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Endogenous retrovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162694/an-endogenous-retroviral-envelope-syncytin-and-its-cognate-receptor-identified-in-the-viviparous-placental-mabuya-lizard
#1
Guillaume Cornelis, Mathis Funk, Cécile Vernochet, Francisca Leal, Oscar Alejandro Tarazona, Guillaume Meurice, Odile Heidmann, Anne Dupressoir, Aurélien Miralles, Martha Patricia Ramirez-Pinilla, Thierry Heidmann
Syncytins are envelope genes from endogenous retroviruses that have been captured during evolution for a function in placentation. They have been found in all placental mammals in which they have been searched, including marsupials. Placental structures are not restricted to mammals but also emerged in some other vertebrates, most frequently in lizards, such as the viviparous Mabuya Scincidae. Here, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing of a Mabuya placenta transcriptome and screened for the presence of retroviral env genes with a full-length ORF...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160173/gene-delivery-to-joints-by-intra-articular-injection
#2
Christopher H Evans, Steven Craig Ghivizzani, Paul D Robbins
Most forms of arthritis are incurable, difficult to treat and a major cause of disability in western countries. Better local treatment of arthritis is impaired by the pharmacokinetics of the joint that make it very difficult to deliver drugs to joints at sustained, therapeutic concentrations. This is especially true of biologic drugs, such as proteins and RNA, many of which show great promise in pre-clinical studies. Gene transfer provides a strategy for overcoming this limitation. The basic concept is to deliver cDNAs encoding therapeutic products by direct intra-articular injection, leading to sustained, endogenous synthesis of the gene products within the joint...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158564/long-read-genome-sequence-assembly-provides-insight-into-ongoing-retroviral-invasion-of-the-koala-germline
#3
Matthew Hobbs, Andrew King, Ryan Salinas, Zhiliang Chen, Kyriakos Tsangaras, Alex D Greenwood, Rebecca N Johnson, Katherine Belov, Marc R Wilkins, Peter Timms
The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is implicated in several diseases affecting the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). KoRV provirus can be present in the genome of koalas as an endogenous retrovirus (present in all cells via germline integration) or as exogenous retrovirus responsible for somatic integrations of proviral KoRV (present in a limited number of cells). This ongoing invasion of the koala germline by KoRV provides a powerful opportunity to assess the viral strategies used by KoRV in an individual. Analysis of a high-quality genome sequence of a single koala revealed 133 KoRV integration sites...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149987/inhibition-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-by-multi-targeting-micro-rna-against-long-terminal-region
#4
H-C Chung, V-G Nguyen, W-T Oh, T-M-L Huynh, H-J Moon, J-H Lee, H-K Kim, S-J Park, B-K Park
BACKGROUND: There might be much benefit in xenotransplantation, however, the risk of infections across species barriers remains, especially porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). To date, many attempts have been made to knock down active PERVs by inhibitory RNA (RNAi) and micro RNA (miRNA), which target different genes of PERV. There are a few studies that have explored whether targeting promoter regions of PERV could exert an inhibition effect. METHODS: miRNAs were automatically selected based on an online program BLOCK-iT RNAi Designer...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149984/corneal-xenotransplantation-from-pig-to-rhesus-monkey-no-signs-of-transmission-of-endogenous-porcine-retroviruses
#5
A Li, Y Zhang, Y Liu, Z Pan
BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantations of pig corneas have become an attractive alternative to human corneas. Such xenotransplantations carry the danger, however, of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). Here, we investigated whether porcine corneas harbor viral DNA and RNA and whether transplantation to a nonhuman primate would lead to host PERV infection. METHODS: Monkey vein endothelial cells (MVECs) were inoculated with porcine aortic endothelial cell (PAEC) supernatants, and DNA and total RNA of MVECs were tested for PERV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133530/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-new-take-on-a-retro-idea
#6
EDITORIAL
Miranda K Culley, Stephen Y Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132963/screening-for-viral-extraneous-agents-in-live-attenuated-avian-vaccines-by-using-a-microbial-microarray-and-sequencing
#7
Majken Lindholm Olesen, Lotte Leick Jørgensen, Merete Blixenkrone-Møller, Eva Sandberg, Peer Lyng Frandsen, Erik Østergaard, Eva Rauhe Bækdahl, Helena Fridholm, Anders Fomsgaard, Maiken Worsøe Rosenstierne
The absence of extraneous agents (EA) in the raw material used for production and in finished products is one of the principal safety elements related to all medicinal products of biological origin, such as live-attenuated vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial detection array version 2 (LLMDAv2) combined with whole genome amplification and sequencing for screening for viral EAs in live-attenuated vaccines and specific pathogen-free (SPF) eggs...
