keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Endogenous retrovirus

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914702/renal-xenotransplantation-experimental-progress-and-clinical-prospects
#1
Martin Wijkstrom, Hayato Iwase, Wayne Paris, Hidetaka Hara, Mohamed Ezzelarab, David K C Cooper
There are >100,000 patients waiting for kidney transplants in the United States and a vast need worldwide. Xenotransplantation, in the form of the transplantation of kidneys from genetically engineered pigs, offers the possibility of overcoming the chronic shortage of deceased and living human donors. These genetic manipulations can take the form of (i) knockout of pig genes that are responsible for the expression of antigens against which the primate (human or nonhuman primate) has natural "preformed" antibodies that bind and initiate complement-mediated destruction or (ii) the insertion of human transgenes that provide protection against the human complement, coagulation, or inflammatory responses...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889452/an-rb-ezh2-complex-mediates-silencing-of-repetitive-dna-sequences
#2
Charles A Ishak, Aren E Marshall, Daniel T Passos, Carlee R White, Seung J Kim, Matthew J Cecchini, Sara Ferwati, William A MacDonald, Christopher J Howlett, Ian D Welch, Seth M Rubin, Mellissa R W Mann, Frederick A Dick
Repetitive genomic regions include tandem sequence repeats and interspersed repeats, such as endogenous retroviruses and LINE-1 elements. Repressive heterochromatin domains silence expression of these sequences through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) utilizes a cell-cycle-independent interaction with E2F1 to recruit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) to diverse repeat sequences. These include simple repeats, satellites, LINEs, and endogenous retroviruses as well as transposon fragments...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885560/expression-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-w-in-babies
#3
L H S Nali, A C S Oliveira, D O Alves, G S Caleiro, C F Nunes, D Gerhardt, R C M Succi, Camila M Romano, D M Machado
Here we determined the relative expression of HERV-K and W proviruses in HIV infected and non-infected mothers as well as their respective babies up to 1 year-old. HIV-infected mothers, their babies and uninfected control groups presented expression of both HERV-K and HERV-W with relatively high frequency. While the level of HERV-K expression was similar among groups, the level of HERV-W expression in HIV-infected mothers was four-fold higher than the uninfected mothers from the control group (p < 0.01)...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881645/phylogenetic-diversity-of-koala-retrovirus-within-a-wild-koala-population
#4
K J Chappell, J C Brealey, A A Amarilla, D Watterson, L Hulse, C Palmieri, S D Johnston, E C Holmes, J Meers, P R Young
: Koala populations are in serious decline across many areas of mainland Australia, with infectious disease a contributing factor. Koala Retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus present in most wild Koala populations and captive colonies. Five subtypes of KoRV have been identified (A-E) based on amino acid sequence divergence in a hyper-variable region of the receptor binding domain of the envelope protein. However, analysis of viral genetic diversity has primarily been conducted on KoRV in captive koalas housed in zoos in Japan, the United States of America and Germany...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872471/recent-progress-in-xenotransplantation-with-emphasis-on-virological-safety
#5
Joachim Denner
Xenotransplantation is a new technology that may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs available for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Remarkable progress has recently been made in this field. First, understanding of the mechanisms of immunological rejection, mainly of the hyperacute rejection, allowed generating numerous genetically modified pigs to overcome rejection. Second, based on these genetically modified animals and new immunosuppression regimens, long-term survival of non-human primate recipients of heart, kidney, and islet cell cells has been reported...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870643/yellow-fever-vaccine-17d-administered-to-healthy-women-aged-between-40-and-54-years-halves-breast-cancer-risk-an-observational-study
#6
Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Sofia Pavanello, Emanuela Fadda, Alessandra Buja, Ugo Fedeli
Transcripts of human endogenous retrovirus K are expressed in most breast cancers (BCs). Yellow fever vaccine 17D (YFV) expresses a protein with a closely homologous epitope. Cross-reactive immunity could hypothetically inhibit BC growth at least in women aged around 50 years at diagnosis, in whom the prognosis of BC was found to be better than that in women younger or older. A cohort of 12 804 women who received YFV in the Veneto Region, Italy, was divided into two subcohorts according to age at vaccination and followed up through the Veneto Tumor Registry...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832080/transmission-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-produced-from-different-recipient-cells-in-vivo
#7
Nayoung Kim, Jiwon Choi, Sehyun Kim, Yong-Dae Gwon, Yeondong Cho, Jae Myung Yang, Yu-Kyoung Oh, Young Bong Kim
