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Endogenous retrovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101126/characterisation-of-microbial-communities-within-aggressive-prostate-cancer-tissues
#1
Melissa A Yow, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gianluca Severi, Damien M Bolton, John Pedersen, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: An infectious aetiology for prostate cancer has been conjectured for decades but the evidence gained from questionnaire-based and sero-epidemiological studies is weak and inconsistent, and a causal association with any infectious agent is not established. We describe and evaluate the application of new technology to detect bacterial and viral agents in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. The potential of targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and total RNA sequencing was evaluated in terms of its utility to characterise microbial communities within high-grade prostate tumours...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088235/the-sense-behind-retroviral-anti-sense-transcription
#2
Mamneet Manghera, Alycia Magnusson, Renée N Douville
Retroviruses are known to rely extensively on the expression of viral proteins from the sense proviral genomic strand. Yet, the production of regulatory retroviral proteins from antisense-encoded viral genes is gaining research attention, due to their clinical significance. This report will discuss what is known about antisense transcription in Retroviridae, and provide new information about antisense transcriptional regulation through a comparison of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus (HTLV-1) and endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) long terminal repeats (LTRs)...
January 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071651/marine-origin-of-retroviruses-in-the-early-palaeozoic-era
#3
Pakorn Aiewsakun, Aris Katzourakis
Very little is known about the ancient origin of retroviruses, but owing to the discovery of their ancient endogenous viral counterparts, their early history is beginning to unfold. Here we report 36 lineages of basal amphibian and fish foamy-like endogenous retroviruses (FLERVs). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that ray-finned fish FLERVs exhibit an overall co-speciation pattern with their hosts, while amphibian FLERVs might not. We also observe several possible ancient viral cross-class transmissions, involving lobe-finned fish, shark and frog FLERVs...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058112/foamy-like-endogenous-retroviruses-are-extensive-and-abundant-in-teleosts
#4
Ryan Ruboyianes, Michael Worobey
Recent discoveries indicate that the foamy virus (FV) (Spumavirus) ancestor may have been among the first retroviruses to appear during the evolution of vertebrates, demonstrated by foamy endogenous retroviruses present within deeply divergent hosts including mammals, coelacanth, and ray-finned fish. If they indeed existed in ancient marine environments hundreds of millions of years ago, significant undiscovered diversity of foamy-like endogenous retroviruses might be present in fish genomes. By screening published genomes and by applying PCR-based assays of preserved tissues, we discovered 23 novel foamy-like elements in teleost hosts...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057213/a-new-molecular-mechanism-underlying-the-antitumor-effect-of-dna-methylation-inhibitors-via-an-antiviral-immune-response
#5
Y Saito, T Nakaoka, H Saito
Chromatin remodeling mediated by DNA methylation and histone modifications play critical roles in the transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs, and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Many studies have shown that aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications are associated with the initiation and progression of various malignancies. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoters and histone modifications such as histone deacetylation, methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), and trimethylation of H3K27...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052240/trim28-controls-a-gene-regulatory-network-based-on-endogenous-retroviruses-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#6
Per Ludvik Brattås, Marie E Jönsson, Liana Fasching, Jenny Nelander Wahlestedt, Mansoureh Shahsavani, Ronny Falk, Anna Falk, Patric Jern, Malin Parmar, Johan Jakobsson
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which make up 8% of the human genome, have been proposed to participate in the control of gene regulatory networks. In this study, we find a region- and developmental stage-specific expression pattern of ERVs in the developing human brain, which is linked to a transcriptional network based on ERVs. We demonstrate that almost 10,000, primarily primate-specific, ERVs act as docking platforms for the co-repressor protein TRIM28 in human neural progenitor cells, which results in the establishment of local heterochromatin...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048954/a-preliminary-molecular-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-genome-of-a-novel-endogenous-retrovirus-in-the-sea-slug-elysia-chlorotica
#7
Sidney K Pierce, Padmanabhan Mahadevan, Steven E Massey, Michael L Middlebrooks
An endogenous retrovirus that is present in the sea slug Elysia chlorotica is expressed in all individuals at the end of the annual life cycle. But the precise role of the virus, if any, in slug senescence or death is unknown. We have determined the genomic sequence of the virus and performed a phylogenetic analysis of the data. The 6060-base pair genome of the virus possesses a reverse transcriptase-domain-containing protein that shows similarity to retrotransposon sequences found in Aplysia californica and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017222/association-between-human-herpesvirus-human-endogenous-retrovirus-and-ms-onset-progression
#8
REVIEW
Chunrong Tao, Steve Simpson, Bruce V Taylor, Ingrid van der Mei
This review discusses the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in the onset and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although EBV has been established as one of the causal factors in MS onset, its role in MS progression is still uncertain. Moreover, interactions between EBV and other risk factor on MS development still need more investment. With less consistent evidence than EBV, HHV6 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS; moreover, it showed a closer connection with the disease activity...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999419/transspecies-transmission-of-gammaretroviruses-and-the-origin-of-the-gibbon-ape-leukaemia-virus-galv-and-the-koala-retrovirus-korv
#9
REVIEW
Joachim Denner
Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV), two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys...
