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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239666/highly-selective-and-sensitive-measurement-of-active-forms-of-fgf21-using-novel-immunocapture-enrichment-with-lc-ms-ms
#1
Yue Zhao, Guowen Liu, Suk Kwok, Barry R Jones, Jane Liu, David Marchisin, Philip E Joyce, Jon Peterson, Jim X Shen
AIM: Recombinant FGF21 analogs are under wide ranging investigations as a potential therapeutic agent for Type 2 diabetes, as well as other metabolic disorders. The endogenous FGF21 is often used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic(PD) biomarker to assess drug efficacy and safety. Results/methodology: Immunocapture was performed using a monoclonal antibody which had been generated to bind to specific domain of native FGF21 as the capture reagent. After immunocapture, enzymatic digestion was performed and a native FGF21-specific tryptic peptide was monitored using LC-MS/MS by selective reaction monitoring...
December 14, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234895/intestinal-stem-cells-to-advance-drug-development-precision-and-regenerative-medicine-a-paradigm-shift-in-translational-research
#2
Jonathan P Mochel, Albert E Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G Martín, Karin Allenspach
Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies...
December 12, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232848/a-metagenomic-and-in-silico-functional-prediction-of-gut-microbiota-profiles-may-concur-in-discovering-new-cystic-fibrosis-patient-targeted-probiotics
#3
Pamela Vernocchi, Federica Del Chierico, Andrea Quagliariello, Danilo Ercolini, Vincenzina Lucidi, Lorenza Putignani
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF patients. We investigated the distribution of gut microbiota (GM) bacteria to identify new potential probiotics for CF patients on the basis of GM patterns. Fecal samples of 28 CF patients and 31 healthy controls (HC) were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis of GM, to produce CF-HC paired maps of the distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and by Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biomarker prediction...
December 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224802/digestive-disorders-of-the-abomasum-and-intestines
#4
EDITORIAL
Robert J Callan, Meredyth L Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212476/the-role-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-in-children-with-pancreatobiliary-and-gastrointestinal-disorders-a-single-center-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Alessandro Fugazza, Barbara Bizzarri, Federica Gaiani, Marco Manfredi, Alessia Ghiselli, Pellegrino Crafa, Maria Clotilde Carra, Nicola de'Angelis, Gian Luigi de'Angelis
BACKGROUND: The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the management of pancreatobiliary and digestive diseases is well established in adults, but it remains limited in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical impact of EUS use in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively acquired database of consecutive pediatric (< 18 years) patients presenting an indication for EUS for pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal disorders...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211365/oral-cavity-health-among-cystic-fibrosis-patients-literature-overview
#6
REVIEW
Katarzyna Herman, Małgorzata Kowalczyk-Zając, Tomasz Pytrus
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder in which the mutation of the Cystis Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene that codes the protein forming a chloride channel of epithelial cells results in its distorted functioning. The manifestations of the disorder are mainly observed in the respiratory and digestive system. Accumulation of sticky and thick mucus is the dominant clinical symptom; it leads to chronic infections and gradual tissue destruction. Although cystic fibrosis remains incurable, it is currently feasible to extend patients' life expectancy thanks to modern therapy possibilities...
October 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#7
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209506/border-terriers-under-primary-veterinary-care-in-england-demography-and-disorders
#8
Dan G O'Neill, Elisabeth C Darwent, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
Background: The Border Terrier is a working terrier type that is generally considered to be a relatively healthy and hardy breed. This study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of Border Terriers receiving veterinary care in England using de-identified electronic patient record data within the VetCompass™ Programme. Results: Annual birth proportion for Border Terriers showed a decreasing trend from 1.46% in 2005 to 0.78% in 2014. The median adult bodyweight for males (10...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207025/anti-obesity-effects-of-pectinase-and-cellulase-enzyme%C3%A2-treated-ecklonia%C3%A2-cava-extract-in-high%C3%A2-fat-diet%C3%A2-fed-c57bl-6n-mice
#9
In-Hye Kim, Jung-Wook Choi, Min-Kyeong Lee, Chang-Ju Kwon, Taek-Jeong Nam
The present study investigated the anti‑obesity effects of enzyme‑treated Ecklonia cava extract (EEc) in C57BL/6N mice with high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. The EEc was separated and purified with the digestive enzymes pectinase (Rapidase X‑Press L) and cellulase (Rohament CL) and its effects on the progression of HFD‑induced obesity were examined over 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 6 groups (n=10/group) as follows: Normal diet group, HFD group, mice fed a HFD with 25 mg/kg/day Garcinia cambogia extract and mice fed a HFD with 5, 25 or 150 mg/kg/day EEc (EHD groups)...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202512/a-simple-and-rapid-uplc-pda-method-for-quality-control-of-nardostachys-jatamansi
#10
Weize Zhang, Guo Nan, Hong-Hua Wu, Miaomiao Jiang, Tian-Xiang Li, Meng Wang, Xiu-Mei Gao, Yan Zhu, Yun Seon Song, Jiaming Wang, Yan-Tong Xu
Nardostachys jatamansi is a well-documented herbal agent used to treat digestive and neuropsychiatric disorders in oriental medicinal systems. However, few simple, rapid, and comprehensive methods were reported for quality assessment and control of N. jatamansi. Herein, a UPLC with photodiode array detection method was developed for both fingerprint investigation of N. jatamansi and simultaneous quantitative analysis of the six serotonin transporter modulatory constituents in N. jatamansi. For chromatographic fingerprinting, 24 common peaks were selected as characteristic peaks to assess the consistency of N...
