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Endogenous retrovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642863/friends-enemies-endogenous-retroviruses-are-major-transcriptional-regulators-of-human-dna
#1
REVIEW
Anton A Buzdin, Vladimir Prassolov, Andrew V Garazha
Endogenous retroviruses are mobile genetic elements hardly distinguishable from infectious, or "exogenous," retroviruses at the time of insertion in the host DNA. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are not rare. They gave rise to multiple families of closely related mobile elements that occupy ~8% of the human genome. Together, they shape genomic regulatory landscape by providing at least ~320,000 human transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located on ~110,000 individual HERV elements. The HERVs host as many as 155,000 mapped DNaseI hypersensitivity sites, which denote loci active in the regulation of gene expression or chromatin structure...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641767/prehistoric-enemies-within-the-contribution-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-to-neurological-diseases-meeting-report-second-international-workshop-on-human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-disease-washington-dc-march-13th-and-14th-2017
#2
David Kremer, Robert Glanzman, Anthony Traboulsee, Avindra Nath, Laurent Groc, Marc Horwitz, Peter Göttle, Hervé Perron, Julian Gold, Hans-Peter Hartung, Patrick Küry
The Second International Workshop on Human Endogenous Retroviruses and Disease, Washington DC, March 13-14 2017 brought together international basic and clinical scientists investigating the involvement of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in complex human diseases.
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639221/hbv-x-protein-induces-overexpression-of-herv-w-env-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-hepg2-cells
#3
Cong Liu, Lijuan Liu, Xiuling Wang, Youyi Liu, Miao Wang, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) at chromosome 7 is highly expressed in the placenta and possesses fusogenic activity in trophoblast development. HERV-W env has been found to be overexpressed in some cancers and immune diseases. Viral transactivators can induce the overexpression of HERV-W env in human cell lines. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is believed to be a multifunctional oncogenic protein. Here, we reported that HBx could increase the promoter activity of HERV-W env and upregulate the mRNA levels of non-spliced and spliced HERV-W env and also its protein in human hepatoma HepG2 cells...
June 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637276/repetitive-element-transcripts-are-elevated-in-the-brain-of-c9orf72-als-ftld-patients
#4
Mercedes Prudencio, Patrick K Gonzales, Casey N Cook, Tania F Gendron, Lillian M Daughrity, Yuping Song, Mark T W Ebbert, Marka van Blitterswijk, Yong-Jie Zhang, Karen Jansen-West, Matthew C Baker, Michael DeTure, Rosa Rademakers, Kevin B Boylan, Dennis W Dickson, Leonard Petrucelli, Christopher D Link
Significant transcriptome alterations are detected in the brain of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including carriers of the C9orf72 repeat expansion and C9orf72-negative sporadic cases. Recently, the expression of repetitive element transcripts has been associated with toxicity and, while increased repetitive element expression has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about their contribution to ALS. To assess whether aberrant expression of repetitive element sequences are observed in ALS, we analyzed RNA sequencing data from C9orf72-positive and sporadic ALS cases, as well as healthy controls...
June 16, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632161/endogenous-retroviral-insertions-indicate-a-secondary-introduction-of-domestic-sheep-lineages-to-the-caucasus-and-central-asia-between-the-bronze-and-iron-age
#5
Oskar Schroeder, Norbert Benecke, Kai Frölich, Zuogang Peng, Kai Kaniuth, Leonid Sverchkov, Sabine Reinhold, Andrey Belinskiy, Arne Ludwig
Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas...
June 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605635/expression-of-herv-k108-envelope-interferes-with-hiv-1-production
#6
Sandra N Terry, Lara Manganaro, Alvaro Cuesta-Dominguez, Daria Brinzevich, Viviana Simon, Lubbertus C F Mulder
The human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-K of the HML-2 group include full-length or near full-length elements encoding functional proteins, and are classified as type-1 or type-2 (type-1 has a deletion in the 5' end of the env gene). Because proteins of different retroviruses can interact, we hypothesized that HERV-K envelope (Env) could influence HIV-1 replication. Here we describe the negative effect of envelope expression of certain type-2 HERV-Ks on HIV-1 production. All HIV-1 and SIV strains tested were susceptible to various degrees to inhibition by the HERV-K108 envelope...
