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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727474/a-primer-on-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-fat-malabsorption-and-fatty-acid-abnormalities
#1
Samer Alkaade, Ashley A Vareedayah
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is characterized by a deficiency of exocrine pancreatic enzymes, resulting in deficits in digestion of all macronutrients, with deficiencies in digestion of fats being the most clinically relevant. The leading cause of EPI is chronic pancreatitis. However, many other causes and conditions may be implicated, including cystic fibrosis, pancreatic duct obstruction, gastric and pancreatic surgery, diabetes mellitus and other conditions. Physical and biochemical causes of EPI include decreased production and secretion of lipase, increased lipase destruction, pancreatic duct obstruction, decreased lipase stimulation and degradation, as well as gastrointestinal motility disorders...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725569/psychiatric-adult-onset-of-urea-cycle-disorders-a-case-series
#2
Adrien Bigot, Paul Brunault, Christian Lavigne, François Feillet, Sylvie Odent, Elsa Kaphan, Christel Thauvin, Vanessa Leguy, Pierre Broué, Michel C Tchan, François Maillot
Adult onset urea cycle disorders (UCD) may present with psychiatric symptoms, occasionally as the initial presentation. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients presenting with a psychiatric adult-onset of UCDs, to discuss which signs could suggest this diagnosis in such a situation, and to determine which tests should be conducted. A survey of psychiatric symptoms occurring in teenagers or adults with UCD was conducted in 2010 among clinicians involved in the French society for the study of inborn errors of metabolism (SFEIM)...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723186/ingestible-sensors
#3
Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Nam Ha, Jian Zhen Ou, Kyle J Berean
Ingestible sensing capsules are fast emerging as a critical technology that has the ability to greatly impact health, nutrition, and clinical areas. These ingestible devices are noninvasive and hence are very attractive for customers. With widespread access to smart phones connected to the Internet, the data produced by this technology can be readily seen and reviewed online, and accessed by both users and physicians. The outputs provide invaluable information to reveal the state of gut health and disorders as well as the impact of food, medical supplements, and environmental changes on the gastrointestinal tract...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#4
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718031/newcomers-in-paediatric-gi-pathology-childhood-enteropathies-including-very-early-onset-monogenic-ibd
#5
Arzu Ensari, Judith Kelsen, Pierre Russo
Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response...
July 17, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716015/illegal-gold-miners-in-french-guiana-a-neglected-population-with-poor-health
#6
Maylis Douine, Emilie Mosnier, Quentin Le Hingrat, Charlotte Charpentier, Florine Corlin, Louise Hureau, Antoine Adenis, Yassamine Lazrek, Florence Niemetsky, Anne-Laure Aucouturier, Magalie Demar, Lise Musset, Mathieu Nacher
BACKGROUND: In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname...
July 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715601/methamphetamine-increases-prion-protein-and-induces-dopamine-dependent-expression-of-protease-resistant-prpsc
#7
M Ferrucci, L Ryskalin, F Biagioni, S Gambardella, C L Busceti, A Falleni, G Lazzeri, F Fornai
The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is physiologically expressed within selective brain areas of mammals. Alterations in the secondary structure of this protein lead to scrapie-like prion protein (PrPsc), which precipitates in the cell. PrPsc has been detected in infectious, inherited or sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Prion protein metabolism is dependent on autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome. Despite not being fully elucidated, the physiological role of prion protein relates to chaperones which rescue cells under stressful conditions...
July 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712415/the-role-of-incongruence-between-the-perceived-functioning-by-patients-and-clinicians-in-the-detection-of-psychological-distress-among-functional-and-motor-digestive-disorders
#8
Amanda Rodriguez-Urrutia, Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa, Anna Accarino, Carolina Malagelada, Fernando Azpiroz
OBJECTIVES: Previous research on gastrointestinal and other medical conditions has shown the presence of incongruence between self- and clinician-reported functioning and its relation with psychopathology. The main objective of this study was to test whether inconsistencies between clinician- and self-assessed functionality can be used to detect psychopathology among patients diagnosed of motor or functional gastrointestinal disorders. METHODS: One hundred and three patients from a gastroenterology inpatient unit were included in this study...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711159/-hemolytic-and-uremic-syndrome-and-related-thrombotic-microangiopathies-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-clinics
#9
C Rafat, P Coppo, F Fakhouri, V Frémeaux-Bacchi, C Loirat, J Zuber, E Rondeau
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) represent an eclectic group of conditions, which share hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia as a common defining basis. Remarkable breakthroughs in the physiopathological setting have allowed for a thorough recomposition of the disparate syndromes, which form the constellation of TMA. In this view, clinicians now discriminate thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (TTP) defined by a severe deficiency in ADAMTS13, which is rarely associated with a severe renal involvement and the hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) in which renal impairment is the most prominent clinical feature...