Humanized pigs have been developed to reduce the incidence of immune rejection in xenotransplantation, but significant concerns remain, such as transmission of viral zoonosis. Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV), which exist in the genome of pigs, are produced as infectious virions from all porcine cells and cause zoonosis. Here, we examined the possibility of zoonosis of hosts under conditions of immune suppression or xenotransplantation of cells producing host-adapted viruses. Upon transplantation of PERV-producing porcine cells into mice, no transmission of PERV was detected, whereas, transmission of PERV from mice transplanted with mouse-adapted PERV-producing cells was detected...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826543/endogenous-retrovirus-ev21-dose-not-recombine-with-alv-j-and-induces-the-expression-of-isgs-in-the-host
#8
Min Feng, Yan Tan, Manman Dai, Yuanfang Li, Tingting Xie, Hongmei Li, Meiqing Shi, Xiquan Zhang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816520/inherently-variable-responses-to-glucocorticoid-stress-among-endogenous-retroviruses-isolated-from-23-mouse-strains
#9
Karen Hsu, Young-Kwan Lee, Alex Chew, Sophia Chiu, Debora Lim, David G Greenhalgh, Kiho Cho
Active participation of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in disease processes has been exemplified by the finding that the HERV (human ERV)-W envelope protein is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease. We also demonstrated that injury-elicited stressors alter the expression of murine ERVs (MuERVs), both murine leukemia virus-type and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-type (MMTV-MuERV). In this study, to evaluate MMTV-MuERVs' responses to stress (e.g., injury, infection)-elicited systemic glucocorticoid (GC) levels, we examined the GC-stress response of 64 MMTV-MuERV promoters isolated from the genomes of 23 mouse strains...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776189/the-tax-inducible-actin-bundling-protein-fascin-is-crucial-for-release-and-cell-to-cell-transmission-of-human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-htlv-1
#10
Christine Gross, Veit Wiesmann, Sebastian Millen, Martina Kalmer, Thomas Wittenberg, Jan Gettemans, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769507/endogenous-retroelements-and-the-host-innate-immune-sensors
#11
X Mu, S Ahmad, S Hur
The ability to distinguish between self and nonself is the fundamental basis of the immune system in all organisms. The conceptual distinction between self and nonself, however, breaks down when it comes to endogenous retroviruses and other retroelements. While some retroelements retain the virus-like features including the capacity to replicate and reinvade the host genome, most have become inactive through mutations or host epigenetic silencing. And yet, accumulating evidence suggests that endogenous retroelements, both active and inactive, play important roles not only in pathogenesis of immune disorders, but also in proper functioning of the immune system...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713568/characterisation-of-the-immune-compounds-in-koala-milk-using-a-combined-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-approach
#12
Katrina M Morris, Denis O'Meally, Thiri Zaw, Xiaomin Song, Amber Gillett, Mark P Molloy, Adam Polkinghorne, Katherine Belov
Production of milk is a key characteristic of mammals, but the features of lactation vary greatly between monotreme, marsupial and eutherian mammals. Marsupials have a short gestation followed by a long lactation period, and milk constituents vary greatly across lactation. Marsupials are born immunologically naïve and rely on their mother's milk for immunological protection. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are an iconic Australian species that are increasingly threatened by disease. Here we use a mammary transcriptome, two milk proteomes and the koala genome to comprehensively characterise the protein components of koala milk across lactation, with a focus on immune constituents...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706211/altered-immune-cytokine-expression-associated-with-korv-b-infection-and-season-in-captive-koalas
#13
Iona E Maher, Damien P Higgins
Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are increasingly vulnerable and one of the main threats is chlamydial infection. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) has been proposed as an underlying cause of the koala's susceptibility to infection with Chlamydia and high rates of lymphoid neoplasia; however, the regionally ubiquitous, endogenous nature of this virus suggests that KoRV A infection is not sufficient for immune suppression to occur. A recently discovered exogenous variant of KoRV, KoRV B, has several structural elements that cause increased pathogenicity in related retroviruses and was associated with lymphoid neoplasia in one study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704146/first-evidence-of-herv-h-transcriptional-activity-reduction-after-methylphenidate-treatment-in-a-young-boy-with-adhd
#14
Elisa D'Agati, Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Emanuela Balestrieri, Claudia Matteucci, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Augusto Pasini
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been associated with many complex diseases including neuropsychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In ADHD an over-expression of HERV-H family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been documented. It has been hypothesized that HERVs may represent the link between genetic and environmental risk factors, contributing to the clinical onset and/or to the progression of the neurodevelopmental disease. The effect of pharmacological treatment on HERV transcriptional activity in psychiatric disorders has been attracting attention...
