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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052972/impaired-intestinal-barrier-function-and-relapsing-digestive-disease-lessons-from-a-porcine-model-of-early-life-stress
#1
REVIEW
A L Ziegler, A T Blikslager
Within this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, an article by Pohl et al highlights new insights from a powerful porcine model of the link between early life adversity and relapsing functional gastrointestinal disorders. Early weaning stress closely mimics the early life psychosocial stressors that have been linked to adult onset gastrointestinal dysfunction. This early weaning model provides reproducible and highly translatable outcomes in young stress-challenged pigs. Due to the convincingly comparable neurological and gastroenterological anatomy and physiology between pigs and human beings, gastrointestinal stress and injury studies utilizing swine models will provide invaluable insights to improve our understanding and treatment of gastrointestinal disease in human beings...
November 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037696/insights-into-the-multi-scale-structure-and-digestibility-of-heat-moisture-treated-rice-starch
#2
Hongwei Wang, Yufan Liu, Ling Chen, Xiaoxi Li, Jun Wang, Fengwei Xie
The digestibility and structural changes of rice starch induced by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) were investigated, and the relationships among the moisture content-starch structure-starch digestibility were revealed. HMT could simultaneously disorder and reassemble the rice starch molecules across multi-scale lengths and convert some fractions of rapidly-digestible starch (RDS) into slowly-digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS). In particular, the HMT rice starch with less than 30% moisture content showed a higher SDS+RS content (25...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036014/a-family-with-two-cases-of-melanocytic-tumors-and-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Candice Lesage, Isabelle Coupier, Bernard Guillot
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, most commonly results from an expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene to more than 200 copies (full mutation). The FXS phenotype differs by sex and is associated with intellectual and cognitive impairment, characteristic physical features, epilepsy, and/or behavioral challenges including autism spectrum disorder. In this patient population, tumors involving blood cells, digestive organs, the central nervous system, and testes have been described, but melanocytic tumors have not been reported...
October 13, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034989/neurological-presentations-revealing-acquired-copper-deficiency-diagnosis-features-etiologies-and-evolution-in-seven-patients
#4
Aurélia Poujois, Nouzha Djebrani-Oussedik, Fabienne Ory-Magne, France Woimant
BACKGROUND: acquired copper deficiency (ACD) is a rare condition usually diagnosed from haematological changes. AIMS: characterize the diagnosis features and the evolution of patients with ACD revealed by neurological symptoms. METHODS: clinical, biological and MRI data were prospectively analysed at diagnosis and during follow-up under copper supplementation. RESULTS: seven patients were studied over a 5-year period...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029531/efficacy-and-safety-of-pramlintide-injection-adjunct-to-insulin-therapy-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Yong-Chao Qiao, Wei Ling, Yan-Hong Pan, Yin-Ling Chen, Dan Zhou, Yan-Mei Huang, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Hai-Lu Zhao
AIMS: We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of pramlintide plus insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We included clinical studies comparing pramlintide plus insulin to placebo plus insulin. Efficacy was reflected by glycemic control and reduction in body weight and insulin use. Safety concerns were hypoglycemia and other adverse events. Subgroup analysis was performed for different doses (30, 60, 90 µg/meal) and durations (≤4, 26, 29, >29 weeks) of the treatment...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028778/essential-oils-and-gastroparesis-power-for-transforming-health-hope-and-quality-of-life
#6
Chalyce Macoskey, Dorothy J Dunn
This study explored how essential oils for persons with gastroparesis symptoms affect the quality of life. Gastroparesis is a chronic delayed gastric motility disorder characterized by postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, bloating, depression, and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine how essential oils support digestion and eliminate inflammation in the body as evidenced by self-reporting a decrease in symptoms, thereby improving quality of life. A qualitative descriptive methodology using Barrette's Theory of Power as Knowing Participation in Change thematic framework was used...
November 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028155/a-parallel-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometric-method-for-analysis-of-potential-csf-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Gunnar Brinkmalm, Simon Sjödin, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Henrik Zetterberg, Ann Brinkmalm, Kaj Blennow
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (PRM-MS) assay consisting of a panel of potential protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirteen proteins were selected based on their association with neurodegenerative diseases and involvement in synaptic function, secretory vesicle function, or innate immune system. CSF samples were digested and 2-3 peptides per protein were quantified using stable isotope-labeled peptide standards...