July 12, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710757/quick-detection-of-dnase-ii-type-breaks-in-formalin-fixed-tissue-sections
#10
Candace L Minchew, Vladimir V Didenko
Blunt-ended DNase II-type breaks with 5' hydroxyls are generated in phagocytic cells of any lineage during digestion of the engulfed DNA. These breaks indicate the ongoing active phagocytic reaction. They are produced by the acid deoxyribonuclease-DNase II which is the primary endonuclease responsible for DNA degradation after its engulfment.Here, we present an express approach that detects blunt-ended 5' OH DNA breaks in fixed tissue sections. The technique is simple to perform and takes only 60 min to complete...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704184/enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-water-extractable-polysaccharides-from-leaves-of-plantago-major-l
#11
Paolina K Lukova, Diana P Karcheva-Bahchevanska, Veselin P Bivolarski, Rumen D Mladenov, Ilia N Iliev, Mariana M Nikolova
BACKGROUND: Plantago major L. leaves have been used for centuries by the traditional medicine in the treatment of infectious disorders of the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. Researchers have reported that hot water extracts of Plantago major possess a broad-spectrum of anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Their beneficial properties may be due to the significant content of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides that have been isolated from the leaves of Plantago major L...
June 1, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698775/gut-feelings-on-parkinson-s-and-depression
#12
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The gut-brain axis is one of the new frontiers of neuroscience. Microbiota (the collective bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms that live in the digestive tract), sometimes referred to as the "second genome" or the "second brain," may influence our health in ways that scientists are just now beginning to understand. Scientists now believe that the microbiota and all that it involves may be a way to treat any number of disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.
March 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692255/cloning-expression-and-the-effects-of-processing-on-sarcoplasmic-calcium-binding-protein-an-important-allergen-in-mud-crab
#13
Mengjun Hu, Guangyu Liu, Yang Yang, Tzu-Ming Pan, Yixiang Liu, Lechang Sun, Min-Jie Cao, Guang-Ming Liu
Shellfish allergy is a prevalent, long-lasting disorder usually persisting throughout life. However, the allergen information is incomprehensive in crab. This study aimed to identify a novel allergen in crab, show its potential in diagnosis and reduce the allergenicity by food processing. A 21-kDa protein was purified from Scylla paramamosain and confirmed as sarcoplasmic calcium binding protein (SCP) by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Total RNA was isolated from crab muscle and a rapid amplification of cDNA was performed to obtain an ORF of 579 bp that coded for 193 amino acid residues...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691894/characterization-of-ptv-12-a-newly-described-porcine-teschovirus-serotype-in-vivo-infection-and-cross-protection-studies
#14
Cristina Cano-Gómez, Jovita Fernández-Pinero, María Ana García-Casado, Roland Zell, Miguel Angel Jiménez-Clavero
Porcine teschoviruses (PTVs) constitute 1 of the 31 genera within the Picornaviridae family, comprising at least 13 genetic types (PTV-1 to PTV-13), of which only 11 (PTV-1 to PTV-11) have been recognized as serotypes to date. Specific for swine and wild boars, most PTVs are usually non-pathogenic, but some viral variants cause severe disorders in the central nervous system (Teschen disease) or milder signs (Talfan disease), as well as reproductive, digestive and respiratory disorders and skin lesions. Previous studies revealed a high diversity of teschoviruses circulating in Spanish pig populations...
