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Water reuse

D Cingolani, F Fatone, N Frison, M Spinelli, A L Eusebi
Recovery of high quality water from municipal landfill leachate was studied by three-stage disc tube reverse osmosis optimized in pilot-scale. Following UF-membrane-assisted activated sludge plant, overall 46.5 tons of leachate were post-treated in real environment and analyzed for conventional contaminants and hazardous compounds (e.g. heavy metals, boron, selenium) throughout operation of membrane system. Operating pressure ranged from 21 to 76 bar, while permeate flux varied in the range 7.1-32.5 L m-2  h-1 ...
March 15, 2018: Waste Management
Hamid Reza Rajabi, Fatemeh Karimi, Hossein Kazemdehdashti, Leila Kavoshi
In this research, a sono-assisted chemical precipitation method was developed for a quick and efficient water-based synthesis of zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs), in room temperature. ZnS QDs as pure and doped with some transition metal ions (such as Cu2+ , Mn2+ , Ag+ ) were prepared in the presence of l-cysteine, as capping agent. In comparison with the previous conventional methods, applying the ultrasonic irradiation provides a significant decrease in the reaction time. In comparison with previous reported conventional chemical QD synthesis methods, the required time for a complete synthesis in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations was significantly reduced to a period as short as 15 min, in a temperature of 40 °C...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jialiang Liang, Fuyang Liu, Mian Li, Wen Liu, Meiping Tong
Magnetic Fe3 O4 @BiOI@AgI (FBA) spheres were synthesized through a multi-step process. The fabricated photocatalysts were characterized by different techniques. To testify the visible light driven photocatalytic activity of FBA, Rhodamine B and Bisphenol A were chosen as model common and emerging organic contaminants, respectively. While, gram-negative strain Escherichia coli was selected as model waterborne bacteria. The results showed that under visible light irradiation, FBA contained strong photocatalytic degradation capacity towards both RhB and BPA...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Rodrigo de Abreu Domingos, Fabiana Valéria da Fonseca
The oil refinery industry seeks solutions to reduce its water uptake and consumption by encouraging the reuse of internal streams and wastewater from treatment systems. After conventional treatment the petroleum refinery wastewater still contains a considerable quantity of recalcitrant organics and the adsorption on activated carbon is currently used in Brazilian refineries, although it is still expensive due to the difficulty of its regeneration. This study evaluated the use of adsorbent and ion exchange resins for the removal of organic matter from refinery wastewater after conventional treatment in order to verify its feasibility, applying successive resin regenerations and comparing the results with those obtained for activated carbon process...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Xiangyu Yin, Yue Zhang, Qiuquan Guo, Xiaobing Cai, Junfeng Xiao, Zhifeng Ding, Jun Yang
Solar steam generation is one of the most promising solar-energy-harvesting technologies to addressing the issue of water shortage. Despite intensive efforts to develop high-efficiency solar steam generation devices, challenges remain in terms of the relatively low solar thermal efficiency, complicated fabrications, high cost, and difficulty in scaling up. Herein, a double-network hydrogel with a porous structure (p-PEGDA-PANi) is demonstrated for the first time as a flexible, recyclable and efficient photothermal platform for low-cost and scalable solar steam generation...
