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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456774/gastric-aspiration-and-its-role-in-airway-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
E B Hunt, A Sullivan, J Galvin, J MacSharry, D M Murphy
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) has been associated with chronic airway diseases while the passage of foreign matter into airways and lungs through aspiration has the potential to initiate a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders. The clinical syndrome resulting from such aspiration will depend both on the quantity and nature of the aspirate as well as the individual host response. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelium, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells but also due to the effect of digestive enzymes such as pepsin and bile salts...
2018: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#2
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436209/focus-on-gastroesophageal-reflux-ger-and-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-lpr-new-pragmatic-insights-in-clinical-practice
#3
M Gelardi, G Ciprandi
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common disease usually limited to the oesophagus. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of pharynx, larynx, and other associated upper respiratory organs, caused by a reflux of stomach contents outside the oesophagus. LPR is considered to be a relatively new clinical entity with a vast number of clinical manifestations which are treated sometimes empirically and without a correct diagnosis. However, there is disagreement between specialists about its definition and management: gastroenterologists consider LPR to be a substantially rare manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), whereas otolaryngologists believe that LPR is an independent, but common in their practice, disorder...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433829/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-a-critical-role-for-the-radiologist
#4
P Copin, M Zins, A Nuzzo, Y Purcell, S Beranger-Gibert, L Maggiori, O Corcos, V Vilgrain, M Ronot
Acute mesenteric ischemia is defined as an inadequate blood supply to the gastrointestinal tract resulting in ischemic and inflammatory injury that may progress to necrosis of the bowel wall. Prognosis is poor with a mortality rate greater than 95% without treatment, dropping to around 70% when surgical treatment is performed. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) has become the cornerstone of the diagnosis by showing features of vascular disorders (occlusion and/or insufficient blood supply) and features of intestinal ischemic injury...
February 9, 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427576/clinical-and-safety-outcomes-of-long-term-azithromycin-therapy-in-severe-copd-beyond-the-first-year-of-treatment
#5
Xavier Pomares, Concepción Montón, Miriam Bullich, Oscar Cuevas, Joan Carles Oliva, Miguel Gallego, Eduard Monsó
RATIONALE: Exacerbations of COPD (ECOPD) are a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Continuous cyclic azithromycin (CC-A) reduces the exacerbation rate but it is unknown whether it remains effective and safe beyond the first year. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of severe COPD GOLD D patients with ≥ 4 moderate-severe ECOPD who received CC-A (500mgr three times/week) as add-on therapy. Patients treated over 24 months were considered long-term CC-A (LT-CC-A) users, and ECOPD, hospitalizations and length of hospital stays during the first, second and third years were compared with the previous 12 months...
February 7, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425234/targeted-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-to-quantitate-wheat-gluten-using-well-defined-reference-proteins
#6
Kathrin Schalk, Peter Koehler, Katharina Anne Scherf
Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder of the upper small intestine caused by the ingestion of storage proteins (prolamins and glutelins) from wheat, barley, rye, and, in rare cases, oats. CD patients need to follow a gluten-free diet by consuming gluten-free products with gluten contents of less than 20 mg/kg. Currently, the recommended method for the quantitative determination of gluten is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the R5 monoclonal antibody. Because the R5 ELISA mostly detects the prolamin fraction of gluten, a new independent method is required to detect prolamins as well as glutelins...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421817/stw%C3%A2-5-iberogast-therapy-in-gastrointestinal-functional-disorders
#7
Peter Malfertheiner
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are very common and affect populations worldwide. A majority of patients are affected by a variety of heterogenous gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) related to the upper and lower digestive system with frequent overlap and mostly of mild to moderate degree. The herbal medicinal preparation STW 5 is documented as an effective therapeutic option for treating FGID. Studies Conducted in Summary: STW 5 has been in use for more than 50 years in clinical practice and proven to be effective and safe in the management of FGID...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421792/functional-dyspepsia-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-beyond-rome-iv
#8
Vincenzo Stanghellini
