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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340420/extended-anaerobic-conditions-in-the-biological-wastewater-treatment-higher-reduction-of-toxicity-compared-to-target-organic-micropollutants
#1
Johannes Völker, Tobias Vogt, Sandro Castronovo, Arne Wick, Thomas A Ternes, Adriano Joss, Jörg Oehlmann, Martin Wagner
Extended anaerobic conditions during biological wastewater treatment may enhance the biodegradation of micropollutants. To explore this, we combined iron-reducing or substrate-limited anaerobic conditions and aerobic pilot-scale reactors directly at a wastewater treatment plant. To investigate the detoxification by these processes, we applied two in vitro bioassays for baseline toxicity (Microtox) and reactive toxicity (AREc32) as well as in vivo bioassays with aquatic model species in two laboratory experiments (Desmodesmus subspicatus, Daphnia magna) and two on-site, flow-through experiments (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Lumbriculus variegatus)...
March 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340419/photolytic-degradation-of-the-%C3%AE-blocker-nebivolol-in-aqueous-solution
#2
Alaa Salma, Holger V Lutze, Torsten C Schmidt, Jochen Tuerk
Nebivolol (NEB) is one of the top-sold prescription drugs belonging to the third generation of beta-blockers. However, so far, occurrence data in the environment are lacking. Within this study NEB has been found for the first time in effluent samples of wastewater treatment plants in Germany with an average concentration of 13 ng L(-1). Its photodegradation behavior in the environment and in technical processes is largely unknown. To fill this gap, three different UV treatment procedures (UV-C at 254 nm, UV-B at 312 nm and UV-A at 365 nm) were investigated in three different matrices: pure water, pure water in presence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger tert...
March 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340415/uncertainty-analysis-for-effluent-trading-planning-using-a-bayesian-estimation-based-simulation-optimization-modeling-approach
#3
J L Zhang, Y P Li, G H Huang, B W Baetz, J Liu
In this study, a Bayesian estimation-based simulation-optimization modeling approach (BESMA) is developed for identifying effluent trading strategies. BESMA incorporates nutrient fate modeling with soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), Bayesian estimation, and probabilistic-possibilistic interval programming with fuzzy random coefficients (PPI-FRC) within a general framework. Based on the water quality protocols provided by SWAT, posterior distributions of parameters can be analyzed through Bayesian estimation; stochastic characteristic of nutrient loading can be investigated which provides the inputs for the decision making...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340062/exogenously-applied-24-epibrassinolide-ebl-ameliorates-detrimental-effects-of-salinity-by-reducing-k-efflux-via-depolarization-activated-k-channels
#4
Nazila Azhar, Nana Su, Lana Shabala, Sergey Shabala
This study has investigated mechanisms conferring beneficial effects of exogenous application of 24-epibrassinolides (EBL) on plant growth and performance under saline conditions. Barley seedlings treated with 0.25 mg l-1 EBL showed significant improvements in root hair length, shoot length, shoot fresh weight and relative water content when grown in the presence of 150 mM NaCl in the growth medium. In addition, EBL treatment significantly decreased the Na+ content in both shoots (by approximately 50%) and roots...
March 2, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339778/effects-of-an-induced-molt-using-cassava-meal-on-body-weight-loss-blood-physiology-ovarian-regression-and-postmolt-egg-production-in-late-phase-laying-hens
#5
N Gongruttananun, P Kochagate, K Poonpan, N Yu-Nun, J Aungsakul, N Sopa
This study was conducted to determine the effect of an induced molt using cassava meal on body weight, blood physiology, ovary, and postmolt performance in late-phase (74 wk old) H&N Brown laying hens. Hens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 90 birds each: 1) Controls withno induced molt (CONT); 2) molted by full feeding with cassava meal for 3 wk (FP3); and 3) molted by full feeding with cassava meal for 4 wk (FP4). Groups 2 and 3 were fed a pullet developer diet for 3 wk following treatment. During the molt period, the birds were exposed to an 8L:16D photoperiod and had access to drinking water at all times...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339755/assessing-the-impact-of-egg-sweating-on-salmonella-enteritidis-penetration-into-shell-eggs
#6
Janet A Gradl, Patricia A Curtis, Deana R Jones, Kenneth E Anderson
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4 C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339719/the-pepper-wpp-domain-protein-cawdp1-acts-as-a-novel-negative-regulator-of-drought-stress-via-aba-signaling
#7
Chanmi Park, Chae Woo Lim, Woonhee Baek, Jung-Hyun Kim, Sohee Lim, Sang Hyon Kim, Kyung-Nam Kim, Sung Chul Lee
Plants are constantly challenged by various environmental stresses, including high salinity and drought, and they have evolved defense mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of these stresses. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth and developmental processes and mediates abiotic stress responses. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel CaWDP1 (Capsicum annuumWPP Domain Protein 1) protein. The expression of CaWDP1 in pepper leaves was induced by ABA, drought, and NaCl treatments, suggesting its role in the abiotic stress response...
