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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921082/global-role-of-cyclic-amp-signaling-in-ph-dependent-responses-in-candida-albicans
#1
Jeffrey M Hollomon, Nora Grahl, Sven D Willger, Katja Koeppen, Deborah A Hogan
Candida albicans behaviors are affected by pH, an important environmental variable. Filamentous growth is a pH-responsive behavior, where alkaline conditions favor hyphal growth and acid conditions favor growth as yeast. We employed filamentous growth as a tool to study the impact of pH on the hyphal growth regulator Cyr1, and we report that downregulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by acidic pH contributes to the inhibition of hyphal growth in minimal medium with GlcNAc. Ras1 and Cyr1 are generally required for efficient hyphal growth, and the effects of low pH on Ras1 proteolysis and GTP binding are consistent with diminished cAMP output...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916390/chromatographic-behavior-of-selected-antibiotic-drugs-supported-by-quantitative-structure-retention-relationships
#2
Malgorzata Szultka-Mlynska, Boguslaw Buszewski
As antibiotic drugs have a wide variety of applications, there is a growing demand for their selective determination, a task for which chromatographic methods seem to be appropriate. With this end in view, chromatographic measurements were performed with the use of six different HPLC columns (ACE 5C18, IAM.PC.DD.2, octadecyl, phenyl, alkylamide and cholesteryl-alkylamide) to determine the logkw of selected antibiotic drugs (amoxicillin, cefatoxime, ciprofloxacin, fluconazole, gentamicin, clindamycin, linezolid and metronidazole)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915337/quercetin-assists-fluconazole-to-inhibit-biofilm-formations-of-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-managements-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#3
Mei Gao, Hui Wang, LiJuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecological disease. Candida albicans is believed to be mainly implicated in VVC occurrence, the biofilm of which is one of the virulence factors responsible for resistance to traditional antifungal agents especially to fluconazole (FCZ). Quercetin (QCT) is a dietary flavonoid and has been demonstrated to be antifungal against C. albicans biofilm. METHODS: 17 C. albicans isolates including 15 clinical ones isolated from VVC patients were employed to investigate the effects of QCT and/or FCZ on the inhibition of C...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#4
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904738/recent-developments-in-the-management-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-oncohematological-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Markus Ruhnke, Stefan Schwartz
Patients with hematological cancer have a high risk of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). These infections are mostly life threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other non-Aspergillus molds are increasingly be identified in cases of documented IFDs. Important risk factors are long lasting granulocytopenia with neutrophil counts below 500/μl for more than 10 days or graft-versus-host disease resulting from allogeneic stem-cell transplantation...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904055/the-first-isolation-of-aspergillus-allahabadii-from-a-cormorant-with-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#6
Sue Yee Lim, Rui Kano, Kenji Ooya, Shunta Kimura, Tokuma Yanai, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kamata
In this study, we report the first isolation of Aspergillus allahabadii from a Japanese cormorant with pulmonary aspergillosis. We performed molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility testing with the E-test. A 7-month-old male cormorant died because of uric acid deposition secondary to dehydration. Whitish nodular lesions were present on the caudal thoracic air sac in the right thoracic cavity. Histopathology revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous necrotic lesions with numerous fungal hyphae in the thoracic air sac...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903576/first-reported-case-of-peroneal-tenosynovitis-caused-by-coccidioides-immitis-successfully-treated-with-fluconazole
#7
Aneela Majeed, Waqas Ullah, Auon Abbas Hamadani, Anca Georgescu
Coccidioidomycosis is an insidious infection caused by Coccidioides spp (C. immitis and C. posadasii). Disseminated disease occasionally involves tendon sheaths and synovium of the joints leading to tenosynovitis. Here, we describe the case of a 72-year-old woman from southern Arizona, who presented with right ankle pain, redness and swelling for 2 months. Her serum IgG was positive for C. immitis on complement fixation, and her MRI of the right ankle joint showed extensive tenosynovitis of the right peroneal tendons, and subtalar joint effusions with associated synovitis...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902776/inhibition-of-candida-albicans-biofilm-formation-by-the-synthetic-lactoferricin-derived-peptide-hlf1-11
#8
Paola Morici, Roberta Fais, Cosmeri Rizzato, Arianna Tavanti, Antonella Lupetti