June 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593618/rig-i-a-multifunctional-protein-beyond-a-pattern-recognition-receptor
#7
REVIEW
Xiao-Xiao Xu, Han Wan, Li Nie, Tong Shao, Li-Xin Xiang, Jian-Zhong Shao
It was widely known that retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) functions as a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that initiates innate antiviral immunity by detecting exogenous viral RNAs. However, recent studies showed that RIG-I participates in other various cellular activities by sensing endogenous RNAs under different circumstances. For example, RIG-I facilitates the therapy resistance and expansion of breast cancer cells and promotes T cell-independent B cell activation through interferon signaling activation by recognizing non-coding RNAs and endogenous retroviruses in certain situations...
June 8, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561791/epigenetic-control-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-expression-focus-on-regulation-of-long-terminal-repeats-ltrs
#8
REVIEW
Tara P Hurst, Gkikas Magiorkinis
Transposable elements, including endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), comprise almost 45% of the human genome. This could represent a significant pathogenic burden but it is becoming more evident that many of these elements have a positive contribution to make to normal human physiology. In particular, the contributions of human ERVs (HERVs) to gene regulation and the expression of noncoding RNAs has been revealed with the help of new and emerging genomic technologies. HERVs have the common provirus structure of coding open reading frames (ORFs) flanked by two long-terminal repeats (LTRs)...
May 31, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#9
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545228/aberrant-dna-methylation-as-a-biomarker-and-a-therapeutic-target-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Toshiaki Nakaoka, Yoshimasa Saito, Hidetsugu Saito
Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial malignancy arising in the region between the intrahepatic bile ducts and the ampulla of Vater at the distal end of the common bile duct. The effect of current chemotherapy regimens against cholangiocarcinoma is limited, and the prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma is poor. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification induce silencing of tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability during carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that the tumor suppressor genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) including MLH1, p14, p16, death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), miR-370 and miR-376c are frequently methylated in cholangiocarcinoma...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542724/viruses-and-endogenous-retroviruses-in-multiple-sclerosis-from-correlation-to-causation
#11
REVIEW
A-F A Mentis, E Dardiotis, N Grigoriadis, E Petinaki, G M Hadjigeorgiou
Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disease with an environmental component. According to a long-standing but unproven hypothesis dating to initial descriptions of multiple sclerosis (MS) at the end of the 19th century, viruses are either directly or indirectly implicated in MS pathogenesis. Whether viruses in MS are principally causal or simply contributory remains to be proven, but many viruses or viral elements-predominantly Epstein-Barr virus, human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) but also less common viruses such as Saffold and measles viruses-are associated with MS...
May 23, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522611/long-terminal-repeats-power-evolution-of-genes-and-gene-expression-programs-in-mammalian-oocytes-and-zygotes
#12
Vedran Franke, Sravya Ganesh, Rosa Karlic, Radek Malik, Josef Pasulka, Filip Horvat, Maja Kuzman, Helena Fulka, Marketa Cernohorska, Jana Urbanova, Eliska Svobodova, Jun Ma, Yutaka Suzuki, Fugaku Aoki, Richard M Schultz, Kristian Vlahovicek, Petr Svoboda
Retrotransposons are 'copy-and-paste' insertional mutagens that substantially contribute to mammalian genome content. Retrotransposons often carry long terminal repeats (LTRs) for retrovirus-like reverse transcription and integration into the genome. We report an extraordinary impact of a group of LTRs from the mammalian endogenous retrovirus-related ERVL retrotransposon class on gene expression in the germline and beyond. In mouse, we identified >800 LTRs from ORR1, MT, MT2, and MLT families, which resemble mobile gene-remodeling platforms that supply promoters and first exons...
May 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514743/htlv-1-tax-upregulates-early-growth-response-protein-1-through-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#13
Qingsong Huang, Zhiguo Niu, Jingxian Han, Xihong Liu, Zhuangwei Lv, Huanhuan Li, Lixiang Yuan, Xiangping Li, Shuming Sun, Hui Wang, Xinxiang Huang
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in susceptible individuals. The HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax induces persistent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. Here, we showed that both Tax expression and HTLV-1 infection promoted EGR1 overexpression. Loss of the NF-κB binding site in the EGR1 promotor or inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced Tax-induced EGR1 upregulation...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503733/long-term-safety-from-transmission-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-after-pig-to-non-human-primate-corneal-transplantation
#14
Hyuk Jin Choi, Jiyeon Kim, Jae Young Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Won Ryang Wee, Mee Kum Kim, Eung Soo Hwang
BACKGROUND: The risk of xenozoonosis mainly by porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) has been considered as one of the main hurdles in xenotransplantation and therefore should be elucidated prior to the clinical use of porcine corneal grafts. Accordingly, an investigation was performed to analyze the infectivity of PERVs from porcine keratocytes to human cells, and the long-term risk of transmission of PERVs was determined using pig-to-non-human primate (NHP) corneal transplantation models...
