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Obesity inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651353/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-mediates-sleep-fragmentation-induced-insulin-resistance-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-mice
#1
David Gozal, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanghong Qiao, Mahzad Akbarpour, Rosanna Maccari, Rosaria Ottanà
Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is highly prevalent and has emerged as an important contributing factor to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that SF-induced increases in protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) expression and activity underlie increased food intake, inflammation, and leptin and insulin resistance. Methods: Wild type (WT) and ObR-PTP-1b-/- mice (Tg) were exposed to SF and control sleep (SC), and food intake was monitored...
June 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651075/modulation-of-natriuretic-peptide-receptors-in-human-adipose-tissue-molecular-mechanisms-behind-the-natriuretic-handicap-in-morbidly-obese-patients
#2
A Gentili, M R Frangione, E Albini, C Vacca, M A Ricci, S De Vuono, M Boni, F Rondelli, L Rotelli, G Lupattelli, C Orabona
The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) hormone plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular and energy homeostasis. Obesity is associated with low circulating levels of BNP, a condition known as "natriuretic handicap." Recent evidences suggest an altered expression of BNP receptors-both the signaling natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR)-A and the clearance NPR-C receptor-in adipose tissue (AT) as one of the putative causes of natriuretic handicap. The current study aims at clarifying the molecular mechanisms behind the natriuretic handicap, focusing on NPR modulation in the AT of obese and control subjects...
June 10, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651064/progranulin-as-a-biomarker-and-potential-therapeutic-agent
#3
REVIEW
Vanessa Abella, Jesús Pino, Morena Scotece, Javier Conde, Francisca Lago, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Antonio Mera, Rodolfo Gómez, Ali Mobasheri, Oreste Gualillo
Progranulin is a cysteine-rich secreted protein with diverse pleiotropic actions and participates in several processes, such as inflammation or tumorigenesis. Progranulin was first identified as a growth factor and, recently, it was characterised as an adipokine implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and rheumatic disease. At a central level, progranulin acts as a neurotropic and neuroprotective factor and protects from neural degeneration. In this review, we summarise the most recent research advances concerning the potential role of progranulin as a therapeutic target and biomarker in cancer, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases...
June 23, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650865/effect-of-obesity-on-bladder-cancer-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-incidence-and-survival
#4
Philipp Gild, Behfar Ehdaie, Luis A Kluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in the general population and among cancer survivors in the last three decades. In this review, we highlight the impact of obesity on carcinogenesis and survival with a focus on bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity presents an established risk factor for an up to 1.8-fold relative risk of RCC. Data with regard to bladder cancer are less abundant but support this association as well...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649659/inflammation-of-mammary-adipose-tissue-occurs-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-exhibiting-early-stage-breast-cancer
#5
Charlotte Vaysse, Jon Lømo, Øystein Garred, Frøydis Fjeldheim, Trygve Lofteroed, Ellen Schlichting, Anne McTiernan, Hanne Frydenberg, Anders Husøy, Steinar Lundgren, Morten W Fagerland, Elin Richardsen, Erik A Wist, Catherine Muller, Inger Thune
Growing evidence indicates that adiposity is associated with breast cancer risk and negatively affects breast cancer recurrence and survival, a paracrine role of mammary adipose tissue being very likely in this process. In contrast to other adipose depots, occurrence of a sub-inflammatory state of mammary adipose tissue defined by dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages forming crown-like structures in overweight and obese subjects, remains only partially described. In a general population of breast cancer patients (107 patients) mostly undergoing breast-conserving surgery, we found a positive association between patient's body composition, breast adipocytes size, and presence of crown-like structures in mammary adipose tissue close to the tumor...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649655/gene-expression-in-breast-and-adipose-tissue-after-12-months-of-weight-loss-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-postmenopausal-women
#6
Caitlin Mason, Lei Wang, Catherine Duggan, Ikuyo Imayama, Sushma S Thomas, Ching-Yun Wang, Larissa A Korde, Anne McTiernan
Adipose tissue is involved in the etiology of postmenopausal breast cancer, possibly through increased sex steroid hormone production, inflammation, and altered adipokines. Vitamin D may affect these pathways but its effect on gene expression in different tissues has not been examined. Within a double-blind, 12-month placebo-controlled randomized trial, we compared 2000 IU/day oral vitamin D3 supplementation (N = 39) vs. placebo (N = 40) on the expression of 5 genes in breast and adipose tissue in overweight/obese postmenopausal women (50-75 years)...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649594/specific-macronutrients-exert-unique-influences-on-the-adipose-liver-axis-to-promote-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#7
