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Water reuse

Peter B Skou, Thilo A Berg, Stina D Aunsbjerg, Dorrit Thaysen, Morten A Rasmussen, Frans van den Berg
Reuse of process water in dairy ingredient production-and food processing in general-opens the possibility for sustainable water regimes. Membrane filtration processes are an attractive source of process-water recovery since the technology is already utilized in the dairy industry and its use is expected to grow considerably. At Arla Foods Ingredients (AFI), permeate from a reverse osmosis polisher filtration unit is sought to be reused as process water, replacing the intake of potable water. However, as for all dairy and food producers, the process-water quality must be monitored continuously to ensure food safety...
November 29, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Naohiro Ishii, Tomoki Kiuchi, Tomito Oji, Kazuo Kishi
The use of human vessels at the beginning of microsurgery training is highly recommended. But vessels with the appropriate length for training are not often obtained. Whether these vessels may be reused for training has not been reported. Accordingly, we harvested vessels from discarded tissues in lymph node dissection and demonstrated that vascular anastomosis training using the same human vessels several times is possible by placing the vessels in a freezer and defrosting them with hot water. Vascular walls can be stored for microsurgical training until about 4 years after harvest, as shown in the gross appearance and histologic findings of our preserved vessels...
November 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Laura Chekli, Youngjin Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Sheng Li, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Ho Kyong Shon
The present study focused on the performance of the FDFO process to achieve simultaneous water reuse from wastewater and production of nutrient solution for hydroponic application. Bio-methane potential (BMP) measurements were firstly carried out to determine the effect of osmotic concentration of wastewater achieved in the FDFO process on the anaerobic activity. Results showed that 95% water recovery from the FDFO process is the optimum value for further AnMBR treatment. Nine different fertilizers were then tested based on their FO performance (i...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Mary E Schoen, Xiaobo Xue, Alison Wood, Troy R Hawkins, Jay Garland, Nicholas J Ashbolt
We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option...
November 16, 2016: Water Research
Lucía Lijó, Simos Malamis, Sara González-García, Francesco Fatone, María Teresa Moreira, Evina Katsou
A technical and environmental evaluation of an innovative scheme for the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and domestic organic waste (DOW) was undertaken by coupling an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a fermentation reactor. Alternative treatment configurations were evaluated with different waste collection practices as well as various schemes for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. All treatment systems fulfilled the required quality of the treated effluent in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations...
October 24, 2016: Water Research
Wenhai Luo, Hop V Phan, Ming Xie, Faisal I Hai, William E Price, Menachem Elimelech, Long D Nghiem
This study systematically compares the performance of osmotic membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) and conventional membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Both systems achieved effective removal of bulk organic matter and nutrients, and almost complete removal of all 31 trace organic contaminants investigated. They both could produce high quality water suitable for recycling applications. During OMBR-RO operation, salinity build-up in the bioreactor reduced the water flux and negatively impacted the system biological treatment by altering biomass characteristics and microbial community structure...
November 12, 2016: Water Research
Zhenzhou Zhu, Tian Jiang, Jingren He, Francisco J Barba, Giancarlo Cravotto, Mohamed Koubaa
This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP) extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES), was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes), than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation...
November 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bing Li, Yangyang Yu, Pengxiang Zhao, Shiyong Zhang
Featuring the advantages of both homogeneous (high activity) and heterogeneous (recyclability) catalysts, heterogenized homogeneous catalysts (e.g., dendrimer-stabilized metal nanoparticles) have received much attention in recent years. Here, we develop a new triazole-containing dendrimer-like core cross-linked micelle (DCCM) stabilized Pd nanoparticles as a highly efficient heterogenized homogeneous catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Both arylboronic acids and iodobenzenes with diverse electronic properties performed with excellent reactivity under the mild conditions of room temperature, water as the sole solvent, and as low as 0...
November 22, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Radisti A Praptiwi, Carlos J Pestana, Emma T Sawade, Nick Swain, Gretchen Schroeder, Gayle Newcombe
A bloom of the non-toxic cyanobacterium Romeria elegans in waste stabilisation ponds within Angaston waste water treatment plant (WWTP) has posed an unprecedented treatment challenge for the local water utility. The water from the stabilisation ponds is chlorinated for safety prior to reuse on nearby farmland. Cyanobacteria concentrations of approximately 1.2×10(6) cells mL(-1) increased the chlorine demand dramatically. Operators continuously increased the disinfectant dose up to 50 mg L(-1) to achieve operational guideline values for combined chlorine (0...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Technology
Asrat Gebremariam Woldesenbet, Belay Woldeyes, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi
Large amounts of coffee residues are generated from coffee processing plants in Ethiopia. These residues are toxic and possess serious environmental problems following the direct discharge into the nearby water bodies which cause serious environmental and health problems. This study was aimed to quantify wet coffee processing waste and estimate its bio-ethanol production. The study showed that the wastes are potential environmental problems and cause water pollution due to high organic component and acidic nature...
