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Water reuse

Bárbara Ribeiro Alves Alencar, Alexandre Libanio Silva Reis, Raquel de Fatima Rodrigues de Souza, Marcos Antônio Morais, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Emmanuel Damilano Dutra
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of recycling the liquid fraction of pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) on the hydrolysis of corn stover. Corn stover was pretreated in the traditional condition with 7.5% v/v H2O2. After pretreatment, the solids were separated from the liquid fraction and five successive reuse cycles of the liquid fraction were tested. The solid fraction from pretreatment in each recycle was submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis. The number of recycles had a linear negative effect (R(2)=0...
June 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Qingchun Ge, Gary Lee Amy, Tai-Shung Chung
Forward osmosis (FO) has demonstrated its merits in hybrid FO seawater desalination. However, FO may have a potential for other applications if suitable draw solutes are available. In this study, a series of novel draw solutes based on oxalic acid (OA)-transitional metal complexes are presented. Influential factors of FO performance have been systematically investigated by varying the transitional metals, cations of the complex draw solutes as well as the experimental conditions. Compared to NaCl and other recently synthesized draw solutes, the OA complexes show superior FO performance in terms of high water fluxes up to 27...
June 10, 2017: Water Research
Tânia L S Silva, Sergio Morales-Torres, Sérgio Castro-Silva, José L Figueiredo, Adrián M T Silva
Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Anise Akhundi, Aziz Habibi-Yangjeh
In this paper, CuCr2O4 nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of g-C3N4 nanosheets (g-C3N4-NS) by a facile refluxing process. The structure, composition, morphology, optical, textural, and thermal properties were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, XPS, PL, BET, and TGA techniques. The photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4-NS/CuCr2O4 nanocomposites was assessed by degrading RhB and MB dyes and phenol under visible-light illumination. When the loading amount of CuCr2O4 was 10 wt%, the nanocomposite exhibited the highest activity...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Raquel Iglesias, Pedro Simón, Lucas Moragas, Augusto Arce, Ignasi Rodriguez-Roda
The paper assesses the costs of full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating expenses (OPEX) of Spanish MBR facilities have been verified and compared to activated sludge plants (CAS) using water reclamation treatment (both conventional and advanced). Spanish MBR facilities require a production of 0.6 to 1.2 kWh per m(3), while extended aeration (EA) and advanced reclamation treatment require 1.2 kWh per m(3). The energy represents around 40% of the OPEX in MBRs. In terms of CAPEX, the implementation costs of a CAS facility followed by conventional water reclamation treatment (physical-chemical + sand filtration + disinfection) ranged from 730 to 850 €...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ziwen Du, Shubo Deng, Siyu Zhang, Wei Wang, Bin Wang, Jun Huang, Yujue Wang, Gang Yu, Baoshan Xing
A novel magnetic fluorinated adsorbent with selective and fast adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was synthesized via a simple ball milling of Fe3O4 and vermiculite loaded with a cationic fluorinated surfactant. The loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles increased the dispersibility of fluorinated vermiculite (F-VT) in water and allowed the magnetic separability. The nano-sized Fe3O4 was homogeneously embedded into the adsorbent surfaces, improving the hydrophilicity of F-VT external surface, and this hybrid adsorbent still kept the hydrophobic fluorinated interlayer structure...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Erwan Carré, Joana Beigbeder, Vincent Jauzein, Guillaume Junqua, Miguel Lopez-Ferber
Tertiary treatment process (including filtration and/or disinfection) is necessary to obtain a water quality suited for high-quality reuse from wastewater treatment. Industrial pilots representing small real size treatment units were set up downstream of a conventional secondary treatment of a wastewater treatment plant in the South of France and their performance followed for two years. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used to compare the environmental impacts of different treatment processes. Five tertiary treatment trains were studied: 1) sand filtration + storage followed by ultraviolet (UV) dynamic reactor disinfection (SF-UVD), 2) sand filtration (SF) + UV batch reactor disinfection (SF-UVB), 3) ultrafiltration (UF), 4) ultrafiltration and UV batch reactor disinfection (UF-UVB), 5) microfiltration (MF) and storage followed by dynamic UV disinfection (MF-UVD)...
June 13, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Omer Faruk Sarioglu, Nalan Oya San Keskin, Asli Celebioglu, Turgay Tekinay, Tamer Uyar
In this study, preparation and application of novel biocomposite materials for textile dye removal which are produced by immobilization of specific bacteria onto electrospun nanofibrous webs are presented. A textile dye remediating bacterial isolate, Clavibacter michiganensis, was selected for bacterial immobilization, a commercial reactive textile dye, Setazol Blue BRF-X, was selected as the target contaminant, and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibrous polymeric webs were selected for bacterial integration...
June 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Brian M Pecson, Sarah C Triolo, Simon Olivieri, Elise C Chen, Aleksey N Pisarenko, Chao-Chun Yang, Adam Olivieri, Charles N Haas, R Shane Trussell, R Rhodes Trussell
To safely progress toward direct potable reuse (DPR), it is essential to ensure that DPR systems can provide public health protection equivalent to or greater than that of conventional drinking water sources. This study collected data over a one-year period from a full-scale DPR demonstration facility, and used both performance distribution functions (PDFs) and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to define and evaluate the reliability of the advanced water treatment facility (AWTF). The AWTF's ability to control enterovirus, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium was characterized using online monitoring of surrogates in a treatment train consisting of ozone, biological activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet light with an advanced oxidation process...