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902377/comparison-of-susceptibility-patterns-using-commercially-available-susceptibility-testing-methods-performed-on-prevalent-candida-species
#9
David Cretella, Katie E Barber, S Travis King, Kayla R Stover
The rising rates of invasive fungal infections caused by non-albicans Candida and the increasing emergence of antifungal resistance complicate the management of invasive candidiasis. Accurate and timely antifungal susceptibility testing is critical to targeting antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare commercially available susceptibility testing methods using prospectively collected Candida isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed on 74 Candida isolates collected from July 2014-March 2015 using broth microdilution (BMD) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method, Etest, Vitek2 (YS-05), and Sensititre...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895625/evaluation-of-virulence-factors-in-vitro-resistance-to-osmotic-stress-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-tropicalis-isolated-from-the-coastal-environment-of-northeast-brazil
#10
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Sayama S T Q de Medeiros, Luanda B F C de Souza, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Elaine C Francisco, Maria C B de Araújo, Reginaldo G Lima-Neto, Rejane P Neves, Analy S de Azevedo Melo, Guilherme M Chaves
Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889832/effects-of-cytochrome-p450-cyp3a4-and-cyp2c19-inhibition-and-induction-on-the-exposure-of-selumetinib-a-mek1-2-inhibitor-in-healthy-subjects-results-from-two-clinical-trials
#11
Angela W Dymond, Karen So, Paul Martin, Yifan Huang, Paul Severin, David Mathews, Eleanor Lisbon, Gabriella Mariani
PURPOSE: Two phase I, open-label trials in healthy subjects assessed whether co-administration with CYP3A4/CYP2C19 inhibitors, itraconazole/fluconazole (study A), or CYP3A4 inducer, rifampicin (study B), affects the exposure, safety/tolerability and pharmacokinetics of selumetinib and its metabolite N-desmethyl selumetinib. METHODS: In study A (n = 26), subjects received a single dose of selumetinib 25 mg and, after 4 days of washout, were randomized to treatment 1 (itraconazole 200 mg twice daily on days 1-11) or treatment 2 (fluconazole 400 mg on day 1 then 200 mg/day on days 2-11) plus co-administration of single-dose selumetinib 25 mg on day 8 (selumetinib staggered 4 h after itraconazole/fluconazole dose); Twenty-one days after discharge/washout, subjects received the alternate treatment...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885762/esophageal-tuberculosis-with-coexisting-opportunistic-infections-in-a-renal-allograft-transplant-recipient
#12
Sunil Kumar, Mukut Minz, Saroj K Sinha, Kim Vaiphei, Ashish Sharma, Sarbpreet Singh, Deepesh B Kenwar
We report a renal allograft transplant recipient with esophageal tuberculosis (TB) coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Candida. The patient presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and was started on fluconazole. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed whitish patches with mucosal ulcers in the esophagus. Histopathological examination confirmed TB and HSV infection. The patient recovered after antiviral, antifungal, and anti-tubercular therapy with reduction in immunosuppression. In a TB-endemic zone, TB can coexist with opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host...
November 25, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884766/mechanisms-of-vascular-dysfunction-in-copd-and-effects-of-a-novel-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-in-smokers
#13
Lucy Yang, Joseph Cheriyan, David D Gutterman, Ruth J Mayer, Zsuzsanna Ament, Jules L Griffin, Aili L Lazaar, David E Newby, Ruth Tal-Singer, Ian B Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the pathogenesis may involve endothelial dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-mediated endothelial function is impaired in patients with COPD, and a novel sEH inhibitor GSK2256294 attenuates EET-mediated endothelial dysfunction in human resistance vessels both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Endogenous and stimulated endothelial release of EETs was assessed in 12 COPD patients, 11 overweight smokers, and 2 matched control groups, using forearm plethysmography with intra-arterial infusions of fluconazole, bradykinin, and the combination...
November 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882525/genotyping-and-persistence-of-candida-albicans-from-pregnant-women-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#14
Cecilia V Tapia, Germán Hermosilla, Paula Fortes, Claudio Alburquenque, Sergio Bucarey, Hugo Salinas, Paula I Rodas, María Cristina Díaz, Fabien Magne
OBJECTIVE: To study Candida albicans genotypes using RAPD and their susceptibility to fluconazole in healthy pregnant women and in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients after topical treatment with clotrimazole. METHODS: Vaginal swabs were collected at t = 0 and t = 1 (1 month later) in pregnant women (control group, n = 33), and before (t = 0), at 1 month (t = 1) and at 2 months (t = 2) after clotrimazole treatment in pregnant women with VVC. RESULTS: Candida albicans was isolated in 30% of healthy pregnant women and 80% of patients with VVC...