December 20, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990140/insight-into-the-ervk-integrase-propensity-for-dna-damage
#10
Samantha Bray, Matthew Turnbull, Sherry Hebert, Renée N Douville
Retroviruses create permanently integrated proviruses that exist in the host genome. Retroviral genomes encode for functionally conserved gag, pro, pol, and env regions, as well as integrase (IN), which is required for retroviral integration. IN mediates viral genome insertion through 3' end processing of the viral DNA and the strand transfer reaction. This process requires the formation of a pre-integration complex, comprised of IN, viral DNA, and cellular proteins. Viral insertion causes DNA damage, leading to the requirement of host DNA repair mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936017/cellular-prion-protein-combined-with-galectin-3-and-6-affects-the-infectivity-titer-of-an-endogenous-retrovirus-assayed-in-hippocampal-neuronal-cells
#11
Boe-Hyun Kim, Hae-Young Shin, Joy J Goto, Richard I Carp, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Yong-Sun Kim
Prion diseases are infectious and fatal neurodegenerative diseases which require the cellular prion protein, PrPC, for development of diseases. The current study shows that the PrPC augments infectivity and plaque formation of a mouse endogenous retrovirus, MuLV. We have established four neuronal cell lines expressing mouse PrPC, PrP+/+; two express wild type PrPC (MoPrPwild) and the other two express mutant PrPC (MoPrPmut). Infection of neuronal cells from various PrP+/+ and PrP-/- (MoPrPKO) lines with MuLV yielded at least three times as many plaques in PrP+/+ than in PrP-/-...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921323/the-application-of-strand-invasion-phenomenon-directed-by-peptide-nucleic-acid-pna-and-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssb-for-the-recognition-of-specific-sequences-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family
#12
Grzegorz Machnik, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Tomasz Gąsior, Małgorzata Huzarska, Dariusz Belowski, Magdalena Alenowicz, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Bogusław Okopień
The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914702/renal-xenotransplantation-experimental-progress-and-clinical-prospects
#13
Martin Wijkstrom, Hayato Iwase, Wayne Paris, Hidetaka Hara, Mohamed Ezzelarab, David K C Cooper
There are >100,000 patients waiting for kidney transplants in the United States and a vast need worldwide. Xenotransplantation, in the form of the transplantation of kidneys from genetically engineered pigs, offers the possibility of overcoming the chronic shortage of deceased and living human donors. These genetic manipulations can take the form of (i) knockout of pig genes that are responsible for the expression of antigens against which the primate (human or nonhuman primate) has natural "preformed" antibodies that bind and initiate complement-mediated destruction or (ii) the insertion of human transgenes that provide protection against the human complement, coagulation, or inflammatory responses...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889452/an-rb-ezh2-complex-mediates-silencing-of-repetitive-dna-sequences
#14
Charles A Ishak, Aren E Marshall, Daniel T Passos, Carlee R White, Seung J Kim, Matthew J Cecchini, Sara Ferwati, William A MacDonald, Christopher J Howlett, Ian D Welch, Seth M Rubin, Mellissa R W Mann, Frederick A Dick
Repetitive genomic regions include tandem sequence repeats and interspersed repeats, such as endogenous retroviruses and LINE-1 elements. Repressive heterochromatin domains silence expression of these sequences through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) utilizes a cell-cycle-independent interaction with E2F1 to recruit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) to diverse repeat sequences. These include simple repeats, satellites, LINEs, and endogenous retroviruses as well as transposon fragments...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885560/expression-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-w-in-babies
#15
L H S Nali, A C S Oliveira, D O Alves, G S Caleiro, C F Nunes, D Gerhardt, R C M Succi, Camila M Romano, D M Machado
