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Endogenous retrovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207850/the-association-between-human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Elena Morandi, Radu Tanasescu, Rachael E Tarlinton, Cris S Constantinescu, Weiya Zhang, Christopher Tench, Bruno Gran
BACKGROUND: The interaction between genetic and environmental factors is crucial to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) are endogenous viral elements of the human genome whose expression is associated with MS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis and to assess qualitative and quantitative evidence on the expression of HERV families in MS patients. METHODS: Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for published studies on the association of HERVs and MS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191285/autoantibodies-against-oncogenic-erg-protein-in-prostate-cancer-potential-use-in-diagnosis-and-prognosis-in-a-panel-with-c-myc-amacr-and-herv-k-gag
#2
Anshu Rastogi, Amina Ali, Shyh-Han Tan, Sreedatta Banerjee, Yongmei Chen, Jennifer Cullen, Charles P Xavier, Ahmed A Mohamed, Lakshmi Ravindranath, Jigisha Srivastav, Denise Young, Isabell A Sesterhenn, Jacob Kagan, Sudhir Srivastava, David G McLeod, Inger L Rosner, Gyorgy Petrovics, Albert Dobi, Shiv Srivastava, Alagarsamy Srinivasan
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer (CaP) is attributable to widespread reliance on PSA screening in the US. This has prompted us and others to search for improved biomarkers for CaP, to facilitate early detection and disease stratification. In this regard, autoantibodies (AAbs) against tumor antigens could serve as potential candidates for diagnosis and prognosis of CaP. Towards this, our goals were: i) To investigate whether AAbs against ERG oncoprotein (overexpressed in 25-50% of Caucasian American and African American CaP) are present in the sera of CaP patients; ii) To evaluate an AAb panel to enhance CaP detection...
November 2016: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187417/a-machine-learning-approach-for-microrna-precursor-prediction-in-retro-transcribing-virus-genomes
#3
Müserref Duygu Saçar Demirci, Mustafa Toprak, Jens Allmer
Identification of microRNA (miRNA) precursors has seen increased efforts in recent years. The difficulty in experimental detection of pre-miRNAs increased the usage of computational approaches. Most of these approaches rely on machine learning especially classification. In order to achieve successful classification, many parameters need to be considered such as data quality, choice of classifier settings, and feature selection. For the latter one, we developed a distributed genetic algorithm on HTCondor to perform feature selection...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165135/multiple-sclerosis-associated-retrovirus-epstein-barr-virus-and-vitamin-d-status-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Aliehossadat Mostafa, Somayeh Jalilvand, Zabihollah Shoja, Ahmad Nejati, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Sayed Mahdi Marashi
The relationship between infections and autoimmune diseases is complex and there are several reports highlighting the role of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in these patients. The levels of multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV)-type DNA of Env gene was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 52 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 40 healthy controls using specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Furthermore, we analyzed the status of HERV-W/MSRV in these patients with regards to both EBV (DNA load and anti-EBNA1 IgG antibody) and vitamin D concentration...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165048/expression-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-is-strongly-associated-with-the-basal-like-breast-cancer-phenotype
#5
Gary L Johanning, Gabriel G Malouf, Xiaofeng Zheng, Francisco J Esteva, John N Weinstein, Feng Wang-Johanning, Xiaoping Su
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which make up approximately 8% of the human genome, are overexpressed in some breast cancer cells and tissues but without regard to cancer subtype. We, therefore, analyzed TCGA RNA-Seq data to evaluate differences in expression of the HERV-K family in breast cancers of the various subtypes. Four HERV-K loci on different chromosomes were analyzed in basal, Her2E, LumA, and LumB breast cancer subtypes of 512 breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The results for all four loci showed higher HERV-K expression in the basal subtype, suggesting similar mechanisms of regulation regardless of locus...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160052/silencing-of-endogenous-retroviruses-by-heterochromatin
#6
REVIEW
Sophia Groh, Gunnar Schotta
Endogenous retroviruses (ERV) are an abundant class of repetitive elements in mammalian genomes. To ensure genomic stability, ERVs are largely transcriptionally silent. However, these elements also feature physiological roles in distinct developmental contexts, under which silencing needs to be partially relieved. ERV silencing is mediated through a heterochromatic structure, which is established by histone modification and DNA methylation machineries. This heterochromatic structure is largely refractory to transcriptional stimulation, however, challenges to the heterochromatic state, such as DNA replication, require re-establishment of the heterochromatic state in competition with transcriptional activators...
February 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154780/human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-cancer
#7
María Gonzalez-Cao, Paola Iduma, Niki Karachaliou, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Julià Blanco, Rafael Rosell
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are retroviruses that infected human genome millions of years ago and have persisted throughout human evolution. About 8% of our genome is composed of HERVs, most of which are nonfunctional because of epigenetic control or deactivating mutations. However, a correlation between HERVs and human cancer has been described and many tumors, such as melanoma, breast cancer, germ cell tumors, renal cancer or ovarian cancer, express HERV proteins, mainly HERV-K (HML6) and HERV-K (HML2)...
