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Water reuse

Rupa Salian, Suhas Wani, Ramamohan Reddy, Mukund Patil
Brewing industry releases large quantities of wastewater after product generation. Brewery wastewater contains organic compounds which are biodegradable in nature. These biodegradable wastes can be recycled and reused and hence considered as suitable products for agriculture. But before using wastewater for agriculture, it is better to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of wastewater on crops. Hence, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of brewery effluent on seed germination and growth parameters of selected crop species like chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ahmed Salama, Peter Hesemann
N-guanidinium chitosan acetate, a new chitosan derivative, was prepared via direct guanylation reaction between chitosan and cyanamide in the presence of scandium (III) triflate. Treatment of N-guanidinium chitosan acetate with 3-(trihydroxysilyl)-1-propanesulphonic acid followed by sol-gel reaction allowed accessing N-guanidinium chitosan silica hybrid material. The new ionic microhybrid was characterized using 13C and 29Si solid state NMR, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Colleen M Janczak, Isen A C Calderon, Zeinab Mokhtari, Craig Alan Aspinwall
β-particle emitting radionuclides are useful molecular labels due to their abundance in biomolecules. Detection of -emission from 3H, 35S, and 33P, important biological isotopes, is challenging due to the low energies (Emax ≤ 300 keV) and short penetration depths (≤ 0.6 mm) in aqueous media. The activity of biologically relevant β-emitters is usually measured in liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC), a mixture of energy-absorbing organic solvents, surfactants, and scintillant fluorophores, which places significant limitations on the ability to acquire time-resolved measurements directly in aqueous biological systems...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shamima Moazzem, Jamie Wills, Linhua Fan, Felicity Roddick, Veeriah Jegatheesan
Reusing treated effluents in industries is a great option to conserve freshwater resources. For example, car wash centres all over Australia are estimated to use 17.5 billion litres of water and discharge it as wastewater and spend $75 million a year for both purchasing fresh water and for treating and/or discharging the wastewater. Therefore, it is important to develop simple but reliable systems that can help to treat and reuse car wash wastewater. Significant savings could also be associated with the implementation of such systems...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A Arumugam, V Ponnusami
Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA) content (32 mg KOH/g of oil). Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively...
December 2017: Heliyon
Saeed Farhadi, Mohammad Hakimi, Mansoureh Maleki
In this study, the PMo12O403- polyanion was immobilized chemically on amino functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanosheets. The as-prepared ternary magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4/GO-NH2/H3PMo12O40) was characterized by powder X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surface area measurements, magnetic measurements (VSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
December 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Ana I Corps Ricardo, Armando Sánchez-Cachero, María Jiménez-Moreno, Francisco J Guzmán Bernardo, Rosa C Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Ángel Ríos
Hybrid nanocomposites based on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied for the first time as sorbent materials for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) for mercury speciation analysis. Monomethylmercury (MMHg) was the target mercury species in water samples and the adsorption and desorption processes were optimized based on this species. Single-walled CNT-MNP showed higher adsorption capacity than double-walled or multi-walled CNTs. Then, the magnetic sorbent was retrieved with an external magnet and MMHg was selectively desorbed from it with dichloromethane (DCM) in two steps with vortex agitation...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Miguel F Varela, Imen Ouardani, Tsuyoshi Kato, Syunsuke Kadoya, Mahjoub Aouni, Daisuke Sano, Jesús L Romalde
Sapovirus (SaV), from the Caliciviridae family, are enteric viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis. SaV are shed at high concentrations with faeces to wastewater, which are usually discharged at the aquatic environments or reused for irrigation without efficient treatments. This study analyzed the incidence of human SaV in four wastewater treatment plants from Tunisia during a period of 13 months (December 2009 to December 2010). Detection and quantification were carried out using RT-qPCR methods, obtaining a prevalence of 39...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
(no author information available yet)
An Artificial Intelligence (AI) system has been developed and implemented for water, wastewater and reuse plants to improve management of sensors, short and long term maintenance plans, asset and investment management plans. It is based on an integrated approach to capture data from different computer systems and files. It adds a layer of intelligence to the data. It serves as a repository of key current and future operations and maintenance conditions that a plant needs have knowledge of. With this information, it is able to simulate the configuration of processes and assets for those conditions to improve or optimize operations, maintenance and asset management, using the IViewOps (Intelligent View of Operations) model...
January 4, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Erwann Guenin, Farah Benyettou Benyettou, Hassan Traboulsi, Laurence Motte Motte, Javed Mazer, Renu Pasricha Pasricha, John-Carl Olsen Olsen, Ali Trabolsi
Cucurbit[7]uril modified iron oxide nanoparticles (CB[7]NPs) were loaded with palladium to form nano-catalysts (Pd@CB[7]NPs) that, with microwave heating, catalysed Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira, and Mizoroki-Heck cross coupling reactions. All reactions were run in environmentally benign 1/1 ethanol/water solvent under convenient aerobic conditions. In a preliminary screening, all conversions and yields were uniformly high with turn over frequencies (TOF) ranging from 64 to 7360 h-1. The nano-catalysts could be recovered with a magnet and reused several times (6 times for Suzuki Miayura reaction) without loss of activity...
