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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730269/emergence-of-candida-glabrata-in-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-should-be-attributed-to-selective-pressure-or-virulence-ability
#1
Sandra Sayuri Nakamura-Vasconcelos, Adriana Fiorini, Pamela Delvas Zanni, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Janine Ribeiro Godoy, Adriana Araújo Almeida-Apolonio, Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski
PURPOSE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most frequent female genital disorders and Candida glabrata is the second most common agent. Current study was aimed to study the susceptibility to antifungal agents of C. glabrata isolated from vaginal samples and some virulence attributes in order to better understand why this species is emerging as the main VVC agents. METHODS: A total of 60 C. glabrata vaginal isolates were included in this study. Firstly they were screened by susceptibility tests to antifungal agents...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723333/enhanced-prophylaxis-plus-antiretroviral-therapy-for-advanced-hiv-infection-in-africa
#2
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721333/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-a-ruxolitinib-treated-patient-with-primary-myelofibrosis
#3
Anna Hirano, Masahiro Yamasaki, Naomi Saito, Koji Iwato, Wakako Daido, Kunihiko Funaishi, Sayaka Ishiyama, Naoko Deguchi, Masaya Taniwaki, Nobuyuki Ohashi
We present the case of a 79-year-old man who showed multiple pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) after being treated for 6 months with ruxolitinib, an inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and 2, to treat primary myelofibrosis. We examined the lesions by bronchoscopy, and the biopsy specimen revealed fungus bodies of Cryptococcus with granulomatous inflammation. As a result, the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis. The patient was treated with fluconazole (200 mg daily for 2 weeks) with concomitant ruxolitinib administration, but the pulmonary lesions progressed...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720726/mitochondrial-cochaperone-mge1-is-involved-in-regulating-susceptibility-to-fluconazole-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-candida-species
#4
Liesbeth Demuyser, Erwin Swinnen, Alessandro Fiori, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Kevin Vestrepen, Patrick Van Dijck
MGE1 encodes a yeast chaperone involved in Fe-S cluster metabolism and protein import into the mitochondria. In this study, we identified MGE1 as a multicopy suppressor of susceptibility to the antifungal fluconazole in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We demonstrate that this phenomenon is not exclusively dependent on the integrity of the mitochondrial DNA or on the presence of the drug efflux pump Pdr5. Instead, we show that the increased dosage of Mge1 plays a protective role by retaining increased amounts of ergosterol upon fluconazole treatment...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711004/investigation-of-the-presence-and-endocrine-activities-of-pesticides-found-in-wastewater-effluent-using-yeast-based-bioassays
#5
Paul Westlund, Viviane Yargeau
This study investigated the presence of a variety of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides) in effluent of three wastewater treatment plants as well as their endocrine activities using yeast-based in vitro assays. Although the presence of these contaminants of emerging concern is frequently reported to be present throughout the environment, their presence in wastewater treatment plants has been seldom studied. Of the 18 compounds investigated in this study, imidacloprid was the only compound not detected in all three WWTPs...
July 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709495/unusual-case-of-coexistent-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-and-tuberculosis-in-an-immuno-competent-host
#6
Sunila Jain, Vrushali Mahajan, Arvind Kumar
Coexistence of pulmonary cryptococcosis with other infections has commonly been described in immuno-suppressed individuals. In immuno-competent hosts, such coexistence is rare and mostly described in disseminated disease or uncommonly involving different sites. The simultaneous coinfection of cryptococcosis and tuberculosis of lung in an immuno-competent host is extremely rare with only one previously reported case in the literature. This is the second such case and the first to be reported in India. We describe a case of a 36-year-old immuno-competent male who presented with haemoptysis and cough...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707165/design-preparation-and-evaluation-of-hpmc-based-paa-or-sa-freeze-dried-scaffolds-for-vaginal-delivery-of-fluconazole
#7
Carmen Anatolia Gafitanu, Daniela Filip, Corina Cernatescu, Daniela Rusu, Cristina Gabriela Tuchilus, Doina Macocinschi, Mirela-Fernanda Zaltariov
PURPOSE: Aim of this work was preparation of bioadhesive gel formulations based on Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or Sodium alginate (SA) loaded with anise/fluconazole β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in 1:2 and 1:3 ratios intended for vaginal applications. METHODS: Freeze-drying method was effectively utilized and superporous morphology was obtained. The superporous morphology of the lyophilized gels, dynamic water vapor sorption measurements, drug release kinetics studies and their antimicrobial activities are presented...