Here we determined the relative expression of HERV-K and W proviruses in HIV infected and non-infected mothers as well as their respective babies up to 1 year-old. HIV-infected mothers, their babies and uninfected control groups presented expression of both HERV-K and HERV-W with relatively high frequency. While the level of HERV-K expression was similar among groups, the level of HERV-W expression in HIV-infected mothers was four-fold higher than the uninfected mothers from the control group (p < 0.01)...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881645/phylogenetic-diversity-of-koala-retrovirus-within-a-wild-koala-population
#16
K J Chappell, J C Brealey, A A Amarilla, D Watterson, L Hulse, C Palmieri, S D Johnston, E C Holmes, J Meers, P R Young
: Koala populations are in serious decline across many areas of mainland Australia, with infectious disease a contributing factor. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus present in most wild koala populations and captive colonies. Five subtypes of KoRV (A to E) have been identified based on amino acid sequence divergence in a hypervariable region of the receptor binding domain of the envelope protein. However, analysis of viral genetic diversity has been conducted primarily on KoRV in captive koalas housed in zoos in Japan, the United States, and Germany...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872471/recent-progress-in-xenotransplantation-with-emphasis-on-virological-safety
#17
Joachim Denner
Xenotransplantation is a new technology that may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs available for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Remarkable progress has recently been made in this field. First, understanding of the mechanisms of immunological rejection, mainly of the hyperacute rejection, allowed generating numerous genetically modified pigs to overcome rejection. Second, based on these genetically modified animals and new immunosuppression regimens, long-term survival of non-human primate recipients of heart, kidney, and islet cell cells has been reported...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870643/yellow-fever-vaccine-17d-administered-to-healthy-women-aged-between-40-and-54-years-halves-breast-cancer-risk-an-observational-study
#18
Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Sofia Pavanello, Emanuela Fadda, Alessandra Buja, Ugo Fedeli
Transcripts of human endogenous retrovirus K are expressed in most breast cancers (BCs). Yellow fever vaccine 17D (YFV) expresses a protein with a closely homologous epitope. Cross-reactive immunity could hypothetically inhibit BC growth at least in women aged around 50 years at diagnosis, in whom the prognosis of BC was found to be better than that in women younger or older. A cohort of 12 804 women who received YFV in the Veneto Region, Italy, was divided into two subcohorts according to age at vaccination and followed up through the Veneto Tumor Registry...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832080/transmission-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-produced-from-different-recipient-cells-in-vivo
#19
Nayoung Kim, Jiwon Choi, Sehyun Kim, Yong-Dae Gwon, Yeondong Cho, Jae Myung Yang, Yu-Kyoung Oh, Young Bong Kim
Humanized pigs have been developed to reduce the incidence of immune rejection in xenotransplantation, but significant concerns remain, such as transmission of viral zoonosis. Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV), which exist in the genome of pigs, are produced as infectious virions from all porcine cells and cause zoonosis. Here, we examined the possibility of zoonosis of hosts under conditions of immune suppression or xenotransplantation of cells producing host-adapted viruses. Upon transplantation of PERV-producing porcine cells into mice, no transmission of PERV was detected, whereas, transmission of PERV from mice transplanted with mouse-adapted PERV-producing cells was detected...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826543/endogenous-retrovirus-ev21-dose-not-recombine-with-alv-j-and-induces-the-expression-of-isgs-in-the-host
#20
Min Feng, Yan Tan, Manman Dai, Yuanfang Li, Tingting Xie, Hongmei Li, Meiqing Shi, Xiquan Zhang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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