January 3, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Samson O Akpotu, Brenda Moodley
In this study, ASM41 (as-synthesised MCM-41), MCM-41, MCM-41 encapsulated with graphene oxide (MCM-41-GO) and reduced graphene oxide (MCM-41-G) were fabricated and utilized in the remediation of acetaminophen and aspirin from water. A surfactant template (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) was added to ASM41 to make it more hydrophobic and its effects on the remediation of acetaminophen and aspirin from wastewater was studied. To further improve the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, MCM-41 was encapsulated with GO and G which also aided in easy separation of the adsorbent from the aqueous solution...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Tingting Gao, Rong Chen, Yanzheng Liu, Xiaochang C Wang, Yuyou Li
A disease burden (DB) evaluation for environmental pathogens is generally performed using disability-adjusted life years with the aim of providing a quantitative assessment of the health hazard caused by pathogens. A critical step in the preparation for this evaluation is the estimation of morbidity between exposure and disease occurrence. In this study, the method of a traditional dose-response analysis was first reviewed, and then a combination of the theoretical basis of a "single-hit" and an "infection-illness" model was performed by incorporating two critical factors: the "infective coefficient" and "infection duration...
December 26, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
A B Martínez-Piernas, M I Polo-López, P Fernández-Ibáñez, A Agüera
Reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural purposes can mitigate water stress in some regions where the lack of water is an extended problem. However, the environmental long-term consequences of this practice are still unknown. It is demonstrated that using reclaimed water for irrigation lead to accumulation and translocation of some microcontaminants (MCs) in soil and crops. However, so far, only a small group of contaminants has been investigated. This study aims to develop and validate a simple and efficient multiresidue method based on QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective and Rugged) extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
P Marijn Poortvliet, Liese Sanders, Jan Weijma, Jasper R De Vries
Current sanitation systems are inherently limited in their ability to address the new challenges for (waste)water management that arise from the rising demand to restore resource cycles. These challenges include removal of micropollutants, water (re)use, and nutrient recovery. New opportunities to address these challenges arise from new sanitation, a system innovation that combines elements of source separation, local treatment and reuse, and less use of water. New sanitation is applied, but not yet widespread, in several residential areas in Europe...
December 18, 2017: Water Research
J C Gutiérrez-Añez, R A Palomares, J R Jiménez-Pineda, A R Camacho, G E Portillo-Martínez
This study evaluated the pregnancy rate (PR) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) during both non-breeding and breeding season, using either a new or reused intravaginal device (IVD) with two different progesterone concentrations. A total of 247 dairy buffalo cows were randomly assigned using a two-by-three factorial design and four replicates to the following groups: (1) new intravaginal device (IVD-New: DIB®, 1.0 g of P4, n = 51 or CIDR®, 1.38 g of P4, n = 55); (2) intravaginal device previously used once (9 days) (IVD-Used1x: DIB, n = 40 or CIDR, n = 51); or (3) intravaginal device previously used twice (18 days) (IVD-Used2x: DIB, n = 27 or CIDR, n = 23)...
December 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Alexsandro Jhones Dos Santos, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo Costa, Djalma Ribeiro da Silva, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle
Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daquan Sun, Lauren Hale, Gourango Kar, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Sina Adl
Phosphorus ore extraction for soil fertilization supports the demand of modern agriculture, but extractable resource limitations, due to scarcity, impose a P reuse and recycling research agenda. Here we propose to integrate biochar production (pyrogenic carbon) with municipal and agricultural waste management systems, to recover and reuse phosphorous that would otherwise be lost from the ecological food web. A meta-analysis and available data on total P in biochar indicated that P-enriched feedstocks include animal manure, human excreta, and plant-biomass collected from P-polluted sites...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Brian T Hawkins, Katelyn L Sellgren, Ethan J D Klem, Jeffrey R Piascik, Brian R Stoner
Decentralized, energy-efficient waste water treatment technologies enabling water reuse are needed to sustainably address sanitation needs in water- and energy-scarce environments. Here, we describe the effects of repeated recycling of disinfected blackwater (as flush liquid) on the energy required to achieve full disinfection with an electrochemical process in a prototype toilet system. The recycled liquid rapidly reached a steady state with total solids reliably ranging between 0.50 and 0.65% and conductivity between 20 and 23 mS/cm through many flush cycles over 15 weeks...
November 2017: Water and Environment Journal: the Journal
I K Tsoukalas, C K Makropoulos, S N Michas
Rapid urbanization affecting demand patterns, coupled with potential water shortages due to supply side impacts of climatic changes, has led to the emergence of new technologies for water and wastewater reuse. Sewer mining (SM) is a novel decentralized option that could potentially provide non-potable water for urban uses, including for example the irrigation of urban green spaces, providing a mid-scale solution to effective wastewater reuse. SM is based on extracting wastewater from local sewers and treatment at the point of demand and entails in some cases the return of treatment residuals back to the sewer system...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Mirtes Loeschner Leichsenring, Eliane Molina Psaltikidis, Márcio Jansen de Oliveira Figueiredo, Maria Luiza Moretti, Plínio Trabasso
PURPOSE: Since the Brazilian current legislation permits the reuse of single-use devices under a validated processing protocol, the main purpose of our study was to develop and validate a method for reusing non-irrigated electrophysiology catheter (EC). METHODS: Manual and mechanical processing by ultrasonic washer was associated with the use of enzymatic solution and hydrogen peroxide with a final rinse with filtered water. Validation of the cleaning process, as well as catheter integrity, was done by observing the ECs in stereoscopic microscope at ×60 magnification, followed by HemoCheck-S® (HCS) test to monitor the presence of residual blood on their surfaces...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
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