February 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339699/effects-of-chlorine-and-hydrogen-peroxide-sanitation-in-low-bacterial-content-water-on-biofilm-formation-model-of-poultry-brooding-house-waterlines
#8
P Maharjan, G Huff, W Zhang, S Watkins
An in vitro experiment was performed to determine if biofilm would develop when polyvinylchloride (PVC) test coupons (material used for poultry waterlines) were exposed to low bacterial content warm water (≤1000 cfu/mL, test water) and also to determine if biofilm development would be influenced by adding a sanitizer. PVC sections 2.54 cm long and internal diameter of 1. 90 cm were used as test coupons to grow biofilm. Two coupons were immersed in 600 mL test water in a beaker. Nine beakers were utilized similarly with a total of 18 coupons...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339172/maternal-high-fat-diet-consumption-enhances-offspring-susceptibility-to-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#9
Shima Bibi, Yifei Kang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) may alter the offspring intestinal immune system, thereby enhancing susceptibility toward inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of maternal HFD on offspring intestinal health using a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Dams were provided with either HFD (60%) or control diet. After weaning, female offspring from both groups were kept on 45% HFD...
March 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339165/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-sodium-citrate-spray-for-non-conductive-olfactory-disorders
#10
Carl Philpott, Sally Erskine, Allan Clark, Alexander Leeper, Mahmoud Salam, Rishi Sharma, George Murty, Thomas Hummel
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that sodium citrate improves hyposmia by decreasing mucus calcium levels in the nose. This study aimed to confirm or refute this effect in a single application and assess potential side effects. METHODOLOGY: Study design was a randomised double-blind controlled trial of sodium citrate nasal spray (intervention) versus sterile water (control) in a tertiary care clinic. Fifty-five patients with non-conductive olfactory loss were randomised to receive the intervention or placebo...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338926/nitrogen-controlled-intra-and-interspecific-competition-between-populus-purdomii-and-salix-rehderiana-drive-primary-succession-in-the-gongga-mountain-glacier-retreat-area
#11
Mengya Song, Lei Yu, Yonglei Jiang, Yanbao Lei, Helena Korpelainen, Ülo Niinemets, Chunyang Li
In this study, intra- and interspecific competition were investigated in early successional Salix rehderiana Schneider and later-appearing Populus purdomii Rehder under non-fertilized (control) and nitrogen (N)-fertilized conditions in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area. Our aim was to discover whether N is a key factor in plant-plant competition and whether N drives the primary succession process in a glacier retreat area. We analyzed differences in responses to intra- and interspecific competition and N fertilization between P...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338833/a-humidity-shock-leads-to-rapid-temperature-dependent-changes-in-coffee-leaf-physiology-and-gene-expression
#12
El-Hadji Thioune, James McCarthy, Thomas Gallagher, Bruce Osborne
Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of above-normal atmospheric water deficits contemporaneous with periods of high temperatures. Here we explore alterations in physiology and gene expression in leaves of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner caused by a sharp drop in relative humidity (RH) at three different temperatures. Both stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) measurements showed that gs and A values fell quickly at all temperatures after the transfer to low RH.  However, leaf relative water content measurements indicated that leaves nonetheless experienced substantial water losses, implying that stomatal closure and/or resupply of water was not fast enough to stop excessive evaporative losses...
February 8, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338739/retention-of-stored-water-enables-tropical-tree-saplings-to-survive-extreme-drought-conditions
#13
Brett T Wolfe
Trees generally maintain a small safety margin between the stem water potential (Ψstem) reached during seasonal droughts and the Ψstem associated with their mortality. This pattern may indicate that species face similar mortality risk during extreme droughts. However, if tree species vary in their ability to regulate Ψstem, then safety margins would poorly predict drought mortality. To explore variation among species in Ψstem regulation, I subjected potted saplings of six tropical tree species to extreme drought and compared their responses with well-watered plants and pretreatment reference plants...