BACKGROUND: The correct diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is quite a challenge. The overlaps between syndromes can complicate the interpretation of clinical data. SUMMARY: The incidence of functional digestive disorders and irritable bowel syndrome are still underestimated with the currently applied diagnostic tools, and the management of the seemingly elusive disease is not satisfactory. For this reason, the "Rome" criteria were created to provide a better understanding and classification of FGIDs...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417494/maldi-mass-spectral-imaging-of-bile-acids-observed-as-deprotonated-molecules-and-proton-bound-dimers-from-mouse-liver-sections
#9
Ignacy Rzagalinski, Nadine Hainz, Carola Meier, Thomas Tschernig, Dietrich A Volmer
Bile acids (BAs) play two vital roles in living organisms, as they are involved in (1) the secretion of cholesterol from liver, and (2) the lipid digestion/absorption in the intestine. Abnormal bile acid synthesis or secretion can lead to severe liver disorders. Even though there is extensive literature on the mass spectrometric determination of BAs in biofluids and tissue homogenates, there are no reports on the spatial distribution in the biliary network of the liver. Here, we demonstrate the application of high mass resolution/mass accuracy matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) to MS imaging (MSI) of BAs at high spatial resolutions (pixel size, 25 μm)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416535/nutrients-mediate-intestinal-bacteria-mucosal-immune-crosstalk
#10
REVIEW
Ning Ma, Pingting Guo, Jie Zhang, Ting He, Sung Woo Kim, Guolong Zhang, Xi Ma
The intestine is the shared site of nutrient digestion, microbiota colonization and immune cell location and this geographic proximity contributes to a large extent to their interaction. The onset and development of a great many diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome, will be caused due to the imbalance of body immune. As competent assistants, the intestinal bacteria are also critical in disease prevention and control. Moreover, the gut commensal bacteria are essential for development and normal operation of immune system and the pathogens are also closely bound up with physiological disorders and diseases mediated by immune imbalance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416500/msa-mimic-rare-occurrence-of-anti-hu-autonomic-failure-and-thymoma-in-a-patient-with-parkinsonism-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Vito A G Ricigliano, Barbara Fossati, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Giovanni Meola
Thymoma is a tumor originating from thymic gland, frequently manifesting with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. Its association with paraneoplastic dysautonomia is relatively uncommon. Here, we describe the challenging case of a 71 year-old female who developed subacute autonomic failure with digestive pseudo-obstruction, dysphagia, urinary tract dysfunction and orthostatic hypotension complicating an underlying extrapyramidal syndrome that had started 3 months before hospital admission. Autonomic symptoms had 2-month course and acutely worsened just before and during hospitalization...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413491/relative-levels-of-dietary-epa-and-dha-impact-gastric-oxidation-and-essential-fatty-acid-uptake
#12
Gabriel Dasilva, Mattew Boller, Isabel Medina, Judith Storch
Previous research showed that increasing the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine lipid supplements significantly reduces associated health benefits compared with balanced eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):DHA supplementation Dasilva et al., 2015 [1]. It was therefore hypothesized that the EPA and DHA molecules might have differential resistance to oxidation during gastric digestion and that the oxidation level achieved could be inversely correlated with intestinal absorption and, hence, with the resultant health benefits...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412825/oral-delivery-of-anti-diabetes-therapeutics-using-cell-penetrating-and-transcytosing-peptide-strategies
#13
Sahrish Rehmani, James E Dixon
Oral delivery of insulin and other anti-diabetic peptides is inhibited by low intestinal absorption caused by the poor permeability across cellular membranes and the susceptibility to enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been investigated for a number of years as oral absorption enhancers for hydrophilic macromolecules by electrostatic or covalent conjugation on in conjunction with nanotechnology. Endogenous cellular uptake mechanisms present in the intestine can be exploited by engineering peptide conjugates that transcytose; entering cells by endocytosis and leaving by exocytosis...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410117/best-practice-update-incorporating-psycho-gastroenterology-into-management-of-digestive-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Laurie Keefer, Olafur S Palsson, John E Pandolfino
Chronic digestive diseases including irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease and inflammatory bowel diseases cannot be disentangled from their psychological context-the substantial burden of these diseases is co-determined by symptom and disease severity and the ability of patients to cope with their symptoms without significant interruption to daily life. The growing field of psychogastroenterology focuses on the application of scientifically-based psychological principles and techniques to the alleviation of digestive symptoms...