December 4, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202139/changes-in-the-pancreas-caused-by-different-types-of-hypertension
#11
Paulina Nowińska, Irena Kasacka
Hypertension is considered a lifestyle disease. Unfavorable forecasts predict a significant increase in the number of patients suffering from this disorder. Many changes in various organs have been observed as a result of ischemia. An interesting question arises of whether differences between the mechanisms occurring in different types of hypertension could produce different effects in the organs. It is well known that there is a close relationship between hypertension and insulin resistance. On the other hand, insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes, which develops in parallel with changes in the pancreas...
November 30, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201570/impacts-of-diarrhea-on-the-immune-system-intestinal-environment-and-expression-of-pgrps-in-new-zealand-rabbits
#12
Yang Chen, Bohao Zhao, Yuwei Wu, Shuaishuai Hu, Lin Mu, Cigen Zhu, Yulai Pan, Xinsheng Wu
Diarrhea is a syndrome of digestive disorders in young rabbits and may lead to secondary infections resulting in reduced immunity and higher mortality in baby rabbits, with serious impacts on rabbit farming. In this study, we investigated the effects of diarrhea on the health of baby rabbits in terms of intestinal mucosal development, immune function, and intestinal microbial diversity. We found that the duodenal villus length and the villus/crypt ratio in rabbits with diarrhea were significantly reduced compared with those in healthy rabbits (P < 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200730/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-three-gelatinous-chinese-medicines-and-their-authentications-by-tryptic-digested-peptides-profiling-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#13
Huan Yang, Jie Zheng, Hai-Yan Wang, Nan Li, Ya-Ya Yang, Yu-Ping Shen
Background: Gelatinous Chinese medicines (GCMs) including Asini Corii Colla, Testudinis Carapacis ET Plastri Colla, and Cervi Cornus Colla, were made from reptile shell or mammalian skin or deer horn, and consumed as a popular tonic, as well as hemopoietic and hemostatic agents. Misuse of them would not exert their functions, and fake or adulterate products have caused drug market disorder and affected food and drug safety. GCMs are rich in denatured proteins, but insufficient in available DNA fragments, hence commonly used cytochrome c oxidase I barcoding was not successful for their authentication...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195713/generic-antiretroviral-drug-use-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-cohort-study-from-the-french-health-insurance-database
#14
Joseph Rwagitinywa, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Robert Bourrel, Agnès Sommet
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the rate of generic users among HIV-infected patients treated by antiretroviral (ARV) drugs potentially substitutable and to determine factors associated with switch from brand to generic ARV in real-life settings in a French region. METHODS: Cohort of HIV-infected patients aged of ≥18 years, exposed to at least one of the generic of lamivudine (3TC-150mg/300mg), zidovudine/lamivudine (AZT-200mg/3TC-150mg), nevirapine (NVP-200mg), efavirenz (EFV-600mg) and those exposed to brand 3TC, AZT/3TC, NVP, EFV, the fixed-dose combination abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or the single-tablet regimen efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EFV/FTC/TDF) as recorded in the French health insurance database between January 2012 and May 2015 were included...