October 13, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024161/site-directed-fluorescence-labeling-of-intrinsically-disordered-region-of-human-transcription-factor-yy1-the-inhibitory-effect-of-zinc-ions
#8
Adam Kazimierz Górka, Andrzej Górecki, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska
Site-specific labeling of proteins with fluorescent dyes allows the study of protein structure and function using a wide variety of fluorescent techniques. However, specific labeling is not trivial in the case of proteins containing multiple cysteine residues. An example of such a protein is transcription factor Yin Yang 1, which comprises eight cysteine residues in four C2H2 type zinc fingers in the C-terminal region. Kinetic measurements of the labeling process allowed us to develop preparative labeling of three cysteine residues differently introduced to the N-terminal, disordered fragment of the protein...
October 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022237/dysfunction-of-membrane-trafficking-leads-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-after-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#9
REVIEW
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Bingren Hu
Neurons require an extraordinarily high level of membrane trafficking activities because of enriched axonal terminals and dendritic branches. For that reason, defects in the membrane trafficking pathway are a hallmark of most, and may be all, neurodegenerative disorders. A major cellular membrane trafficking pathway is the Golgi apparatus (Golgi hereafter)-late endosome-lysosome axis for supplying lysosomal enzymes. This pathway is regulated by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) ATPase. This review article is to discuss a novel hypothesis that brain ischemia inactivates NSF ATPase, resulting in a cascade of events of disruption of the Golgi-endosome-lysosome pathway, release of cathepsin B (CTSB), and induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during the postischemic phase...
October 11, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992891/patterns-of-medical-utilization-before-the-first-hospitalization-for-women-with-anorexia-nervosa-in-taiwan
#10
Yen-Ni Hung, Chian-Jue Kuo, Shu-Yu Yang, Ming-Chyi Huang, Ying-Yeh Chen, Shih-Ku Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze medical utilization patterns of female patients with anorexia nervosa before their first inpatient care visit for anorexia nervosa using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. METHOD: We selected female anorexia nervosa patients (n=239) and control participants hospitalized for peptic ulcers (n=478) or appendectomy (n=478) who were matched by age and incident year from two subsets of the NHIRD...
November 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990516/gut-microbiota-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-metabolic-disorders
#11
Hirofumi Okubo, Yusuke Nakatsu, Akifumi Kushiyama, Takeshi Yamamotoya, Yasuka Matsunaga, Masa-Ki Inoue, Midori Fujishiro, Hideaki Sakoda, Haruya Ohno, Masayasu Yoneda, Hiraku Ono, Tomoichiro Asano
The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been rising worldwide, making the identification of factors affecting metabolic control more important than ever. Gut microbiota play a vital role not only in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but also in homeostatic maintenance of host immunity, metabolism and the gut barrier. It was recently suggested that gut microbiota alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982812/identifying-patterns-of-non-communicable-diseases-in-developed-eastern-coastal-china-a-longitudinal-study-of-electronic-health-records-from-12-public-hospitals
#12
Dehua Yu, Jianwei Shi, Hanzhi Zhang, Zhaoxin Wang, Yuan Lu, Bin Zhang, Ying Pan, Bo Wang, Pengfei Sun
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the spectrum and trends of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in inpatients in eastern coastal China, which is transforming from an industrial economy to a service-oriented economy and is the most economically developed region in the country. This study aimed to dynamically elucidate the spectrum and characteristics of severe NCDs in eastern coastal China by analysing patients' longitudinal electronic health records (EHRs). SETTING: To monitor the spectrum of NCDs dynamically, we extracted the EHR data from 12 general tertiary hospitals in eastern coastal China from 2003 to 2014...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982204/-psychiatric-and-somatic-comorbidities-of-eating-disorders-and-obesity-in-female-adolescent-and-adult-inpatients
#13
Julia Muehleck, Felicitas Richter, Luise Adametz, Bernhard Strauß, Uwe Berger
Objective The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of somatic and psychiatric comorbidities in female inpatients diagnosed with an eating disorder or obesity. Methods Statutory health insurance data (11 - 25 years, N = 1269) was analysed. Results The most frequent comorbidities for both groups were affective, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform as well as personality disorders and diseases of the digestive system. Conclusion Close to half of the patients diagnosed with an eating disorder suffered from psychiatric comorbidities...
October 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982106/pepsin-and-its-importance-for-functional-dyspepsia-relic-regulator-or-remedy
#14
Karl-Uwe Petersen
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia is a heterogeneous disorder lacking an established therapeutic strategy. Historical treatment attempts with pepsin products were shrugged off, as a simple calculation shows that quantitative substitution is pointless. However, such attempts might have been right for the wrong reason. SUMMARY: Today, the role of pepsins is primarily seen in the provision of signalling amino acids (especially phenylalanine and tryptophan) and peptides, which initiate processes promoting digestion...