July 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704145/transcriptional-activity-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-in-albanian-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Emanuela Balestrieri, Chiara Cipriani, Claudia Matteucci, Natale Capodicasa, Anita Pilika, Ina Korca, Roberta Sorrentino, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Ilaria Bucci, Martino Tony Miele, Antonella Coniglio, Riccardo Alessandrelli, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona
Recent studies suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors, whose possible links could be represented by epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we investigated the transcriptional activity of three human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Albanian ASD children, by quantitative real-time PCR. We aimed to confirm the different expression profile already found in Italian ASD children, and to highlight any social and family health condition emerging from information gathered through a questionnaire, to be included among environmental risk factors...
July 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696782/human-endogenous-retroviral-genetic-element-with-immune-suppressive-activity-in-both-human-autoimmune-diseases-and-experimental-arthritis
#16
Magdalena Janina Laskaj, Anne Troldborg, Ellen-Margrethe Hauge, Shervin Bahrami, Kristian Stengaard-Pedersen
OBJECTIVES: Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of past retroviral infections in the human genome and have been implicated in different aspects of human biology. The aim of this study was to identify HERVs which are associated with the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid diseases represented by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: The study subjects included 45 female patients with SLE and 50 geographically and age matched healthy. Real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to examine the transcription levels of 11 genes with coding capacity for complete envelope protein in these individuals...
October 1, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686071/expression-patterns-of-endogenous-avian-retrovirus-alve1-and-its-response-to-infection-with-exogenous-avian-tumour-viruses
#17
Xuming Hu, Wenqi Zhu, Shihao Chen, Yangyang Liu, Zhen Sun, Tuoyu Geng, Chengyi Song, Bo Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Aijian Qin, Hengmi Cui
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates and have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. However, the characteristic expression patterns of ERVs, particularly in virus-induced tumours, is not fully clear. DNA methylation was analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR. In this study, we first found that the endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 was highly expressed in some chicken tissues (including the heart, bursa, thymus, and spleen) at 2 days of age, but its expression was markedly decreased at 35 days of age...
September 29, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681430/mervl-zscan4-network-activation-results-in-transient-genome-wide-dna-demethylation-of-mescs
#18
Mélanie A Eckersley-Maslin, Valentine Svensson, Christel Krueger, Thomas M Stubbs, Pascal Giehr, Felix Krueger, Ricardo J Miragaia, Charalampos Kyriakopoulos, Rebecca V Berrens, Inês Milagre, Jörn Walter, Sarah A Teichmann, Wolf Reik
Mouse embryonic stem cells are dynamic and heterogeneous. For example, rare cells cycle through a state characterized by decondensed chromatin and expression of transcripts, including the Zscan4 cluster and MERVL endogenous retrovirus, which are usually restricted to preimplantation embryos. Here, we further characterize the dynamics and consequences of this transient cell state. Single-cell transcriptomics identified the earliest upregulated transcripts as cells enter the MERVL/Zscan4 state. The MERVL/Zscan4 transcriptional network was also upregulated during induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677465/no-perv-transmission-during-a-clinical-trial-of-pig-islet-cell-transplantation
#19
Vladimir A Morozov, Shaun Wynyard, Shinichi Matsumoto, Adrian Abalovich, Joachim Denner, Robert Elliott
Xenotransplantation of pig islet cells is a promising alternative for the treatment of diabetes with insulin and may help to prevent numerous late complications such as blindness and amputation. First encouraging results using porcine islets have been reported in preclinical animal models as well in the first clinical trial in New Zealand. The goal of this manuscript is to examine the biological safety of a second trial performed in Argentina, specifically in regards to the transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) using improved detection methods As in the first trial encapsulated islet cells from the well-characterised Auckland Island pigs were used...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664983/hiv-associated-motor-neuron-disease-herv-k-activation-and-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Lauren N Bowen, Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Tariq Alfahad, Bryan Smith, Mary Wright, Elyse J Singer, Avindra Nath
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in HIV infection and whether it might respond to treatment with antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: In this case series, we present 5 patients with HIV infection who subsequently developed motor neuron disease involving both upper and lower motor neurons. We monitored HERV-K levels in plasma of 4 of these patients. RESULTS: Three patients who received antiretroviral therapy had reversal of symptoms within 6 months of onset of neurologic symptoms and the other 2 had slow neurologic progression over several years...
October 25, 2016: Neurology
keyword
keyword
64795
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"