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Water treatment

L Katharina Schmidt, Mathias Bochow, Hannes K Imhof, Sascha E Oswald
Following the widespread assumption that a majority of ubiquitous marine microplastic particles originate from land-based sources, recent studies identify rivers as important pathways for microplastic particles (MPP) to the oceans. Yet a detailed understanding of the underlying processes and dominant sources is difficult to obtain with the existing accurate but extremely time-consuming methods available for the identification of MPP. Thus in the presented study, a novel approach applying short-wave infrared imaging spectroscopy for the quick and semi-automated identification of MPP is applied in combination with a multitemporal survey concept...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kiyoung Jeong, Hyeonbin O, So Yeon Shin, Young-Soon Kim
This study evaluated the influence of different factors on pork hams cooked by sous-vide method. The quality and structural and microbiological properties of the treated samples were compared with those of controls. Samples were subjected to treatment at different combinations of temperature (61 °C or 71 °C), time (45 or 90 min), and vacuum degree (98.81% or 96.58%). The control sample was air packaged and boiled for 45 min in boiling water. Temperature and vacuum degree affected quality properties, while the effect of time was limited...
April 10, 2018: Meat Science
Guiying Li, Huan Yang, Taicheng An, Yujuan Lu
Safe drinking water is essential for the wellbeing of people around the world. In this work, the occurrence, distribution, and elimination of four groups of antibiotics including fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, chloramphenicols and macrolides (21 antibiotics total), were studied in two drinking water treatment plants during the wet and dry seasons. In the drinking water source (river), the most abundant group was fluoroquinolones. In contrast, chloramphenicols were all under the limitation of detection. Total concentration of all investigated antibiotics was higher in dissolved phase (62-3...
April 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yuxi Zhang, Qunqun Ruan, Yaguang Peng, Guopeng Han, Hongliang Huang, Chongli Zhong
Large organic pollutants in wastewater are harmful to human health and environmental ecosystem, and it is of great importance to remove them from waste water. In this report, hierarchical-pore metal-organic frameworks with different mesopore sizes (H-UiO-66-3.8 nm and H-UiO-66-17.3 nm) have been successfully synthesized at reflux condition. The resulting MOFs are characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption analysis and the results show that the samples have hierarchical-pore structures, which indicate the heat reflux method is efficient for the synthesis of H-UiO-66s on liter scale...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Anja Coors, Pia Vollmar, Frank Sacher, Christian Polleichtner, Enken Hassold, Daniela Gildemeister, Ute Kühnen
The aquatic environment is continually exposed to a complex mixture of chemicals, whereby effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one key source. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether environmental risk assessments (ERAs) addressing individual substances are sufficiently protective for such coincidental mixtures. Based on a literature review of chemicals reported to occur in municipal WWTP effluents and mode-of-action considerations, four different types of mixtures were composed containing human pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and chemicals regulated under REACH...