October 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979773/efficacy-of-mycophenolate-treatment-in-adults-with-steroid-dependent-frequently-relapsing-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#15
Diego Sandoval, Rafael Poveda, Juliana Draibe, Laureà Pérez-Oller, Montserrat Díaz, José Ballarín, Anna Saurina, Helena Marco, Josep Bonet, Xoana Barros, Xavier Fulladosa, Joan Torras, Josep M Cruzado
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the efficacy of therapy with mycophenolate (MF) and reduced doses of steroids in adults with steroid-dependent/frequently relapsing idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SD/FR-INS). METHODS: Twenty-nine nephrotic patients (including 16 males and 13 females; mean age: 40 years, range: 18-74) were treated. Starting doses of MF were 2000 mg/day for mofetil MF (1500 mg/day in one patient) or 1440 mg/day for sodium MF. The initial prednisone (PDN) dose was 10 mg/day in 14 patients, 5 mg/day in two patients and no steroids in one patient...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966017/the-structure-of-the-zmynd8-drebrin-complex-suggests-a-cytoplasmic-sequestering-mechanism-of-zmynd8-by-drebrin
#16
Ningning Yao, Jianchao Li, Haiyang Liu, Jun Wan, Wei Liu, Mingjie Zhang
Malfunctions of the actin binding protein Drebrin have been implicated in various human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairments, cancer, and digestive disorders, though with poorly understood mechanisms. The ADF-H domain of Drebrin does not contain actin binding and depolymerizing activity. Instead, it binds to a histone marker reader, ZMYND8. Here we present the high-resolution crystal structure of Drebrin ADF-H in complex with the ZMYND8 PHD-BROMO-PWWP tandem, elucidating the mechanistic basis governing the highly specific interaction of the two proteins...
September 13, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960628/treatment-of-gastric-eosinophilia-by-epicutaneous-immunotherapy-in-piglets-sensitized-to-peanuts
#17
L Mondoulet, N Kalach, V Dhelft, T Larcher, C Delayre-Orthez, P H Benhamou, J Spergel, H A Sampson, C Dupont
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders (EGIDs) are hypersensitivity disorders frequently triggered by food allergy and manifested by mucosal eosinophilic infiltration at any level of the gastro-intestinal tract. This study established a model of gastric eosinophilia in peanut-sensitized piglets to evaluate the efficacy of epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) for its treatment. METHODS: Experiments were carried out in piglets first sensitized by 3 intra-peritoneal injections of peanut protein extract (PPE) with adjuvant, and then given PPE orally for 10 days, a sequence leading to gastric eosinophilia assessed by endoscopy...
September 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954757/recurrent-gastric-metal-bezoar-a-rare-cause-of-gastric-outlet-obstruction
#18
Elias Chahine, Lionel El Khoury, Ramez Baghdady, Elie Chouillard
A 52-year-old male patient with psychiatric medical history who presented to the emergency department five times during a period of 5 years due to gastric outlet obstruction manifested mainly by abdominal pain, vomiting and haematemesis after intentionally ingesting metals and which necessitate several surgical interventions. Lately, he presented with generalised peritonitis due to gastric perforation from metal bezoars. Chronic abdominal symptoms in patient having a psychiatric disorder can be due to foreign body ingestion...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954442/the-potential-for-gut-organoid-derived-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-replacement-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Jerry Zhou, Michael D O'Connor, Vincent Ho
Effective digestion requires propagation of food along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves coordinated waves of peristalsis produced by enteric neural cell types, including different categories of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Impaired food transport along the gastrointestinal tract, either too fast or too slow, causes a range of gut motility disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Notably, loss of ICC has been shown to affect gut motility. Patients that suffer from gut motility disorders regularly experience diarrhoea and/or constipation, insomnia, anxiety, attention lapses, irritability, dizziness, and headaches that greatly affect both physical and mental health...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951043/the-readmission-rates-in-patients-with-versus-those-without-diabetes-mellitus-at-an-urban-teaching-hospital
#20
Halis Sonmez, Varinder Kambo, Dimiter Avtanski, Larry Lutsky, Leonid Poretsky
OBJECTIVE: We examined the 30-day hospital readmission rates and their association with the admission diagnosis and the length of stay (LOS) in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes mellitus (DM) in an urban teaching hospital. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared the 30-day readmission rates in patients with DM (n=16,266) versus those without DM (n=86,428) at an urban teaching hospital between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2015. In individuals with a secondary diagnosis of DM, we analyzed the relationship between readmission rates and the ten most common Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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