin 11.67±0.79g/dL), ferritin level was significantly low, and CRP and fibrinogen levels were significantly high in anemic obese patients...
April 18, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665658/effect-of-the-anti-il-17-antibody-on-allergic-inflammation-in-an-obesity-related-asthma-model
#18
Lin Liang, Jung Hur, Ji Young Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Young Kyoon Kim, Sook Young Lee
Background/Aims: The co-occurrence of obesity aggravates asthma symptoms. Diet-induced obesity increases helper T cell (TH) 17 cell differentiation in adipose tissue and the spleen. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pravastatin can potentially be used to treat asthma in obese patients by inhibiting interleukin 17 (IL-17) expression. This study investigated the combined effects of pravastatin and anti-IL-17 antibody treatment on allergic inflammation in a mouse model of obesity-related asthma...
April 19, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665620/personalized-cardio-metabolic-responses-to-an-anti-inflammatory-nutrition-intervention-in-obese-adolescents-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#19
Aoibheann M McMorrow, Ruth M Connaughton, Tiago R Magalhães, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Maria F Hughes, David Cheishvili, Melissa J Morine, Sean Ennis, Marie-Louise Healy, Edna F Roche, Richard E Tremblay, Moshe Szyf, Fiona E Lithander, Helen M Roche
SCOPE: Chronic inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia are characteristic of obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR). The effect of an anti-inflammatory nutrition supplement (AINS) on IR and adiponectin biology in overweight adolescents was investigated. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which individuals' biomarker profiles, derived from baseline phenotypes, predicted response or not to the AINS. Additionally, the impact of DNA methylation on intervention efficacy was assessed...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664665/genetic-variation-in-nfkb1-gene-influences-liver-enzyme-levels-in-morbidly-obese-women
#20
Guven Yenmis, Tugba Soydas, Hulya Arkan, Ertugrul Tasan, Gonul Kanigur Sultuybek
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity (MO), characterized by low-grade inflammation, is associated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP). NF-KB is a candidate factor for inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases such as obesity. The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between NFKB1 gene variations and the risk of MO in the context of the high/normal level of liver enzymes such as Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)...
January 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
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