June 6, 2017: Water Research
Rabia M Chaudhry, Kerry A Hamilton, Charles N Haas, Kara L Nelson
Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0-100% treated wastewater effluent) were assessed...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Javier Villela-Castrejón, Beatriz A Acosta-Estrada, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe
Corn lime cooking generates a large amount of wastewater known as nejayote that is composed of suspended solids and solubilized phytochemicals. Spray drying can be an alternative to recover bioactive molecules, such as ferulic acid, from nejayote. Besides the yield, the physicochemical properties (solubility, water activity, pH, moisture, hygroscopicity, total phenolic content, and distribution of free and bound hydroxycinnamic acids) of spray-dried nejayote powders were analyzed. The powders were obtained at 200 °C/100 °C or 150 °C/75 °C (inlet/outlet) air temperatures with the addition of maltodextrin (MD) or 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HBCD) as encapsulating agents...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Najmeh Mahjouri, Ehsan Pourmand
Reusing treated wastewater for supplying water demands such as landscape and agricultural irrigation in urban and suburban areas has become a major water supply approach especially in regions struggling with water shortage. Due to limited available treated wastewater to satisfy all water demands, conflicts may arise in allocating treated wastewater to water users. Since there is usually more than one decision maker and more than one criterion to measure the impact of each water allocation scenario, effective tools are needed to combine individual preferences to reach a collective decision...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zhenya Zhu, Lei Wang, Yawei Xu, Qingqing Li, Jialiang Jiang, Xudong Wang
Graphene oxide (GO) and lithium chloride (LiCl) were introduced into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes prepared using the immersion precipitation technique. The hydrophilicity, water flux, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, SEM and AFM images of membranes were investigated. By adjusting the content of GO from 0wt% to 0.9 wt%, the water flux of PVDF/GO/LiCl nanohybrid membranes varied from 48.4L/m(2)h to 61.90L/m(2)h at 100kPa. Because of the synergistic effects of GO and LiCl particles, the surface free energy (|ΔGs|) of M3 (0...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Shengbin Cao, Ting Dong, Guangbiao Xu, Fumei Wang
Structured cattail fiber assembly was reported as the filter for oils removing from runoff. The oil-wetted filter was recovered by rotational centrifugation and reused in the next filtration. The cyclic filtration behavior of the assembly was characterized by oil removal efficiency, oil sorption capacity, influence of packing density and numbers of filtration cycle. The efficiency of liquid removal and oil recovery from the centrifuged filter were also investigated. Cattail filters showed an excellent oil cyclic filtration performance which was found to have a close relationship with the inner structural characteristic of the fibers...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
C Noutsopoulos, A Andreadakis, N Kouris, D Charchousi, P Mendrinou, A Galani, I Mantziaras, E Koumaki
Greywater is the wastewater produced in bathtubs, showers, hand basins, kitchen sinks, dishwashers and laundry machines. Segregation of greywater and blackwater and on site greywater treatment in order to promote its reuse for toilet flushing and/or garden irrigation is an interesting option especially in water deficient areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the different greywater sources in Greek households and to evaluate the performance of alternative physicochemical treatment systems to treat several types of greywater...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrew C Maizel, Christina K Remucal
There is a growing interest in water reuse and in recovery of nutrients from wastewater. Because many advanced treatment processes are designed to remove organic matter, a better understanding of the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater is needed. To that end, we assessed DOM in the Nine Springs Wastewater Treatment Plant in Madison, Wisconsin by UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from the influent and effluent of two different secondary treatment processes and their respective secondary clarifiers, the UV disinfection unit, and an Ostara treatment system, which produces struvite via chemical precipitation...
May 26, 2017: Water Research
Kun-Yi Andrew Lin, Chu-Hung Lin, Jia-Yin Lin
Although zero valent zinc (ZVZ) is a strong reductant, studies using ZVZ for bromate reduction are rare. In this study, ZVZ is prepared by acid-washing zinc powder with HCl and used to reduce bromate. The effect of acid-washing on the morphology of zinc powder is also examined. Zinc powder inefficiently reduces bromate, but ZVZ obtained by acid-washing zinc powder eliminates bromate and converts it to bromide. A higher dose of ZVZ enhances elimination efficiency perhaps because the formation of a passivation layer of zinc oxide could be scattered on the large surface of ZVZ...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mandu Inyang, Eric R V Dickenson
Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) from field waters, compared to granular activated carbon (GAC). Screening tests using organic matter-free water resulted in hardwood (HWC) (Kd = 41 L g(-1)) and pinewood (PWC) (Kd = 49 L g(-1)) biochars having the highest perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) removal performance that was comparable to bituminous coal GAC (Kd = 41 L g(-1)). PWC and HWC had a stronger affinity for PFOA sorbed in Lake Mead surface water (KF = 11 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) containing a lower (2 mg L(-1)) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration than in a tertiary-filtered wastewater (KF = 8 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) with DOC of 4...
May 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Bing Gong, Yi Deng, Yuanyi Yang, Yong He, Xiaolong Sun, Li-Ya Ge, Kewei Zhang, Weizhong Yang
Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (IFA) can be potentially reused as a substitute for some raw materials, but treatment for detoxification is indispensable owing to high contents of heavy metals in fly ash. In the present work, due to excessive leaching concentration of lead (Pb), a moderate thermal treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) addition was employed to stabilize Pb in IFA. The moderate thermal treatment was performed under relatively low temperature ranging from 300 to 500°C and at retention time from 1 to 3 h with NaOH addition in a range of 1 to 9%...
2017: PloS One
Aniela Burant, Gregory V Lowry, Athanasios K Karamalidis
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), a climate change mitigation strategy, along with unconventional oil and gas extraction, generates enormous volumes of produced water containing high salt concentrations and a litany of organic compounds. Understanding the aqueous solubility of organic compounds related to these operations is important for water treatment and reuse alternatives, as well as risk assessment purposes. The well-established Setschenow equation can be used to determine the effect of salts on aqueous solubility...
June 6, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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