December 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149332/the-immunomodulatory-anticancer-agent-rrx-001-induces-an-interferon-response-through-epigenetic-induction-of-viral-mimicry
#8
Hongjuan Zhao, Shoucheng Ning, Rosalie Nolley, Jan Scicinski, Bryan Oronsky, Susan J Knox, Donna M Peehl
BACKGROUND: RRx-001, a dinitroazetidine derivative, is a novel anticancer agent currently in phase II clinical trials. It mediates immunomodulatory effects either directly through polarization of tumor associated macrophages or indirectly through vascular normalization and increased T-lymphocyte infiltration. With multiple additional mechanisms of action including upregulation of oxidative stress, depletion of GSH and NADPH, anti-angiogenesis and epigenetic modulation, RRx-001 is being studied as a radio- and chemo-sensitizer to resensitize tumors to prior therapy and to prime tumors to respond to radiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy in combination therapy studies...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139237/retrotransposon-expression-and-incorporation-of-cloned-human-and-mouse-retroelements-in-human-spermatozoa
#9
Leandros Lazaros, Chrysoula Kitsou, Charilaos Kostoulas, Sofia Bellou, Elissavet Hatzi, Paris Ladias, Theodoros Stefos, Sofia Markoula, Vasiliki Galani, Georgios Vartholomatos, Theodore Tzavaras, Ioannis Georgiou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of long interspersed element (LINE) 1, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K10, and short interspersed element-VNTR-Alu element (SVA) retrotransposons in ejaculated human spermatozoa by means of reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis as well as the potential incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm cell genome. DESIGN: Laboratory study. SETTING: University research laboratories and academic hospital...
January 27, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138342/chicken-gallus-gallus-endogenous-retrovirus-generates-genomic-variations-in-the-chicken-genome
#10
Jinmin Lee, Seyoung Mun, Dong Hee Kim, Chun-Sung Cho, Dong-Yep Oh, Kyudong Han
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) comprise ~10% of the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. The content of TEs is much lower than that of mammalian genomes, where TEs comprise around half of the genome. Endogenous retroviruses are responsible for ~1.3% of the chicken genome. Among them is Gallus gallus endogenous retrovirus 10 (GGERV10), one of the youngest endogenous retrovirus families, which emerged in the chicken genome around 3 million years ago. RESULTS: We identified a total of 593 GGERV10 elements in the chicken reference genome using UCSC genome database and RepeatMasker...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134929/the-evolutionary-capacitor-hsp90-buffers-the-regulatory-effects-of-mammalian-endogenous-retroviruses
#11
Barbara Hummel, Erik C Hansen, Aneliya Yoveva, Fernando Aprile-Garcia, Rebecca Hussong, Ritwick Sawarkar
Understanding how genotypes are linked to phenotypes is important in biomedical and evolutionary studies. The chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) buffers genetic variation by stabilizing proteins with variant sequences, thereby uncoupling phenotypes from genotypes. Here we report an unexpected role of HSP90 in buffering cis-regulatory variation affecting gene expression. By using the tripartite-motif-containing 28 (TRIM28; also known as KAP1)-mediated epigenetic pathway, HSP90 represses the regulatory influence of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) on neighboring genes that are critical for mouse development...
January 30, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132025/long-non-coding-rnas-transcribed-by-erv-9-ltr-retrotransposon-act-in-cis-to-modulate-long-range-ltr-enhancer-function
#12
Tianxiang Hu, Wenhu Pi, Xingguo Zhu, Miao Yu, Hongseok Ha, Huidong Shi, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Dorothy Tuan
LTR retrotransposons are repetitive DNA elements comprising ∼10% of the human genome. However, LTR sequences are disproportionately present in human long, non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Whether and how the LTR lncRNAs serve biological functions are largely unknown. Here we show that in primary human erythroblasts, lncRNAs transcribed from the LTR retrotransposons of ERV-9 human endogenous retrovirus activated transcription of key erythroid genes and modulated ex vivo erythropoiesis. To dissect the functional mechanism of ERV-9 lncRNAs, we performed genome-wide RNA and ChIRP analyses before and after global knockdown or locus-specific deletion of ERV-9 lncRNAs in human erythroblasts carrying ∼4000 copies of the ERV-9 LTRs and in transgenic mouse erythroblasts carrying a single copy of the primate-specific ERV-9 LTR in the 100 kb human β-globin gene locus...
January 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128856/experimental-arthritis-in-the-rat-induced-by-the-superantigen-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-sea
#13
Kristina Gerlach, Christian Tomuschat, Rainer Finke, Martin Sebastian Staege, Christine Brütting, Jörg Brandt, Berit Jordan, René Schwesig, Angela Rosemeier, Karl-Stefan Delank, Malte Erich Kornhuber, Alexander Emmer
The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is incompletely understood. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and their superantigenic envelope protein (env) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. In the present investigation the arthritogenic potential of the superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been investigated. In the present investigation, the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) was injected into the right knee joint of 15 Lewis rats. Further 9 animals received saline...