April 14, 2018: Water Research
Rajapandiyan Krishnamoorthy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periyasamy, Abdulraheem R Adisa, Mohammed A Al-Shuniaber, Mustafa A Gassem, Ali A Alshatwi
The appearance of drug-resistant (DR) bacteria in the community is a crucial development, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and antibiotic use. Natural oil nanoemulsions (NEs) have potential for antimicrobial applications. In the present study, we determined the antimicrobial activity of an NE against DR bacterial pathogens in vitro. The NE comprised Cleome viscosa essential oil, Tween 80 nonionic surfactant, and water. We found that an NE with a droplet size of 7 nm and an oil:surfactant (v/v) ratio of 1:3 was effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), DR Streptococcus pyogenes, and DR extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
K C Biju, Robert C Evans, Kripa Shrestha, Daniel C B Carlisle, Jonathan Gelfond, Robert A Clark
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are very prominent and early features in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models of PD. Thus, antioxidant therapy for PD has been proposed, but in clinical trials such strategies have met with very limited success. Methylene blue (MB), a small-molecule synthetic heterocyclic organic compound that acts as a renewable electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, manifesting robust antioxidant and cell energetics-enhancing properties, has recently been shown to have significant beneficial effects in reducing nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss and motor impairment in acute toxin models of PD...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience
William K Boyes, Laura Degn, Barbara Jane George, Mary E Gilbert
Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Paola Mantuano, Francesca Sanarica, Elena Conte, Maria Grazia Morgese, Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Anna Cozzoli, Adriano Fonzino, Angelo Quaranta, Jean-Francois Rolland, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Luigia Trabace, Annamaria De Luca
The pharmacological stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via metabolic enhancers has been proposed as potential therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Metformin, a widely-prescribed anti-hyperglycemic drug which activates AMPK via mitochondrial respiratory chain, has been recently tested in DMD patients in synergy with nitric oxide (NO)-precursors, with encouraging results. However, preclinical data supporting the use of metformin in DMD are still poor, and its actions on skeletal muscle appear controversial...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
S Saran, P Arunkumar, G Manjari, S P Devipriya
Application of pilot scale slurry type tubular photocatalytic reactor was tested for the decentralized treatment of actual grey water. The reactors were fabricated by reusing the locally available materials at low cost, operated in batch recycle mode with 25L of grey water. The influence of operational parameters such as catalysts concentration, initial slurry pH and addition of H2 O2 on COD abatement were optimized. The results illustrate that, Ag decorated TiO2 shows two-fold increase in COD abatement than pure TiO2 ...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Technology
M Courbalay, M Villain-Gambier, A Klem, S Dumarcay, D Trebouet
Fractionation of phenolic compounds in thermomechanical pulp mills was performed with a coupling of a prior treatment realized by flotation and a ceramic membrane process. Two lines of membranes filtration were tested. After a common 150 kDa clarification, 1 kDa filtration was performed with or without previous 5 kDa filtration. Flotation was shown to be inevitable to retain lipophilic compounds which cause severe membrane fouling. 150 kDa permeate flux was 20% higher when process water was firstly floated and was around 260 L...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Technology
Chen Hou, Yunhua Peng, Chuan Qin, Fan Fan, Jiankang Liu, Jiangang Long
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised as a provoked inflammatory response and oxidative stress along with amyloid β peptide (Aβ) deposition and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, and effective treatment is greatly needed. Molecular hydrogen, which has been proposed to be an antioxidant that selectively reduces reactive oxygen species, was found to exert beneficial effects in Aβ injection-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, whether and how hydrogen affects AD pathogenesis remains uninvestigated...
April 23, 2018: Free Radical Research
Radhika Vattikunta, Dasari Venkatakrishnarao, Chakradhar Sahoo, Sri Ram Gopal Naraharisetty, Desai Narayana Rao, Klaus Müllen, Rajadurai Chandrasekar
Novel photonic microresonators with enhanced non-linear optical (NLO) intensity are fabricated from polymer particles. As an additional advantage, they offer bandgap tunability from the visible (Vis) to the near-infrared (NIR) region. A special protocol including i) copolymerization of 4-(1-pyrenyl)-styrene, styrene, and 1,4-divinyl-benzene, ii) extraction of a dispersible and partly dissolvable, lightly cross-linked polymer network (PN) and iii) treatment of the blue emitting PN with electron acceptors (A)-molecules such as 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene (TCNB) and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) furnishes orange and red emitting D-A charge-transfer (CT) complexes with the pendant pyrene units...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Robin M Andrews
Embryonic environments affect a range of phenotypic traits including sex and reproductive success. I determined (1) how the interaction between incubation temperature and egg size affects sex allocation of Chamaeleo calyptratus and (2) how incubation temperature and maternal parent (clutch) affect water uptake by eggs and body size, growth, and climbing speed of hatchlings and juveniles. Eggs from five clutches were exposed to five temperature treatments with clutches replicated within and among treatments...