2016: SpringerPlus
O S H Santos, Mercês Coelho da Silva, V R Silva, W N Mussel, M I Yoshida
The present study describes the influence of the concentration of lignin when used as a filler in polyurethane foam for crude oil sorption. The foams (lignin 0-20wt%) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis, contact angle and density. The FTIR analysis confirmed urethane linkage formation, showing that the chemical structure of the polymer was preserved, despite the addition of different lignin concentrations. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the presence of lignin has altered the onset temperature (Tonset) of the foams, decreasing as the concentration of lignin is increased...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Abbe Y T Lau, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Xin Yang, Xiang-Dong Li
Bioretention systems have been recommended as one of the best management practices for low impact development for water recycling/reuse systems. Although improvement of the stormwater quality has been reported regarding pollutants eliminations such as suspended solids and heavy metals, a substantial removal of indicator bacteria is required for possible non-potable reuse. This study investigated the efficiency of wood biochar with H2SO4-, H3PO4-, KOH-, and amino-modifications for E. coli removal from synthetic stormwater under intermittent flow...
November 15, 2016: Chemosphere
Fei-Fei Chen, Ying-Jie Zhu, Zhi-Chao Xiong, Tuan-Wei Sun
The templated synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF) nanofibers has been demonstrated herein. The ultralong hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires are chosen as the hard template to induce the nucleation and growth of MIL-100(Fe) (one of the typical MOFs) using the layer-by-layer method. The coulomb and chelation interactions between Ca2+ ions on the surface of HAP nanowires and organic linkers (COO-) of MIL-100(Fe) play key roles in the formation process. The as-prepared water-stable hydroxyapatite nanowires@MIL-100(Fe) nanofibers show peroxidase-like activity towards the oxidation of different peroxidase substrates in the presence of H2O2 accompanied with obvious color change of the solution...
November 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sergey Shaposhnikov, Thomas Hatzold, Naouale El Yamani, Philip Mark Stavro, Yolanda Lorenzo, Maria Dusinska, Astrid Reus, Wilrike Pasman, Andrew Collins
PURPOSE: Coffee is known to contain phytochemicals with antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to investigate possible antioxidant effects of coffee in healthy human volunteers. METHODS: A placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out on 160 healthy human subjects, randomised into three groups, receiving 3 or 5 cups of study coffee or water per day, for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after the intervention. Serum was used for analysis of blood lipids and standard clinical chemistry analytes...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
A Besancon, K S Le Corre, G Dotro, B Jefferson
This paper demonstrates that utilising a vertical flow (VF) wetland after a conventional activated sludge (CAS) delivers equivalent or better effluent quality to a membrane bioreactor (MBR) based on a side-by-side pilot trial. A CAS, an MBR and a CAS+VF system were run in parallel for 18 months under controlled conditions. The CAS was operated under the solids retention times (SRT) of 6, 12, and 20 days, with the effluent from each pilot plant fed onto a soil aquifer treatment column to better understand their water reuse application potential...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Technology
Na Li, Fenglian Fu, Jianwei Lu, Zecong Ding, Bing Tang, Jiabin Pang
Chromium-contaminated water is regarded as one of the biggest threats to human health. In this study, a novel magnetic mesoporous MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composite was prepared by a facile one-step modification method and applied to remove Cr(VI). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area, and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to characterize MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composites. The morphology analysis showed that the composites displayed a core-shell structure...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Purna K Boruah, Bhagyasmeeta Sharma, Najrul Hussain, Manash R Das
Spillage of effluents containing high concentration levels of pesticides into water has been considered as one of the serious environmental problems. In this study Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite has been efficiently utilized for the adsorption of five harmful pesticides namely ametryn, prometryn, simazine, simeton and atrazine in an aqueous medium. Electrostatic interaction between the pesticides and Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was analyzed by the zeta potential analysis, which is strongly related to the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent...
November 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Glaucia Pantano, Josilei S Ferreira, Francisco W B Aquino, Edenir R Pereira-Filho, Antonio A Mozeto, Pedro S Fadini
Eutrophication is considered a global environmental problem that causes economic and biodiversity loss. Together with excess phosphorus in some aquatic environments, there is the depletion of phosphate rock deposits, which can directly affect fertilizer production and therefore global food security. Thus, the present work aimed to study a new remediation technique for eutrophic environments that enables the recovery of these environments through phosphorus adsorption in sawdust, creating the possibility to apply the phosphorus-enriched material as an agricultural fertilizer...
November 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Clément Monteil, Nathalie Bar, Agnès Bee, Didier Villemin
Wastewater cleaning strategies based on the adsorption of materials are being increasingly considered, but the wide variety of organic pollutants at low concentrations still makes their removal a challenge. The hybrid material proposed here consists of a zwitterionic polyethylenimine polymer coating a magnetic core. Polyethylenimine is phosphonated at different percentages by a one-step process and used to coat maghemite nanoparticles. It selectively extracts high amounts of cationic and anionic contaminants over a wide range of pH values, depending on the adjustable number of phosphonate groups introduced on the polymer...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Maria Betânia d'Heni Teixeira, Marco Antônio B Duarte, Loureine Raposo Garcez, Joel Camargo Rubim, Thérèse Hofmann Gatti, Paulo Anselmo Ziani Suarez
Cigarette butts, which are usually thrown on the ground or into ordinary bins, have been recognized as toxic residues since may contain cigarette contaminants and chemicals produced during combustion. Therefore, contaminants in cigarette butts can be leached by rain into surface water and thereby contaminate the environment. In Brazil, according to the National Policy on Solid Waste, all residues must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner. Although cigarette butts are not mentioned in the law, due to their characteristics, they may be classified as hazardous waste...
November 5, 2016: Waste Management
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