November 10, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131463/inactivation-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-in-pigs-using-crispr-cas9-editorial-commentary
#8
Linda Scobie, Joachim Denner, Henk-Jan Schuurman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118853/identification-of-a-novel-herv-k-hml10-comprehensive-characterization-and-comparative-analysis-in-non-human-primates-provide-insights-about-hml10-proviruses-structure-and-diffusion
#9
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Maria Paola Pisano, Francesca Esposito, Jonas Blomberg, Enzo Tramontano
Background: About half of the human genome is constituted of transposable elements, including human endogenous retroviruses (HERV). HERV sequences represent the 8% of our genetic material, deriving from exogenous infections occurred millions of years ago in the germ line cells and being inherited by the offspring in a Mendelian fashion. HERV-K elements (classified as HML1-10) are among the most studied HERV groups, especially due to their possible correlation with human diseases. In particular, the HML10 group was reported to be upregulated in persistent HIV-1 infected cells as well as in tumor cells and samples, and proposed to have a role in the control of host genes expression...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081790/the-melim-minipig-an-original-spontaneous-model-to-explore-cutaneous-melanoma-genetic-basis
#10
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Bourneuf
Melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer and is a major public health concern with a growing incidence worldwide. As for other complex diseases, animal models are needed in order to better understand the mechanisms leading to pathology, identify potential biomarkers to be used in the clinics, and eventually molecular targets for therapeutic solutions. Cutaneous melanoma, arising from skin melanocytes, is mainly caused by environmental factors such as UV radiation; however a significant genetic component participates in the etiology of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080983/autoimmune-responses-to-exosomes-and-candidate-antigens-contribute-to-type-1-diabetes-in-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#11
REVIEW
Yang D Dai, Huiming Sheng, Peter Dias, M Jubayer Rahman, Roman Bashratyan, Danielle Regn, Kristi Marquardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The initial autoimmune trigger of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, islet inflammation starts early in life, suggesting the presence of an endogenous trigger for the spontaneous autoimmune response in this T1D mouse model. In this review, we argue that abnormal release of exosomes might be the trigger of the early inflammatory and autoimmune responses in the islets. RECENT FINDINGS: Exosomes are nano-sized membrane complexes that are secreted by cells following fusion of late endosomes and/or multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075249/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-tdp-43-expression-bridges-als-and-hiv-neuropathology
#12
Renée N Douville, Avindra Nath
Despite the repetitive association of endogenous retroviruses in human disease, the mechanisms behind their pathological contributions remain to be resolved. Here we discuss how neuronal human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) expression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is a distinct pathological aspect of HIV-associated neurological conditions, such as HIV encephalitis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Enhanced neuronal HERV-K levels were observed in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, and to a higher degree in brain tissue marked by HIV replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068492/trials-of-antivirals-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
J Lycke
There is increasing evidence that human herpes viruses and human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are involved in the aetiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to acquire the ultimate evidence to confirm such a relationship, it is probably required to use specific antiviral drugs in clinical trials of MS. The results of published antiviral clinical trials in patients with MS are summarized in this review. None of them showed statistically significant effects on primary outcomes of disease activity or on disability development...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068488/human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-the-aetiology-of-ms
#14
REVIEW
T Christensen
Several lines of investigation have provided strong indications for an association between the immune-mediated, neurologic disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). Whether the relationship is causal is yet to be established. Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic-in other species than the human. Several aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been documented, both for cells in the periphery and in the central nervous system...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047258/identification-and-expression-analyses-of-equine-endogenous-retroviruses-in-horses