July 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705181/the-impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-symptom-burden-among-hiv-outpatients-with-low-cd4-count-in-rural-uganda-nested-longitudinal-cohort-study
#8
Katie Wakeham, Richard Harding, Jonathan Levin, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Anatoli Kamali, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with HIV have a high prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms throughout their disease course. Despite the clinical and public health implications of unresolved pain and symptoms, little is known about the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact on symptom burden for the year after ART initiation in individuals with a CD4 count <200 cells/uL in Uganda. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naıve adults referred from voluntary testing and counseling services in rural Uganda for enrollment into a randomized controlled trial to test fluconazole as primary prophylaxis against cryptococcal disease were invited to complete the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS-SF) prior to commencing ART and at two subsequent follow up visits...
July 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704490/the-synthetic-killer-peptide-kp-impairs-candida-albicans-biofilm-in-vitro
#9
Simona Paulone, Andrea Ardizzoni, Arianna Tavanti, Serena Piccinelli, Cosmeri Rizzato, Antonella Lupetti, Bruna Colombari, Eva Pericolini, Luciano Polonelli, Walter Magliani, Stefania Conti, Brunella Posteraro, Claudio Cermelli, Elisabetta Blasi, Samuele Peppoloni
Candida albicans is a commensal organism, commonly inhabiting mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, as a part of the resident microbiota. However, in susceptible hosts, especially hospitalized and/or immunocompromised patients, it may cause a wide range of infections. The presence of abiotic substrates, such as central venous or urinary catheters, provides an additional niche for Candida attachment and persistence, particularly via biofilm development. Furthermore, Candida biofilm is poorly susceptible to most antifungals, including azoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704121/evaluation-of-in-vitro-antiamoebic-activity-of-antimicrobial-agents-against-clinical-acanthamoeba-isolates
#10
Hidemasa Nakaminami, Kentaro Tanuma, Kiichi Enomoto, Yukihiko Yoshimura, Tomoyo Onuki, Shin Nihonyanagi, Yukihiro Hamada, Norihisa Noguchi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate in vitro antiamoebic activity of antimicrobial agents at short exposure times similar to those used for actual treatment against Acanthamoeba strains isolated from patients with keratitis. METHODS: The 5 clinical Acanthamoeba isolated in Japan were used in this study. Identification of genotypes for the Acanthamoeba isolates was performed using partial 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), including the ASA.S1 region sequences...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702763/pharmacokinetics-of-antifungal-drugs-practical-implications-for-optimized-treatment-of-patients
#11
REVIEW
Romuald Bellmann, Piotr Smuszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Because of the high mortality of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), appropriate exposure to antifungals appears to be crucial for therapeutic efficacy and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review summarises published pharmacokinetic data on systemically administered antifungals focusing on co-morbidities, target-site penetration, and combination antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: Amphotericin B is eliminated unchanged via urine and faeces...
July 12, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700974/mechanism-of-berberine-mediated-fluconazole-susceptibility-enhancement-in-clinical-fluconazole-resistant-candida-tropicalis-isolates
#12
GaoXiang Shi, Jing Shao, TianMing Wang, DaQiang Wu, ChangZhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Candida tropicalis was one of the most common non-albicans Candida (NACA) species creating relatively high morbidity and mortality. We previously demonstrated that the antifungal effect of BBR in combination with FLC might be attributed to reactive oxygen species production, ergosterol content and efflux pump levels in a clinical C. tropicalis isolate. METHODS: we employed thirteen clinical C. tropicalis isolates as well as four standard reference strains to evaluate the antifungal activity of BBR in combination with FLC under planktonic and biofilm states by analyzing the mRNA expressions of ERG11, CDR1 and MDR1 by qRT-PCR...
July 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700656/unexpected-effects-of-azole-transporter-inhibitors-on-antifungal-susceptibility-in-candida-glabrata-and-other-pathogenic-candida-species
#13
Yohsuke Nagayoshi, Taiga Miyazaki, Shintaro Shimamura, Hironobu Nakayama, Asuka Minematsu, Shunsuke Yamauchi, Takahiro Takazono, Shigeki Nakamura, Katsunori Yanagihara, Shigeru Kohno, Hiroshi Mukae, Koichi Izumikawa
The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700464/cryptococcal-meningitis-after-transnasal-transsphenoidal-pituitary-microsurgery-of-acth-secreting-pituitary-adenoma-a-case-report
#14
Yang Liu, Ming Feng, Yong Yao, Kan Deng, Xinjie Bao, Xiaohai Liu, Renzhi Wang
RATIONALE: Microbial infection should be regarded in the differential diagnosis of neurosurgical complications after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, albeit cryptococcal meningitis is rare. This article will discuss the risk factors of cryptococcal meningitis in patients underwent transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, and summary the potential origins of infection. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: Here, we report a case of 37-year-old male who had cryptococcal meningitis after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery of a relapsing ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699964/antifungal-susceptibility-profile-of-diferent-yeasts-isolates-from-wild-animals-cow-s-milk-with-subclinical-mastitis-and-hospital-environment
#15
J F Mendes, C L Gonçalves, G F Ferreira, I A Esteves, C H Freitas, J P V Villarreal, J R B Mello, M C A Meireles, P S Nascente
Yeast infections have acquired great importance due to increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients or patients undergoing invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, and also because of its high morbidity and mortality. At the same time, it has been seen an increase in the emergence of new pathogenic species difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of 89 yeasts from different sources against the antifungals amphotericin B, voriconazole, fluconazole and flucytosine, using the VITEK® 2 Compact system...