April 23, 2018: Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology
Indra Saptiama, Yusuf Valentino Kaneti, Yoshitaka Suzuki, Kunihiko Tsuchiya, Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu, Takeji Sakae, Jeonghun Kim, Yong-Mook Kang, Katsuhiko Ariga, Yusuke Yamauchi
This work reports the template-free fabrication of mesoporous Al2 O3 nanospheres with greatly enhanced textural characteristics through a newly developed post-synthesis "water-ethanol" treatment of aluminium glycerate nanospheres followed by high temperature calcination. The proposed "water-ethanol" treatment is highly advantageous as the resulting mesoporous Al2 O3 nanospheres exhibit 2-4 times higher surface area (up to 251 m2 g-1 ), narrower pore size distribution, and significantly lower crystallization temperature than those obtained without any post-synthesis treatment...
April 22, 2018: Small
Jasmine A Oliver, Omar Zeidan, Sanford L Meeks, Amish P Shah, Jason Pukala, Patrick Kelly, Naren R Ramakrishna, Twyla R Willoughby
PURPOSE: To describe the commissioning of AIRO mobile CT system (AIRO) for adaptive proton therapy on a compact double scattering proton therapy system. METHODS: A Gammex phantom was scanned with varying plug patterns, table heights, and mAs on a CT simulator (CT Sim) and on the AIRO. AIRO-specific CT-stopping power ratio (SPR) curves were created with a commonly used stoichiometric method using the Gammex phantom. A RANDO anthropomorphic thorax, pelvis, and head phantom, and a CIRS thorax and head phantom were scanned on the CT Sim and AIRO...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Xu-Gui Chen, Li-Hua Chen, Ru-Xiang Xu, Hong-Tian Zhang
PURPOSE: To investigate the combination effect of methylprednisolone (MP) and mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (Mdivi-1) on the neurological function recovery of rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model. METHODS: The weight-drop method was used to establish the rat SCI model; then, rats were randomized into sham group, SCI group, MP group, Mdivi-1 group and MP+Mdivi-1 group. Motor function scores were quantified to evaluate locomotor ability; HE staining was used to assess spinal cord histopathology; tissue water content, oxidative stress, tissue mitochondrial function, neurons apoptosis, and apoptosis-related protein expression were detected...
April 23, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
April Aralar, Matthew Bird, Robert Graham, Beomseo Koo, Parag Chitnis, Siddhartha Sikdar, Mahesh Shenai
Objective Ventricular shunts are a mainstay of hydrocephalus treatment, but the detection of its clinical failure often relies on circumstantial evidence. A direct, non-interventional method for reliably evaluating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) function does not exist due to the difficulty of measuring in vivo flow characteristics. The objective of this study is to apply a novel method of ultrasound monitoring to characterize the oscillation observed during pulsatile CSF flow and failure states in an in vitro and cadaveric model...
February 19, 2018: Curēus
Yassine Bouattour, Philip Chennell, Mathieu Wasiak, Mireille Jouannet, Valérie Sautou
Background: Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) eye drops are a frequently used medication to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis. In the absence of marketed PHMB eye drops, pharmacy-compounding units are needed to prepare this much needed treatment, but the lack of validated PHMB stability data severely limits their conservation by imposing short expiration dates after preparation. In this study we aim to assess the physicochemical and microbiological stability of a 0.2 mg/mL PHMB eye drop formulation stored in two kinds of polyethylene bottles at two different temperatures...
2018: PeerJ
Ayalew Assefa, Fufa Abunna
Aquaculture is rapidly growing part of agriculture worldwide. It makes up around 44 percent of total fish production globally. This increased growth of production is achieved despite facing many challenges in the aquaculture environment. Among production limiting challenges, the infectious disease takes the lion share by causing multibillion-dollar loss annually. To reduce the impact of the fish disease, it is necessary to address health constraints based on scientifically proven and recommended ways. This review aims at pointing out some of the best approaches to prevention and control of infectious disease in aquaculture...
2018: Veterinary Medicine International
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