#15
Jeong-An Gim, Heui-Soo Kim
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been integrated into vertebrate genomes and have momentously affected host organisms. Horses (Equus caballus) have been domesticated and selected for elite racing ability over centuries. ERVs played an important role in the evolutionary diversification of the horse genome. In the present study, we identified six equine ERV families (EqERVs-E1, I1, M2, P1, S1, and Y4), their full-length viral open reading frames (ORFs), and elucidated their phylogenetic relationships. The divergence time of EqERV families assuming an evolutionary rate of 0...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046457/hiv-1-infection-of-primary-cd4-t-cells-regulates-the-expression-of-specific-herv-k-hml-2-elements
#16
George R Young, Sandra N Terry, Lara Manganaro, Alvaro Cuesta-Dominguez, Gintaras Deikus, Dabeiba Bernal-Rubio, Laura Campisi, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Robert Sebra, Viviana Simon, Lubbertus C F Mulder
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) occupy extensive regions of the human genome. Although many of these retroviral elements have lost their ability to replicate, those whose insertion took place more recently, such as the HML-2 group of HERV-K elements, still retain intact open reading frames and the capacity to produce certain viral RNA and/or proteins. Transcription of these ERVs is, however, tightly regulated by dedicated epigenetic control mechanisms. Nonetheless, it has been reported that some pathologic states, such as viral infections and certain cancers, coincide with ERV expression suggesting transcriptional reawakening is possible...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046454/mechanisms-of-herv-k-hml-2-transcription-during-human-mammary-epithelial-cell-transformation
#17
Meagan Montesion, Neeru Bhardwaj, Zachary H Williams, Charlotte Kuperwasser, John M Coffin
Increasing evidence suggests that repetitive elements may play a role in host gene regulation, particularly through the donation of alternative promoters, enhancers, splice sites, and termination signals. Elevated transcript expression of the endogenous retrovirus group HERV-K (HML-2) is seen in many human cancers, although the identity of the individual proviral loci contributing to this expression as well as their mechanism of activation has been unclear. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing techniques optimized for the capture of HML-2 expression, we characterized the HML-2 transcriptome and means of activation in an in vitro model of human mammary epithelial cell transformation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040764/rif1-promotes-a-repressive-chromatin-state-to-safeguard-against-endogenous-retrovirus-activation
#18
Pishun Li, Li Wang, Brian D Bennett, Jiajia Wang, Jialun Li, Yufeng Qin, Motoki Takaku, Paul A Wade, Jiemin Wong, Guang Hu
Transposable elements, including endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), constitute a large fraction of the mammalian genome. They are transcriptionally silenced during early development to protect genome integrity and aberrant transcription. However, the mechanisms that control their repression are not fully understood. To systematically study ERV repression, we carried out an RNAi screen in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and identified a list of novel regulators. Among them, Rif1 displays the strongest effect...
October 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982996/long-read-sequencing-reveals-a-gc-pressure-during-the-evolution-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus
#19
Attila Szűcs, Norbert Moldován, Dóra Tombácz, Zsolt Csabai, Michael Snyder, Zsolt Boldogkői
Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a porcine endogenous retrovirus determined by Pacific Biosciences sequencing. A comparison of the genome of this isolate with those of other strains revealed the operation of a mechanism resulting in the selective accumulation of G and C bases in the viral DNA.
October 5, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982120/identification-of-sapovirus-gv-2-astrovirus-va3-and-novel-anelloviruses-in-serum-from-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-of-unknown-aetiology
#20
Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, N Timoneda, X Fernandez-Cassi, A Caballero, J F Abril, M Buti, F Rodriguez-Frias, R Girones
Hepatitis is a general term meaning inflammation of the liver, which can be caused by a variety of viruses. However, a substantial number of cases remain with unknown aetiology. We analysed the serum of patients with clinical signs of hepatitis using a metagenomics approach to characterize their viral species composition. Four pools of patients with hepatitis without identified aetiological agents were evaluated. Additionally, one pool of patients with hepatitis E (HEV) and pools of healthy volunteers were included as controls...
2017: PloS One
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