January 31, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407674/biopolymer-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-wilson-s-disease
#15
Miroslav Vetrik, Jana Mattova, Hana Mackova, Jan Kucka, Pavla Pouckova, Olivia Kukackova, Jiri Brus, Sebastian Eigner-Henke, Ondrej Sedlacek, Ludek Sefc, Petr Stepanek, Martin Hruby
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder that causes excessive accumulation of copper in the body, leading to toxic damage, especially in the liver and nervous system. The current treatment cause burdensome side effects. We describe the use of chemically modified biopolymer carriers based on microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan containing the highly specific copper chelator 8-hydroxyquinoline as a new type of therapy for Wilson's disease. The chelators can scavenges copper ions released from food during digestion and copper ions present in secretions in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406473/characteristics-of-pediatric-patient-transferred-from-hospital-based-general-emergency-departments-to-acute-care-facilities-an-analysis-of-the-healthcare-cost-and-utilization-project-nationwide-emergency-department-sample
#16
Isabel Araujo Barata, Meredith Akerman, Zayan Mahmooth, Kathryn Bradburn, John DʼAngelo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of pediatric patients transferred from a hospital-based general emergency department (ED) to an acute care facility. METHODS: Study data were abstracted from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database. A multivariate logistic regression was constructed for pediatric patients (<18 years old) who require a transfer to an acute care facility from a general ED...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405509/introduction-and-practical-approach-to-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-for-the-practicing-clinician
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed O Othman, Diala Harb, Jodie A Barkin
AIMS: In exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), the quantity and/or activity of pancreatic digestive enzymes are below the levels required for normal digestion, leading to maldigestion and malabsorption. Diagnosis of EPI is often challenging because the characteristic signs and symptoms overlap with those of other gastrointestinal conditions. Additionally, there is no single convenient, or specific diagnostic test for EPI. The aim of this review is to provide a framework for differential diagnosis of EPI vs other malabsorptive conditions...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405099/trypanosoma-cruzi-detection-in-colombian-patients-with-a-diagnosis-of-esophageal-achalasia
#18
Santiago Panesso-Gómez, Paula Pavia, Iván Enrique Rodríguez-Mantilla, Paola Lasso, Luis A Orozco, Adriana Cuellar, Concepción J Puerta, Belén Mendoza de Molano, John M González
Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus that might be secondary to a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Several studies have investigated esophageal achalasia in patients with Chagas disease (CD) in Latin America, but no related studies have been performed in Colombia. The goals of the present study were to determine the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in patients with esophageal achalasia who visited a referral hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, and to detect the presence of the parasite and its discrete typing units (DTUs)...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396034/epidemiology-clinical-characteristics-and-associations-for-symptom-based-rome-iv-functional-dyspepsia-in-adults-in-the-usa-canada-and-the-uk-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#19
Imran Aziz, Olafur S Palsson, Hans Törnblom, Ami D Sperber, William E Whitehead, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND: The population prevalence, clinical characteristics, and associations for Rome IV functional dyspepsia are not known. Following the publication of the Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders, we aimed to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and associations for symptom-based Rome IV functional dyspepsia in adults across the USA, Canada, and the UK. METHODS: We sent an internet-based cross-sectional health survey to adults in the general population of three English-speaking countries: the USA, Canada, and the UK...
January 29, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395716/autophagy-in-neurodegeneration-can-t-digest-it-spit-it-out
#20
Valentin J A Barthet, Kevin M Ryan
The autophagy-lysosome pathway maintains cellular homeostasis and protects against neurodegenerative disorders. Recent findings show that autophagy can be impaired in these diseases, and that the cell activates an alternative Golgi-mediated degradation pathway, leading to expulsion of toxic protein aggregates. Ultimately this process leads to nuclear breakdown and neuronal cell death.
January 26, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
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