Caroline C Duwaerts, Amin M Amin, Kevin Siao, Chris Her, Mark Fitch, Carine Beysen, Scott M Turner, Amanda Goodsell, Jody L Baron, James P Grenert, Soo-Jin Cho, Jacquelyn J Maher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The factors that distinguish metabolically healthy obesity from metabolically unhealthy obesity are not well understood. Diet has been implicated as a determinant of the unhealthy obesity phenotype, but which aspects of the diet induce dysmetabolism are unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate whether specific macronutrients or macronutrient combinations provoke dysmetabolism in the context of isocaloric, high-energy diets. METHODS: Mice were fed 4 high-energy diets identical in calorie and nutrient content but different in nutrient composition for 3 weeks to 6 months...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649593/colonic-microbiota-encroachment-correlates-with-dysglycemia-in-humans
#8
Benoit Chassaing, Shreya M Raja, James D Lewis, Shanthi Srinivasan, Andrew T Gewirtz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucoid structures that coat the epithelium play an essential role in keeping the intestinal microbiota at a safe distance from host cells. Encroachment of bacteria into the normally almost-sterile inner mucus layer has been observed in inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis. Moreover, such microbiota encroachment has also been observed in mouse models of metabolic syndrome, which are associated low-grade intestinal inflammation. Hence, we investigated if microbiota encroachment might correlate with indices of metabolic syndrome in humans...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649243/distinct-blood-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-regulatory-t-cell-and-innate-lymphocyte-profiles-characterize-obesity-and-colorectal-cancer
#9
Gloria Donninelli, Manuela Del Cornò, Marina Pierdominici, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Varì, Barbara Varano, Ilenia Pacella, Silvia Piconese, Vincenzo Barnaba, Massimo D'Archivio, Roberta Masella, Lucia Conti, Sandra Gessani
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a main site where metabolic and immunologic processes interplay to regulate, at local and systemic level, the inflammatory status and immune response. Obesity-associated inflammation and immune dysfunctions are inextricably linked to tumor but, in spite of intense efforts, the mechanisms underpinning this association remain elusive. In this report, we characterized the profile of VAT-associated and circulating innate lymphocyte and regulatory T (Treg) cell subsets underlying inflammatory conditions, such as obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649081/soluble-transferrin-receptor-ferritin-index-in-pakistani-population
#10
Faiza Alam, Nabeel Ashraf, Ramsha Kashif, Hashaam Arshad, Syeda Sadia Fatima
Inflammation affects the reliability of ferritin. The serum level of transferrin receptor protein (sTfR) represents true demand of iron in the body. This study attempts to identify levels of sTfR and correlate the trends of sTfR/ferritin index with BMI in the population of Karachi. 132 gender matched volunteers between the ages of 20-60 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. BMI was calculated using the formula: (weight in kg / height in m2). Following groups were made according to South Asian criteria of BMI; Group A: normal weight (18...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648831/glucagon-like-peptide-1-a-potential-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-obesity-related-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Dan-Vinh Nguyen, Angela Linderholm, Angela Haczku, Nicholas Kenyon
Alterations in arginine metabolism and accelerated formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), crucial mechanisms in obesity-related asthma, can be modulated by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). L-arginine dysregulation in obesity promotes inflammation and bronchoconstriction. Prolonged hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress leads to production of AGEs, that bind to their receptor (RAGE) further potentiating inflammation. By binding to its widely distributed receptor, GLP-1 blunts the effects of RAGE activation and arginine dysregulation...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647509/a-review-of-acalypha-indica-l-euphorbiaceae-as-traditional-medicinal-plant-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#12
REVIEW
Nor Syahiran Zahidin, Syafiqah Saidin, Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli, Ida Idayu Muhamad, Harisun Ya'akob, Hadi Nur
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acalypha indica is an herbal plant that grows in wet, temperate and tropical region, primarily along the earth's equator line. This plant is considered by most people as a weed and can easily be found in these regions. Although this plant is a weed, Acalypha indica has been acknowledged by local people as a useful source of medicine for several therapeutic treatments. They consume parts of the plant for many therapeutics purposes such as anthelmintic, anti-ulcer, bronchitis, asthma, wound healing, anti-bacterial and other applications...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647324/ampk-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-treating-metabolic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Emily A Day, Rebecca J Ford, Gregory R Steinberg
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways and may have therapeutic importance for treating obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the ubiquitous expression of AMPK, it has been a challenge to evaluate which tissue types may be most beneficially poised for mediating the positive metabolic effects of AMPK-centered treatments. In this review we evaluate the metabolic phenotypes of transgenic mouse models in which AMPK expression and function have been manipulated, and the impact this has on controlling lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation...