January 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125999/herv-k-activation-is-strictly-required-to-sustain-cd133-melanoma-cells-with-stemness-features
#14
Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Emanuela Balestrieri, Annalucia Serafino, Chiara Cipriani, Ilaria Bucci, Roberta Sorrentino, Ilaria Sciamanna, Alessandra Gambacurta, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Claudia Matteucci
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a heterogeneous tumor in which phenotype-switching and CD133 marker have been associated with metastasis promotion and chemotherapy resistance. CD133 positive (CD133+) subpopulation has also been suggested as putative cancer stem cell (CSC) of melanoma tumor. Human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) has been described to be aberrantly activated during melanoma progression and implicated in the etiopathogenesis of disease. Earlier, we reported that stress-induced HERV-K activation promotes cell malignant transformation and reduces the immunogenicity of melanoma cells...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110755/the-phylogeny-of-placental-evolution-through-dynamic-integrations-of-retrotransposons
#15
K Imakawa, S Nakagawa
Trophoblasts, a major constituent of the placenta, are known to express genes derived from various endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) as well as LTR retrotransposons. However, the evolutionary significance of ERV-derived genes involved in placental development has not been well characterized. In this review, we catalog the diverse morphology of placental structure among mammalian species with note of counterintuitive developments. We then detail the history of ancient placenta development with paternally expressed gene 10 (Peg10/Sirh1), Peg11/Sirh2, and Sirh7/Ldoc1 as LTR retrotransposons, followed by independent captures of ERV-env-related genes such as Syncytin-1, -2, -A, -B, -Rum1, and Fematrin-1 responsible for trophoblast cell fusion, resulting in multinucleate syncytiotrophoblast formation, and possibly morphological diversification of placentas...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110749/contribution-of-syncytins-and-other-endogenous-retroviral-envelopes-to-human-placenta-pathologies
#16
P-A Bolze, M Mommert, F Mallet
Fusion, proliferation, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, and tissue survival are some of the critical functions involved in the physiological and pathological processes of placenta development. Strikingly, some of these properties are shared by envelope glycoproteins of retroviruses. Part of the overall retroviral world, the human retroviral heritage consists of hundred thousands of elements representing a huge amount of genetic material as compared to our 25,000 genes, whereas only a few tenths of retroviral loci still contain envelope genes exhibiting large open reading frames...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101126/characterisation-of-microbial-communities-within-aggressive-prostate-cancer-tissues
#17
Melissa A Yow, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gianluca Severi, Damien M Bolton, John Pedersen, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: An infectious aetiology for prostate cancer has been conjectured for decades but the evidence gained from questionnaire-based and sero-epidemiological studies is weak and inconsistent, and a causal association with any infectious agent is not established. We describe and evaluate the application of new technology to detect bacterial and viral agents in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. The potential of targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and total RNA sequencing was evaluated in terms of its utility to characterise microbial communities within high-grade prostate tumours...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088235/the-sense-behind-retroviral-anti-sense-transcription
#18
Mamneet Manghera, Alycia Magnusson, Renée N Douville
Retroviruses are known to rely extensively on the expression of viral proteins from the sense proviral genomic strand. Yet, the production of regulatory retroviral proteins from antisense-encoded viral genes is gaining research attention, due to their clinical significance. This report will discuss what is known about antisense transcription in Retroviridae, and provide new information about antisense transcriptional regulation through a comparison of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus (HTLV-1) and endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) long terminal repeats (LTRs)...
January 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071651/marine-origin-of-retroviruses-in-the-early-palaeozoic-era
#19
Pakorn Aiewsakun, Aris Katzourakis
Very little is known about the ancient origin of retroviruses, but owing to the discovery of their ancient endogenous viral counterparts, their early history is beginning to unfold. Here we report 36 lineages of basal amphibian and fish foamy-like endogenous retroviruses (FLERVs). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that ray-finned fish FLERVs exhibit an overall co-speciation pattern with their hosts, while amphibian FLERVs might not. We also observe several possible ancient viral cross-class transmissions, involving lobe-finned fish, shark and frog FLERVs...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058112/foamy-like-endogenous-retroviruses-are-extensive-and-abundant-in-teleosts
#20
Ryan Ruboyianes, Michael Worobey
Recent discoveries indicate that the foamy virus (FV) (Spumavirus) ancestor may have been among the first retroviruses to appear during the evolution of vertebrates, demonstrated by foamy endogenous retroviruses present within deeply divergent hosts including mammals, coelacanth, and ray-finned fish. If they indeed existed in ancient marine environments hundreds of millions of years ago, significant undiscovered diversity of foamy-like endogenous retroviruses might be present in fish genomes. By screening published genomes and by applying PCR-based assays of preserved tissues, we discovered 23 novel foamy-like elements in teleost hosts...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
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