July 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690727/-clinical-and-immunological-profile-of-15-moroccan-patients-with-hyper-igm-syndrome
#15
Hind Ouair, Ibtihal Benhsaien, Leila Jeddane, Jalila El Bakkouri, Naima Elhafidi, Noureddine Rada, Jilali Najib, Fatima Ailal, Hanane Salih Alj, Ahmed Aziz Bousfiha
Hyper IgM syndrome is a well known genetic (primary) immunodeficiency disorder which was first described in 1961. It is caused by B lymphocyte deficiency characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels and low or zero levels of IgG, IgA, IgE resulting from isotype-switching deficiency. Clinical manifestations are dominated by recurrent infections, especially involving the digestive tube of the ENT sphere and the lungs. This syndrome is caused by B-cell immunoglobulin class switch deficiency and decreased capacity to induce proliferation of T lymphocytes...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686965/chemical-constituents-and-pharmacological-actions-of-carob-pods-and-leaves-ceratonia-siliqua-l-on-the-gastrointestinal-tract-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Bruno Eto, Jamel El-Benna, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L., is a medicinal plant used in Tunisian traditional medicine for the treatment of the gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders. In this respect, a relatively large number of scientific publications on the carob tree have been published in recent years. Therefore, the present review was aimed to analyze the traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Ceratonia siliqua on the GI tract. Indeed, previous investigations on the carob pods and leaves have revealed the presence of a number of compounds including high amounts of carbohydrates, dietary fibers, minerals, polyphenols, flavonoids and low amounts of protein and lipids...
July 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679403/identification-and-in-silico-characterization-of-p-g380r-substitution-in-fgfr3-associated-with-achondroplasia-in-a-non-consanguineous-pakistani-family
#17
Muhammad Ajmal, Asif Mir, Muhammad Shoaib, Salman Akbar Malik, Muhammad Nasir
BACKGROUND: The dimerization efficiency of FGFR3 transmembrane domain plays a critical role in the formation of a normal skeleton through the negative regulation of bone development. Recently, gain-of-function mutations in the transmembrane domain of FGFR3 has been described associated with an aberrant negative regulation, leading to the development of achondroplasia-group disorders, including achondroplasia (ACH), hypochondroplasia (HCH) and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). Here, we describe a non-consanguineous Pakistani family with achondroplasia to explain hereditary basis of the disease...
July 5, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678506/a-comprehensive-map-and-functional-annotation-of-human-pituitary-and-thyroid-proteome
#18
Xiaoyan Liu, Zhengguang Guo, Haidan Sun, Wenting Li, Wei Sun
Knowledge about human tissue proteome will provide insights into health organ physiology. To construct a comprehensive dataset of human pituitary and thyroid proteins, post-mortem pituitaries and thyroids from 10 normal individuals were used. The pooled samples were prepared using two methods, one part of sample was processed using 14 high-abundance proteins immunoaffinity column. The other part was directly subjected to digestion. Finally, a total of 7596 proteins in pituitary and 5602 proteins in thyroid with high confidence were identified, with 6623 and 4368 quantified respectively...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670794/brassica-rapa-hairy-root-extracts-promote-skin-depigmentation-by-modulating-melanin-production-and-distribution
#19
Luigi Michele Sena, Claudia Zappelli, Fabio Apone, Ani Barbulova, Annalisa Tito, Antonella Leone, Teresa Oliviero, Rosalia Ferracane, Vincenzo Fogliano, Gabriella Colucci
BACKGROUND: Skin whitening products, used for ages by Asian people for cultural and esthetic purposes, are very popular nowadays in Western countries as well, where the need to inhibit skin spots after sun exposure has become not only a cosmetic but also a health-related issue. Thus, the development of effective and safe depigmenting agents derived from natural products gets continuous attention by cosmetic brands and consumers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two preparations, obtained from the hairy root cultures of the species Brassica rapa, on melanogenesis and the expression of the extracellular matrix proteins involved in a correct pigment distribution...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670335/clinical-features-of-outpatients-with-somatization-symptoms-treated-at-a-japanese-psychosomatic-medicine-clinic
#20
Yuzo Nakamura, Takeaki Takeuchi, Kazuaki Hashimoto, Masahiro Hashizume
BACKGROUND: Somatization is produced due to the summation of psychological factors, irrespective of the presence or absence of physical factors. A group of diseases with severe pain and other disorders exhibit so-called Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS), and the characteristics of patients with MUS are largely unexplained. In this paper, the characteristics of a series of new patients with somatization treated in a Japanese university hospital are discussed. METHOD: The subjects were 871 patients who newly visited the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Toho University Omori Medical Center between January and December of 2015...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
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