November 2, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194570/characterization-of-cd45ro-memory-t-lymphocytes-in-keloid-disease
#15
Z Chen, L Zhou, T Won, Z Gao, X Wu, L Lu
BACKGROUND: Memory T cells, a highly effective subset of T lymphocytes, have been reported to be involved in many inflammatory skin disorders. However, the potential role of memory T cells in keloid disease (KD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: Due to their important role in regulating inflammation, we investigated the characteristics of CD45RO+ memory T cells (mT) in KD. METHODS: Primary cutaneous cells were isolated from keloid scars and normal skin by enzymic digestion...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185012/systems-biology-of-the-imidia-biobank-from-organ-donors-and-pancreatectomised-patients-defines-a-novel-transcriptomic-signature-of-islets-from-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Michele Solimena, Anke M Schulte, Lorella Marselli, Florian Ehehalt, Daniela Richter, Manuela Kleeberg, Hassan Mziaut, Klaus-Peter Knoch, Julia Parnis, Marco Bugliani, Afshan Siddiq, Anne Jörns, Frédéric Burdet, Robin Liechti, Mara Suleiman, Daniel Margerie, Farooq Syed, Marius Distler, Robert Grützmann, Enrico Petretto, Aida Moreno-Moral, Carolin Wegbrod, Anke Sönmez, Katja Pfriem, Anne Friedrich, Jörn Meinel, Claes B Wollheim, Gustavo B Baretton, Raphael Scharfmann, Everson Nogoceke, Ezio Bonifacio, Dorothée Sturm, Birgit Meyer-Puttlitz, Ugo Boggi, Hans-Detlev Saeger, Franco Filipponi, Mathias Lesche, Paolo Meda, Andreas Dahl, Leonore Wigger, Ioannis Xenarios, Mario Falchi, Bernard Thorens, Jürgen Weitz, Krister Bokvist, Sigurd Lenzen, Guy A Rutter, Philippe Froguel, Manon von Bülow, Mark Ibberson, Piero Marchetti
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic islet beta cell failure causes type 2 diabetes in humans. To identify transcriptomic changes in type 2 diabetic islets, the Innovative Medicines Initiative for Diabetes: Improving beta-cell function and identification of diagnostic biomarkers for treatment monitoring in Diabetes (IMIDIA) consortium ( www.imidia.org ) established a comprehensive, unique multicentre biobank of human islets and pancreas tissues from organ donors and metabolically phenotyped pancreatectomised patients (PPP)...
November 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183720/contemporary-applications-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-intestinal-diseases-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
The intestinal microbiota comprise an important organ that plays a vital role in host digestion, development, energy maintenance, hemostasis, and immunity. Disruption of the gut microbial community due to diet, lifestyle, or antibiotic exposure increases susceptibility to chronic infection and disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the transfer of gut microbiota from a healthy donor to a patient in order to restore normal diversity and function of the microbial community. This method has become a well established alternative therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181210/bilateral-tubal-pregnancy-without-known-risk-factor
#18
Hyacinthe Zamané, Barnabé Yameogo, Paul Dantola Kain, François Gueswendé Xavier Kaboré, Yobi Alexis Sawadogo, Sibraogo Kiemtoré, Sidbewenné Yacinthe Kaboré, Blandine Bonané Thiéba
Spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation is very rare. The authors report a case diagnosed and taken care of at Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital, Ouagadougou. It was a 30-year-old patient with no known pathological history. She had presented at the obstetric emergencies with a state of hypovolemic shock by haemoperitoneum with digestive disorders, pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and a mention of delayed menstruation. The ultrasound coupled with the urinary immunological pregnancy test confirmed the diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy and a bilateral form was suspected...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173148/trends-and-prospects-of-plant-proteases-in-therapeutics
#19
Anastasia V Balakireva, Natalia V Kuznetsova, Anastasia I Petushkova, Lyudmila Savvateeva, Andrey A Zamyatnin
The main function of proteases in any living organism is the cleavage of proteins resulting in the degradation of damaged, misfolded and potentially harmful proteins and therefore providing the cell with amino acids essential for the synthesis of new proteins. Besides this main function, proteases may play an important role as signal molecules and participate in numerous protein cascades to maintain the vital processes of an organism. Plant proteases are no exception to this rule. Moreover, in contrast to human-encoded enzymes, many plant proteases possess exceptional features such as higher stability, unique substrate specificity and a wide pH range for enzymatic activity...
November 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161082/gut-microbiome-and-obesity-how-to-prove-causality
#20
Philippe Gérard
In recent years, the gut microbiota (the microorganisms that live in our digestive tract) has become an area of great interest. Indeed, this intestinal microbial community performs essential functions in maintaining our health, and has been proven to influence host physiology and metabolism. Thereby, dysregulation of this gut microbiota may be implicated in the development of various diseases, including obesity. However, studies rarely assess causality, which requires the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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