February 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338733/genetic-adaptation-and-phenotypic-plasticity-contribute-to-greater-leaf-hydraulic-tolerance-in-response-to-drought-in-warmer-climates
#14
Chris J Blackman, Michael J Aspinwall, David T Tissue, Paul D Rymer
The ability of plants to maintain an intact water transport system in leaves under drought conditions is intimately linked to survival and can been be seen as adaptive in shaping species climatic limits. Large differences in leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought are known among species from contrasting climates, yet whether this trait varies among populations within a single species and, furthermore, whether it is altered by changes in growth conditions, remain unclear. We examined intraspecific variation in both leaf water transport capacity (Kleaf) and leaf hydraulic vulnerability to drought (P50leaf) among eight populations of Corymbia calophylla (R...
February 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338158/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-duodenal-injury-and-fistula
#15
Kunmei Gong, Shikui Guo, Kunhua Wang
Duodenal injury is a serious abdominal organ injury. Duodenal fistula is one of the most serious complications in gastrointestinal surgery, which is concerned for its critical status, difficulty in treatment and high mortality. Thoracic and abdominal compound closed injury and a small part of open injury are common causes of duodenal injury. Iatrogenic or traumatic injury, malnutrition, cancer, tuberculosis, Crohn's disease etc. are common causes of duodenal fistula, however, there has been still lacking of ideal diagnosis and treatment by now...
March 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337713/the-potential-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-lipid-metabolism-and-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Zhe Huang, Aimin Xu, Bernard M Y Cheung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337639/the-impact-of-mangiferin-from-belamcanda-chinensis-on-experimental-colitis-in-rats
#17
Marta Szandruk, Anna Merwid-Ląd, Adam Szeląg
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)] constitutes an important clinical problem. The pathogenesis of IBD remains unclear. It is believed that immune dysfunction, inflammatory mediators and oxidative damage play crucial roles in development of IBD. The condition is clinically associated with symptoms ranging from mild to severe during relapses, depending on the affected segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Bloody diarrhea with mucus, abdominal pain, weight loss and anemia are initial symptoms of both CD and UC...
March 24, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337628/study-of-plasma-off-gas-treatment-from-spent-ion-exchange-resin-pyrolysis
#18
Hernán Ariel Castro, Vittorio Luca, Hugo Luis Banchi
Polystyrene divinylbenzene-based ion exchange resins are employed extensively within nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors for purification and chemical control of the cooling water system. To maintain the highest possible water quality, the resins are regularly replaced as they become contaminated with a range of isotopes derived from compromised fuel elements as well as corrosion and activation products including (14)C, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (129)I, and (137)Cs. Such spent resins constitute a major proportion (in volume terms) of the solid radioactive waste generated by the nuclear industry...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337622/harnessing-fertilizer-potential-of-human-urine-in-a-mesocosm-system-a-novel-test-case-for-linking-the-loop-between-sanitation-and-aquaculture
#19
Sukanta Rana, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Jörg Rinklebe, Erik Meers, Nanthi Bolan
Human urine (HU) is a biogenic fertilizer which has raised immense interest owing to its capacity of combining sanitation and nutrient recovery. In search of an alternative organic fertilizer for fish culture, the nutrient potential of HU was evaluated. Fries of Indian carps and larvae of freshwater prawn were reared for 120 days under six conditions: (a) aerated and (b) non-aerated fresh HU (0.01%), (c) cattle manure (CM; 1.8 kg tank(-1)), mixed treatment with CM and HU under (d) iso-phosphorus and (e) iso-nitrogenous condition and (f) control...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337561/optimization-of-ultraviolet-ozone-treatment-process-for-improvement-of-polycaprolactone-pcl-microcarrier-performance
#20
Nurhusna Samsudin, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim, Mohd Azmir Arifin, Maizirwan Mel, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Iis Sopyan, Dzun Noraini Jimat
Growing cells on microcarriers may have overcome the limitation of conventional cell culture system. However, the surface functionality of certain polymeric microcarriers for effective cell attachment and growth remains a challenge. Polycaprolactone (PCL), a biodegradable polymer has received considerable attention due to its good mechanical properties and degradation rate. The drawback is the non-polar hydrocarbon moiety which makes it not readily suitable for cell attachment. This report concerns the modification of PCL microcarrier surface (introduction of functional oxygen groups) using ultraviolet irradiation and ozone (UV/O3) system and investigation of the effects of ozone concentration, the amount of PCL and exposure time; where the optimum conditions were found to be at 60,110...
March 23, 2017: Cytotechnology
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