March 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joaquín Antonio González, Jonathan Germán Bafico, María Emilia Villanueva, Sergio Alejandro Giorgieri, Guillermo Javier Copello
A novel nanostructured material was successfully developed by combining a chitin matrix with graphene oxide nanosheets (Chi:nGO) and then used for the continuous flow adsorption of ciprofloxacin. The spectroscopic characterization indicated that none covalent interaction between both components would be occurring and the introduction of nGO did not interfere in chitin nanostructure rearrangement during gelling and later drying. SEM images and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry results showed a wide pore size distribution ranging from nano to micrometers...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Meng Wang, Yinguang Chen
Wastewater reuse for resolving water shortage is increasingly emphasized. The presence of DOM in wastewater is a main consideration for wastewater reuse. Therefore, systematic understanding of characteristic changes of DOM in different wastewater treatment processes is needed. As biotechnology together with disinfection operation has been used widely by WWTPs to treat wastewater, this review aims to introduce the recent advances in the effects of wastewater biological treatment and disinfection on the characteristics of DOM...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Po-Hsun Lin, Ren-Yang Horng, Shu-Fang Hsu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Chia-Hua Ho
More than 80% of ammonia (NH₃) in the steel manufacturing process wastewater is contributed from the coking wastewater, which is usually treated by biological processes. However, the NH₃ in the coking wastewater is typically too high for biological treatment due to its inhibitory concentration. Therefore, a two-stage process including a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) and a modified membrane distillation (MD) system was developed and applied to reduce and recover NH₃ from coking wastewater. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate different membrane materials, receiving solutions, and operation parameters for the system, remove NH₃ from the coking wastewater to less than 300 mg N/L, which is amenable to the biological process, and recover ammonia solution for reuse...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Emmanuel Mousset, Steve Pontvianne, Marie-Noëlle Pons
The fate of inorganic nitrogen species has been studied for the first time in electro-Fenton (EF) conditions in acid media. A redox cycle is first obtained and validated with a kinetic model in synthetic solution and highlights the removal of nitrite that is quickly oxidized into nitrate while the reduction conditions are sufficient to reduce nitrate into ammonium cation. However, NH4 + and gaseous nitrogen accumulate in such solution. The study in reclaimed municipal wastewater emphasize the removal of NH4 + with formation of chloramines in the presence of initial chloride ions, a species widely present in wastewater effluent...
February 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Tongzhou Liu, Yurong Gu, Ding Yu Xing, Wenyi Dong, Xiuwei Wu
Adsorption is well accepted as an effective method for perfluorinated compounds' (PFCs) removal from water among various conventional methods. However, development of adsorbents that combine good performance of PFC removal and regenerability has not yet been realized. This work demonstrated the fabrication and application of an ammoniated magnetic adsorbent for efficient and economical PFOS and PFOA removal. Functional ammonium groups and γ-Fe2 O3 were effectively incorporated in the particle with the proposed method...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lauris Del Carmen Mejia-da-Silva, Marcelo Chuei Matsudo, Ana Lucia Morocho-Jacome, João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho
Since cultivations of Arthrospira platensis have a high water demand, it is necessary to develop treatment methods for reusing the exhausted medium that may prevent environmental problems and obtaining useful biomass. The exhausted Schlösser medium obtained from A. platensis batch cultivation in bench-scale mini-tanks was treated by varying concentrations of different coagulants, ferric chloride (6, 10, and 14 mg L-1 ) or ferric sulfate (15, 25, and 35 mg L-1 ) and powdered activated carbon (PAC, 30 and 50 mg L-1 )...
March 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jia Liu, Philip C Williams, Jane Geisler-Lee, Boyd M Goodson, Masoud Fakharifar, Meisam Peiravi, Da Chen, David A Lightfoot, Max E Gemeinhardt
The amount of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment has been increasing due to their industrial and commercial applications. Different types of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been detected in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The effluents have been reclaimed for crop irrigation in many arid and semi-arid areas. Here, a soil micro-ecosystem was established including a microbiome, 4 Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and 3 Eisenia fetida earthworms, for a duration of 95 days. The impact of wastewater effluent (WE) containing aged NPs was studied...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Research
Yunjie Liu, Dezhang Ren, Zhiyuan Song, Xinyan Wan, Chuntao Zhang, Fangming Jin, Zhibao Huo
A novel magnetic heavy metal adsorbent was prepared via diethylenetriamine (DETA) modification on magnetic hydrothermal carbon, with glucose and sugar-containing waste water as the carbon source. The prepared materials were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TEM, EDXRF, TGA, elemental analysis, XPS, and magnetic moment determination. In this paper, the adsorption mechanism of the modified and unmodified adsorbents was well discussed. Four kinds of waste water (watermelon juice, expired sprite, sugar-pressing waste water, and confectionary waste water) were employed to produce heavy metal ion adsorbents; the chemical properties of hydrothermal carbon derived from the proposed sources were analyzed as well...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ying Shen, Wenzhe Zhu, Huan Li, Shih-Hsin Ho, Jianfeng Chen, Youping Xie, Xinguo Shi
A complex of water-hyacinth derived pellets immobilized with Chlorella sp. was applied, for the first time, in the bioremediation of Cadmium (Cd). The Cd(II) removal efficiency of the complex was optimized by investigating several parameters, including the pellet materials, algal culture age, and light intensity. Results showed that the Cd(II) removal efficiency was positively related to the algal immobilization efficiency and the algal bioaccumulation capacity. Since higher surface hydrophilicity leads to higher immobilization efficiency, the water-hyacinth leaf biochar pellet (WLBp) was selected as the optimal carrier...
