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Water treatment

Jung-Jeng Su, Jeng-Fang Huang, Yi-Lei Wang, Yu-Ya Hong
The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Mahesh B Mawale, Abhaykumar Kuthe, Anupama M Mawale, Sandeep W Dahake
The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Keisuke Ikehata, Yuanyuan Zhao, Harshad Kulkarni, Yuan Li, Shane A Snyder, Kenneth P Ishida, Michael A Anderson
Reverse osmosis (RO)-based desalination and advanced water purification facilities have inherent challenges associated with concentrate management and disposal. Although enhanced permeate recovery and concentrate minimization are desired, membrane scaling due to inorganic constituents such as silica, calcium, phosphate, and iron hinders the process. To solve this problem, a new diatom-based photobiological process has been developed to remove these scaling constituents by biological uptake and precipitation...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ying Yang, Hui Fang, Gang Xu, Yanfeng Zhen, Yazhong Zhang, Jinli Tian, Dandan Zhang, Guyue Zhang, Jing Xu
Liraglutide is a type of glucagon‑like‑peptide 1 receptor agonist, which has been reported as a novel type of antidiabetic agent with numerous benefits, including cardiovascular and neuroprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, few studies to date have reported the potential mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective actions of liraglutide in diabetic rats and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mohamed Bessat, Amr Fadel
Amyloodinium ocellatum, the causative agent of amyloodiniosis (marine velvet, velvet disease), affects marine and brackish fish in various warm and temperate habitats. We recorded disease outbreaks with high morbidity and mortality rates in marine-cultured European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax fry at 2 locations in northwest Egypt. The sudden outbreak, high morbidity and mortality rates, and skin lesions with a velvety appearance in affected fish all indicated A. ocellatum infection. This was further confirmed by microscopic findings of the parasitic stage (trophonts) in skin and gill smears...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Rasel Das, Bey Fen Leo, Finbarr Murphy
Without nanosafety guidelines, the long-term sustainability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for water purifications is questionable. Current risk measurements of CNTs are overshadowed by uncertainties. New risks associated with CNTs are evolving through different waste water purification routes, and there are knowledge gaps in the risk assessment of CNTs based on their physical properties. Although scientific efforts to design risk estimates are evolving, there remains a paucity of knowledge on the unknown health risks of CNTs...
June 18, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Natapol Pumipuntu, Supawadee Piratae
Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a crucial zoonotic disease caused by worldwide distributing parasitic protozoa called Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis becomes a major public health and veterinary concern by affecting in human and various host range species of animals. Essentially, its importance of infection is increasing because of the high incidence in young children, immunocompromised persons, or immunodeficiency syndrome patients, especially in HIV/AIDS, and it is also one of the most causes of mortality in those patients who infected with Cryptosporidium spp...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Nguk Ting Lo, Mohammad Abul Bashar Sarker, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Md Harun-Or-Rashid, Junichi Sakamoto
Providing safe drinking-water to human civilization is indispensable; it is one of the most cost-effective means of reducing the disease burden of diarrhea. Unfortunately, water supply quality monitoring from public water treatment plants (WTPs) is often neglected or taken for granted. To determine the produced water quality, WTPs in Sarawak, Malaysia were assessed for their protozoa removal ability. A self-administered questionnaire based on the regulations in the Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand (DWSNZ) was developed...
May 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Viruses are serious pathogenic contamination that severely affect the environment and human health. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma efficiently inactivates pathogenic bacteria, however, the mechanism of virus inactivation by plasma is not fully understood. In this study, surface plasma in argon mixed with 1% air and plasma-activated water were used to treat water containing bacteriophages. Both agents efficiently inactivated bacteriophages T4, Φ174, and MS2 in a time-dependent manner. Prolonged storage had marginal effects on the anti-viral activity of plasma-activated water...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Jos W Twisk, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Jaap A Joles, Mark M Smits, Daniël H van Raalte
The prolonged treatment effects of a short-acting GLP-1RA (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist), such as lixisenatide, on fasting and postprandial systemic hemodynamics in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are unknown. In this secondary analysis, we included 34 overweight insulin glargine-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (mean±SD age, 62±7 years; HbA1c , 8.0±0.9%; systolic blood pressure [BP], 133.9±16.1 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 75.4±8.39 mm Hg) that were randomized to once-daily lixisenatide 20 μg or once-daily titrated insulin glulisine for 8 weeks...
June 18, 2018: Hypertension
Mei Ji, Xi-Xiu Xie, Dong-Qun Liu, Xiao-Lin Yu, Yue Zhang, Ling-Xiao Zhang, Shao-Wei Wang, Ya-Ru Huang, Rui-Tian Liu
BACKGROUND: Truncated mis-disordered tau protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Tau294-305 , an epitope in the truncated tau, is essential for pathological tau-tau interaction and aggregation. A tau294-305 -targeted approach may have beneficial effects in the treatment of AD and FTD. METHODS: In this study, we genetically fused tau294-305 epitope to the hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) major immunodominant region (MIR) (with the resultant protein termed T294-HBc), and we subcutaneously immunized a Tau...