May 14, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502830/with-me-or-against-me-tumor-suppressor-and-drug-resistance-activities-of-samhd1
#15
REVIEW
Nikolas Herold, Sean G Rudd, Kumar Sanjiv, Juliane Kutzner, Ida Hed Myrberg, Cynthia B J Paulin, Thale Kristin Olsen, Thomas Helleday, Jan-Inge Henter, Torsten Schaller
Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a (deoxy)guanosine triphosphate (dGTP/GTP)-activated deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase involved in cellular dNTP homoeostasis. Mutations in SAMHD1 have been associated with the hyperinflammatory disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). SAMHD1 also limits the permissiveness of cells to infection with diverse viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), and controls endogenous retroviruses...
May 11, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500258/transposon-driven-transcription-is-a-conserved-feature-of-vertebrate-spermatogenesis-and-transcript-evolution
#16
Matthew P Davis, Claudia Carrieri, Harpreet K Saini, Stijn van Dongen, Tommaso Leonardi, Giovanni Bussotti, Jack M Monahan, Tania Auchynnikava, Angelo Bitetti, Juri Rappsilber, Robin C Allshire, Alena Shkumatava, Dónal O'Carroll, Anton J Enright
Spermatogenesis is associated with major and unique changes to chromosomes and chromatin. Here, we sought to understand the impact of these changes on spermatogenic transcriptomes. We show that long terminal repeats (LTRs) of specific mouse endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) drive the expression of many long non-coding transcripts (lncRNA). This process occurs post-mitotically predominantly in spermatocytes and round spermatids. We demonstrate that this transposon-driven lncRNA expression is a conserved feature of vertebrate spermatogenesis...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497736/-implication-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#17
Pierre Ellul, Laurent Groc, Marion Leboyer
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are neuropsychiatric disorders of unknown origin. It seems that these two disorders share some common etiopathogenic mechanisms including genetic, environmental and inflammatory ones. Reactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus type W (HERV-W) can be a shared element in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, linked to immuno-genetic and environment risk factors. We will present studies that have highlighted the presence of HERV-W in schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patients...
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497735/-endogenous-retroviral-sequences-in-the-human-genome-can-play-a-physiological-or-pathological-role
#18
Julie Medina, Benjamin Charvet, Pascal Leblanc, Raphaële Germi, Branka Horvat, Patrice N Marche, Hervé Perron
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) represent a large part of our genome and the few elements that have retained a potential of expression still remain "dormant" in physiological conditions. In some instances, they can be awakened by environmental factors activating their expression. The best studied conditions of HERV activation are infections caused by microorganisms such as viruses of the Herpesvirus family. This activation can thus lead to the expression of pathogenic proteins such as envelope proteins belonging to the HERV-W and HERV-K families, respectively involved in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474333/the-egf-epidermal-growth-factor-counteracts-tat-modulation-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-of-the-w-family-in-astrocytes
#19
Elena Uleri, Claudia Piu, Maurizio Caocci, Gabriele Ibba, Caterina Serra, Antonina Dolei
Human astrocyte cells were exposed to HIV-Tat and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF), to monitor the expression of the neuropathogenic MSRV and Syncytin-1 elements of the HERV-W family of endogenous retroviruses and of TNFα. The results indicate that EGF counteracts Tat regulation of HERV-W/MSRVenv/Syncytin-1, throughout EGFR activation; this effect occurs by interfering with the induction of TNFα production by Tat. The novel effect of EGF counteraction of Tat-mediated regulation of the neuropathogenic HERV-Ws could be neuro-protective, but its actual role in the brain remains to be elucidated...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472185/a-computational-method-for-prediction-of-matrix-proteins-in-endogenous-retroviruses
#20
Yucheng Ma, Ruiling Liu, Hongqiang Lv, Jiuqiang Han, Dexing Zhong, Xinman Zhang
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) encode active retroviral proteins, which may be involved in the progression of cancer and other diseases. Matrix protein (MA), in group-specific antigen genes (gag) of retroviruses, is associated with the virus envelope glycoproteins in most mammalian retroviruses and may be involved in virus particle assembly, transport and budding. However, the amount of annotated MAs in ERVs is still at a low level so far. No computational method to predict the exact start and end coordinates of MAs in gags has been proposed yet...
2017: PloS One
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