June 21, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646635/postprandial-endotoxemia-a-significant-contributor-to-chronic-diseases
#14
Andrew W Campbell
The increase of chronic diseases in the world's population continues unabated. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, arthritis, autoimmunity, and gastrointestinal disorders are all too common and costly, and most have as their source inflammation. T2D is now considered a pandemic, and there is one commonality to many of these: They are, for the most part, preventable.
May 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646140/effect-of-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-on-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-risks-in-healthy-overweight-adults-a-randomised-crossover-trial
#15
Estifanos Baye, Maximilian Pj de Courten, Karen Walker, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Arul Earnest, Josephine M Forbes, Barbora de Courten
Diets high in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are thought to be detrimental to cardiovascular health. However, there remains uncertainty about the beneficial effect of a low AGE diet on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers in overweight individuals. We thus performed a randomised, double blind, crossover trial to determine whether consumption of low AGE diets reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risks in overweight and obese otherwise healthy adults. All participants (n = 20) consumed low and high AGE diets alternately for two weeks and separated by a four week washout period...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645880/biomarkers-of-airway-and-systemic-inflammation-in-obese-asthmatic-paediatric-patients
#16
H T Nacaroglu, O B Gayret, M Erol, O Buke, O Zengi, M Tasdemir, Z Tasdemir, O Yigit
BACKGROUND: It is thought that airway inflammation is more common in obese asthmatic patients because inflammation is harder to control and does not respond well to glucocorticoid treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study's aim was to investigate the effect of obesity on airway and systemic inflammation in children with asthma and to identify the biomarkers that play a role in this inflammation. METHODS: The study included patients aged 6-16 years who were diagnosed with asthma in the paediatric allergy outpatient clinic of Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Turkey...
June 20, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645738/human-germline-hedgehog-pathway-mutations-predispose-to-fatty-liver
#17
Maria J Guillen Sacoto, Ariel F Martinez, Yu Abe, Paul Kruszka, Karin Weiss, Joshua L Everson, Ramon Bataller, David E Kleiner, Jerrold M Ward, Kathleen K Sulik, Robert J Lipinski, Benjamin D Solomon, Maximilian Muenke
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease. Activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in the progression of NAFLD and proposed as a therapeutic target; however, the effects of Hh signaling inhibition have not been studied in humans with germline mutations affecting this pathway. METHODS: Patients with holoprosencephaly (HPE), a disorder associated with germline mutations disrupting Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, were clinically evaluated for NAFLD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645193/irf6-regulates-alternative-activation-by-suppressing-ppar%C3%AE-in-male-murine-macrophages
#18
Chuan Li, Wei Ying, Zheping Huang, Tyler Brehm, Andrew Morin, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Aberrant pro-inflammatory and suppressed anti-inflammatory (alternative) macrophage activation underlies the chronic inflammation associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. This study demonstrates a novel role for Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) in regulating macrophage alternative activation (M2) by suppressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression, a critical regulator of alternative macrophage polarization. The data demonstrate suppression of IRF6 in both M2 macrophages and obese adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
June 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644409/quercetin-protects-obesity-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-by-reducing-microglia-mediated-inflammatory-responses-via-ho-1-induction
#19
Jihyeon Yang, Chu-Sook Kim, Thai Hien Tu, Min-Seon Kim, Tsuyoshi Goto, Teruo Kawada, Myung-Sook Choi, Taesun Park, Mi-Kyung Sung, Jong Won Yun, Suck-Young Choe, Jee Hye Lee, Yeonsoo Joe, Hye-Seon Choi, Sung Hoon Back, Hun Taeg Chung, Rina Yu
Obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation is characterized by activation of microglia, which are resident macrophages of the central nervous system, and is implicated in the derangement of energy homeostasis, metabolic complications, and neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, is known to protect against oxidative stress and inflammation-related metabolic complications. Here, we demonstrate that quercetin reduces obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammatory responses, and the beneficial action of quercetin is associated with heme oxygenase (HO-1) induction...
June 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#20
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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