February 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Daisuke Minakata, Erica Coscarelli
Nitrosamines are a group of carcinogenic chemicals that are present in aquatic environments that result from byproducts of industrial processes and disinfection products. As indirect and direct potable reuse increase, the presence of trace nitrosamines presents challenges to water infrastructures that incorporate effluent from wastewater treatment. Ultraviolet (UV) photolysis or UV-based advanced oxidation processes that produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are promising technologies to remove nitrosamines from water...
February 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
S Arden, X Ma
Concern over dwindling water supplies for urban areas as well as environmental degradation from existing urban water systems has motivated research into more resilient and sustainable water supply strategies. Greywater reuse has been suggested as a way to diversify local water supply portfolios while at the same time lessening the burden on existing environments and infrastructure. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as an economically and energetically efficient unit process to treat greywater for reuse purposes, though their ability to consistently meet applicable water quality standards, microbiological in particular, is questionable...
February 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Juan Carlo Intriago, Francisco López-Gálvez, Ana Allende, Gaetano Alessandro Vivaldi, Salvatore Camposeo, Emilio Nicolás Nicolás, Juan José Alarcón, Francisco Pedrero Salcedo
The DESERT-prototype, a state-of-the-art compact combination of water treatment technologies based on filtration and solar-based renewable energy, was employed to reclaim water for agricultural irrigation. Water reclaimed through the DESERT-prototype (PW) from a secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, as well as conventional irrigation water (CW) and the secondary effluent (SW) itself, were employed to cultivate baby romaine lettuces in a greenhouse in Murcia (Spain), by means of drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, thus establishing six treatments...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Guenter Langergraber, Fabio Masi
Treatment wetlands (TWs) are engineered systems that mimic the processes in natural wetlands with the purpose of treating contaminated water. Being a simple and robust technology, TWs are applied worldwide to treat various types of water. Besides treated water for reuse, TWs can be used in resources-oriented sanitation systems for recovering nutrients and carbon, as well as for growing biomass for energy production. Additionally, TWs provide a large number of ecosystem services. Integrating green infrastructure into urban developments can thus facilitate circular economy approaches and has positive impacts on environment, economy and health...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kim Andersson, Miriam Otoo, Marcelo Nolasco
Globally, more than 60% of the human population live without safely managed sanitation services or even lack access to basic sanitation facilities. In addition, most of the wastewater produced in the world is discharged without proper treatment. Integrated approaches are needed to address these issues and curb the resulting adverse impacts on public health and the environment, and associated societal economic losses. The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provides an important framework towards more sustainable sanitation development, in terms of both safe sanitation access and wastewater management...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Solmaz Alborzi, Luis J Bastarrachea, Qiao Ding, Rohan V Tikekar
An antimicrobial effect of benzoic acid (BA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated as a potential antimicrobial treatment against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua. A 30 min exposure to the combination of 15 mM BA and 1 mM EDTA at 22 °C resulted in approximately 3 logarithmic reductions in stationary phase E. coli O157:H7. Logarithmic phase E. coli O157:H7 was more sensitive (P < 0.05) to the treatment and 1 mM EDTA alone caused more than 5 logarithmic reductions. L. innocua was also sensitive to a treatment with 15 mM BA alone, which induced 5 logarithmic reductions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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