July 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699297/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-anidulafungin-vs-fluconazole-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-candidiasis-ic-in-turkey
#16
Chin Fen Neoh, Esin Senol, Ates Kara, Ener Cagri Dinleyici, Stuart J Turner, David C M Kong
Anidulafungin has been shown to be non-inferior to, and possibly more efficacious, than fluconazole in treating patients with invasive candidiasis (IC). This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of anidulafungin vs fluconazole for treatment of IC in the Turkish setting. A decision analytic model was constructed to depict downstream economic consequences of using anidulafungin or fluconazole for treatment of IC in the Turkish hospitals. Transition probabilities (ie treatment success, observed or indeterminate treatment failures) were obtained from a published randomised clinical trial...
July 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698522/design-synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-new-triazole-and-nitro-triazole-derivatives-as-antifungal-agents
#17
Hossein Sadeghpour, Soghra Khabnadideh, Kamiar Zomorodian, Keyvan Pakshir, Khadijeh Hoseinpour, Nabiollah Javid, Ehsan Faghih-Mirzaei, Zahra Rezaei
In this study two series of fluconazole derivatives bearing nitrotriazole (series A) or piperazine ethanol (series B) side chain were designed and synthesized and then docked in the active site of lanosterol 14α-demethylase enzyme (1EA1) using the Autodock 4.2 program (The scripps research institute, La Jolla, CA, USA). The structures of synthesized compound were confirmed by various methods including elemental and spectral (NMR, CHN, and Mass) analyses. Then antifungal activities of the synthesized compound were tested against several natural and clinical strains of fungi using a broth microdilution assay against several standard and clinical fungi...
July 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697301/discovery-of-a-membrane-active-ring-modified-histidines-containing-ultra-short-amphiphilic-peptide-that-exhibits-potent-inhibition-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#18
Krishna K Sharma, Indresh K Maurya, Shabana I Khan, Melissa R Jacob, Vinod Kumar, Kulbhushan Tikoo, Rahul Jain
The new structural classes of ultra short peptides that exhibit potent microbicidal action have potential as future drugs. Herein, we report that C-2 arylated histidines containing tripeptides, His(2-Ar)-Trp-His(2-Ar) exhibit potent antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with high selectivity. The most potent peptide 12f [His(2-biphenyl)-Trp-His(2-biphenyl)] displayed high in vitro activity against C. neoformans (IC50 = 0.35 µg/mL, MIC = MFC = 0.63 µg/mL) with a selectivity index of >28, and two times higher potency compared to amphotericin B...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696923/whole-genome-sequence-of-the-heterozygous-clinical-isolate-candida-krusei-81-b-5
#19
Christina A Cuomo, Terrance Shea, Bo Yang, Reeta Rao, Anja Forche
Candida krusei is a diploid, heterozygous yeast that is an opportunistic fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. This species also is utilized for fermenting cocoa beans during chocolate production. One major concern in the clinical setting is the innate resistance of this species to the most commonly used antifungal drug fluconazole. Here we report a high-quality genome sequence and assembly for the first clinical isolate of C. krusei, strain 81-B-5, into 11 scaffolds generated with PacBio sequencing technology...
July 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696240/biofilms-formed-by-isolates-from-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-patients-are-heterogeneous-and-insensitive-to-fluconazole
#20
Leighann Sherry, Ryan Kean, Emily McKloud, Lindsay E O'Donnell, Rebecca Metcalfe, Brian L Jones, Gordon Ramage
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a global health problem affecting ∼75% of women at least once in their lifetime. Here we examined the epidemiology of VVC from a patient cohort to identify the causative organisms associated with VVC. Biofilm forming capacity and antifungal sensitivity profiles were also assessed. We report a shifting prevalence of Candida species with heterogeneous biofilm forming capacity, both of which are associated with altered antifungal drug sensitivity.
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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