June 19, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Animesh Biswas, Abu Sayeed Md Abdullah, Koustuv Dalal, Toity Deave, Fazlur Rahman, Saidur Rahman Mashreky
BACKGROUND: Burns can be the most devastating injuries in the world, they constitute a global public health problem and cause widespread public health concern. Every year in Bangladesh more than 365,000 people are injured by electrical, thermal and other causes of burn injuries. Among them 27,000 need hospital admission and over 5600 people die. Immediate treatment and medication has been found to be significant in the success of recovering from a burn. However, common practices used in the treatment of burn injuries in the community is not well documented in Bangladesh...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Xingchang Lu, Chen Liu, Zhimin Wang, Junyi Yang, Mengjing Xu, Jun Dong, Ping Wang, Jiangjiang Gu, Feifei Cao
On⁻off⁻on fluorescent sensors based on emerging carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) or carbon dots (CDs) have attracted extensive attention for their convenience and efficiency. In this study, dumped silkworm excrement was used as a novel precursor to prepare fluorescent nitrogen-doped CNPs (N-CNPs) through hydrothermal treatment. The obtained N-CNPs showed good photoluminescent properties and excellent water dispersibility. Thus, they were applied as fluorescence “on⁻off⁻on” probes for the detection of Fe(III) and biothiols...
June 17, 2018: Nanomaterials
María Eugenia Parron-Rubio, Francisca Perez-García, Antonio Gonzalez-Herrera, María Dolores Rubio-Cintas
Concrete consumption greatly exceeds the use of any other material in engineering. This is due to its good properties as a construction material and the availability of its components. Nevertheless, the present worldwide construction increases and the high-energy consumption for cement production means a high environmental impact. On the other hand, one of the main problems in the iron and steel industry is waste generation and byproducts that must be properly processed or reused to promote environmental sustainability...
June 17, 2018: Materials
Weijiang Zheng, Xu Ji, Qing Zhang, Wen Yao
The objective of the current experiment was to explore the intestinal microbiota ecological response to oral administrations of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) and lactulose (LAC) in female piglets fed a Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated diet. A total of 24 individually-housed female piglets (Landrace × large × white; initial average body weight, 7.25 ± 1.02 kg) were randomly assigned to receive four treatments (six pigs/treatment): uncontaminated basal diet (negative control, NC), mycotoxin-contaminated diet (MC), MC diet + HRW (MC + HRW), and MC diet + LAC (MC + LAC) for 25 days...
June 16, 2018: Toxins
Allisen N Okeyo, Nolonwabo Nontongana, Taiwo O Fadare, Anthony I Okoh
Wastewater treatment facilities in South Africa are obliged to make provision for wastewater effluent quality management, with the aim of securing the integrity of the surrounding watersheds and environments. The Department of Water Affairs has documented regulatory parameters that have, over the years, served as a guideline for quality monitoring/management purposes. However, these guidelines have not been regularly updated and this may have contributed to some of the water quality anomalies. Studies have shown that promoting the monitoring of the current routinely monitored parameters (both microbial and physicochemical) may not be sufficient...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kristen M Craven, William R Kochen, Carlos M Hernandez, Jane M Flinn
Hyperphosphorylated tau protein is a key pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and Parkinson's disease. The essential trace element zinc exacerbates tauopathy in vitro as well as in a Drosophila model of AD. However, the interaction has never been assessed behaviorally or biochemically in mammals. Zinc supplementation is prevalent in society, finding use as a treatment for macular degeneration and cataracts, and is also taken as an immune system booster with high levels appearing in multivitamins marketed toward the elderly...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Craig P Hutton, Jennifer A Lemon, Boris Sakic, C David Rollo, Douglas R Boreham, Margaret Fahnestock, J Martin Wojtowicz, Suzanna Becker
The increasing global burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and failure of conventional treatments to stop neurodegeneration necessitates an alternative approach. Evidence of inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress prior to the accumulation of amyloid-β in the prodromal stage of AD (mild cognitive impairment; MCI) suggests that early interventions which counteract these features, such as dietary supplements, may ameliorate the onset of MCI-like behavioral symptoms. We administered a polyphenol-containing multiple ingredient dietary supplement (MDS), or vehicle, to both sexes of triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice and wildtype mice for 2 months from 2-4 months of age...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Chiaying Chen, Yu Huang
To overcome the hydrophobic nature of pristine carbonaceous materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and to make them available for intended applications, chemically covalent functionalization tailoring these materials is widely applied. However, the addition of surface functional moieties often changes the fundamental properties of the parent materials and introduces great variations that hinder a full understanding of and unified conclusions about their environmental implications. In this work, we studied the photoactivity of covalently functionalized CNTs in the aquatic environment under sunlight irradiation...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Suzanne A Apodaca, Illya A Medina-Velo, Alek C Lazarski, Juan P Flores-Margez, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
The relationship between engineered nanomaterials and plant biostimulants is unclear. In this study, kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants were grown to maturity (90 days) in soil amended with nano copper (nCu), bulk copper (bCu), or copper chloride (CuCl2 ) at 0, 50, or 100 mg kg-1 , then watered with 0, 10, or 100 μM of kinetin (KN). Seeds were harvested and analyzed via ICP-OES and biochemical assays. While seed production was largely unaffected, nutritional value was significantly impacted. Accumulation of Cu was enhanced by 5-10% from controls by Cu-based treatments...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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