November 23, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879678/new-thiazolyl-triazole-schiff-bases-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-the-anti-candida-potential
#15
Anca Stana, Alexandra Enache, Dan Cristian Vodnar, Cristina Nastasă, Daniela Benedec, Ioana Ionuț, Cezar Login, Gabriel Marc, Ovidiu Oniga, Brîndușa Tiperciuc
In the context of the dangerous phenomenon of fungal resistance to the available therapies, we present here the chemical synthesis of a new series of thiazolyl-triazole Schiff bases B1-B15, which were in vitro assessed for their anti-Candida potential. Compound B10 was found to be more potent against Candida spp. when compared with the reference drugs Fluconazole and Ketoconazole. A docking study of the newly synthesized Schiff bases was performed, and results showed good binding affinity in the active site of co-crystallized Itraconazole-lanosterol 14α-demethylase isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
November 22, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873481/a-case-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-with-large-pericardial-effusion-diagnosed-using-cervical-lymph-node-biopsy
#16
Xuchun Liu, Wei Jia, Shubin Huang, Gengyun Sun
Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is a relatively rare infectious disease. It mainly involves the lungs; however, in some patients, the infection could spread to other parts of the body. PC mostly occurs in patients with immune deficiencies. However, PC infections have been reported in non-immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of PC is challenging in patients without immune deficiencies. Here, the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent woman who was diagnosed with PC was report. She had unexplained fever and a history of close contact with poultry feathers...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870138/promise-of-combining-antifungal-agents-in-denture-adhesives-to-fight-candida-species-infections
#17
Jorge L Garaicoa, Carol L Fischer, Amber M Bates, Julie Holloway, Gustavo Avila-Ortiz, Janet M Guthmiller, Georgia K Johnson, Clark Stanford, Kim A Brogden
PURPOSE: Several complications may arise in patients wearing complete prosthetic appliances, including denture-associated infections and mucosal stomatitis due to Candida species. This study evaluated the activity of anti-Candida agents in denture adhesive and the cytotoxicities of these preparations for primary human gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-Candida activities of antimicrobial peptides, antimicrobial lipids, and antifungal agents against C...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866173/a-rapid-uplc-ms-ms-assay-for-the-simultaneous-measurement-of-fluconazole-voriconazole-posaconazole-itraconazole-and-hydroxyitraconazole-concentrations-in-serum
#18
Sankha S Basu, Athena Petrides, Donald S Mason, Petr Jarolim
BACKGROUND: Triazole antifungals are essential to the treatment and prophylaxis of fungal infections. Significant pharmacokinetic variability combined with a clinical need for faster turnaround times has increased demand for in-house therapeutic drug monitoring of these drugs, which is best performed using mass spectrometry-based platforms. However, technical and logistical obstacles to implementing these platforms in hospital laboratories have limited their widespread utilization. Here, we present the development and validation of a fast and simple ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to measure fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole in human serum suitable for incorporation into a hospital clinical laboratory...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862414/epidemiology-and-cost-implications-of-candidemia-a-6-year-analysis-from-a-developing-country
#19
Aysegul Ulu Kilic, Emine Alp, Fatma Cevahir, Zeynep Ture, Nuran Yozgat
Surveillance of candidemia is essential to monitor trends in species distribution and change in the incidence and antifungal resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate prevalence, resistance rates, antifungal utilization and costs. A 6-year retrospective analysis of the data belonging to patients with candidemia hospitalized between 2010 and 2016 was performed. The annual usage of fluconazole and caspofungin and the usage of these antifungals in different units were described in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days...
November 9, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858242/epidemiology-and-reporting-of-candidaemia-in-belgium-a-multi-centre-study
#20
C Trouvé, S Blot, M-P Hayette, S Jonckheere, S Patteet, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, F Symoens, E Van Wijngaerden, K Lagrou
The primary aim of this study was to collect national epidemiological data on candidaemia and to determine the reporting time of species identification and antifungal susceptibility in clinical practice. During a 1-year period (March 2013 until February 2014), every first Candida isolate from each episode of candidaemia was included prospectively from 30 Belgian hospitals. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed according to local procedures and isolates were sent to the National Reference Center for Mycosis...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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