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Water reuse

Abaynesh Yihdego Gebreyohannes, Rosalinda Mazzei, Mohamed Yahia Marei Abdelrahim, Giuseppe Vitola, Elena Porzio, Giuseppe Manco, Mihail Barboiu, Lidietta Giorno
The need to find alternative bioremediation solutions for organophosphate degradation pushed the research to develop technologies based on organophosphate degrading enzymes, such as phosphotriesterase. The use of free phosphotriesterase poses limits in terms of enzyme reuse, stability and process development. The heterogenization of enzyme on a support and their use in bioreactors implemented by membrane seems a suitable strategy, thanks to the ability of membranes to compartmentalize, to govern mass transfer and provide microenvironment with tuned physico-chemical and structural properties...
May 24, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Samuel Patton, Mariano Romano, Vincenzo Naddeo, Kenneth P Ishida, Haizhou Liu
Growing demands and increasing scarcity of fresh water resources necessitate potable water reuse, which has been implemented with the aid of UV-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) that remove potentially hazardous trace organic contaminants from reclaimed water. During the potable reuse treatment process, chloramines are added to prevent membrane fouling that are carried over to the UV/AOP, where hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is commonly added. However, the impact of chloramines on the photolysis of H2O2 and the overall performance of the UV/AOP remains unknown...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Amit Kumar, Cyrille Boyer, Leena Nebhani, Edgar H H Wong
Access to clean and safe water supply remains inadequate in many developing countries. One of the key challenges is to remove pathogenic bacteria from the water supply via effective water disinfection technologies to prevent the spread of diseases and to ensure the safety of consumers. Herein, a highly effective point-of-use (on-demand) water disinfection technology, in the form of a polymeric scaffold called macroporous antimicrobial polymeric gel (MAPG), is demonstrated. MAPG is easy to fabricate, completely organic and possess inherent antimicrobial property which makes it non-reliant on inorganic compounds such as silver where the long-term toxicity remains unknown...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Siying Xie, Shanshan Wu, Sihan Bao, Yanqiu Wang, Yongtai Zheng, Danfeng Deng, Liping Huang, Lingling Zhang, Myongsoo Lee, Zhegang Huang
Despite recent advances in the porous materials for efficient removal of dissolved organic pollutants from water, the regeneration of porous characteristics for reuse with preventing secondary contamination remains a challenge. Here, novel supramolecular absorbents with hydrophobic pore are prepared by the self-assembly of propeller-shaped aromatic amphiphiles. The assembly of folded propeller provides a mesoporous environment within aromatic segments, which is suitable for the removal of organic pollutants from waste water...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ioannis Anastopoulos, Ilias Margiotoudis, Ioannis Massas
Considering that quality water supplies are diminishing and climate disorder affects water cycle, wastewaters should be decontaminated for reuse either by the same establishment or in agriculture for the growth of industrial plants. In that context, much research work has been focused on the development of low cost biosorbents. In this study, the effect of composting on the adsorption capacity of olive tree pruning waste (OTPW) biomass for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solutions was examined. Composting procedure may improve the sorption properties of the raw organic materials, is economical and easy to apply...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Zhanying Li, Lin Shao, Zehai Ruan, Wenbin Hu, Lingbin Lu, Yongjun Chen
The utilization of waste paper, an obsolete recyclable resource, helps to save resources and protect environment. In this paper, an aerogel was prepared to convert the waste paper into a useful material, which was used to adsorb heavy metal ions and handle water pollution. Combining waste office paper and chitosan, the aerogel obtained the enhanced mechanical strength, acid resistance and high adsorption capacity (up to 156.3 mg/g for Cu2+ ). This adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second order model and the Langmuir model...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Saraschandra Naraginti, Yi Li, Gianluca Li Puma
The photodegradation and phytotoxicity of the pharmaceutical antibiotic, sulphamethoxazole (SMX) and the azo-dye reactive-red-194 (RR194) under visible-light irradiation of TiO2 nanoparticles modified by silver and zirconium was investigated. The results indicated that sulphamethoxazole and its toxic degradation by product, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole and RR-194 could be degraded efficiently by the co-doped Zr/Ag-TiO2 catalyst. PL studies and ROS generation results suggested that the effective charge separation was carried out while irradiation of the modified TiO2 nanoparticles...
May 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Komkrich Sawasdee, Jeerus Sucharitakul, Taweesak Dhammaraj, Nuttawee Niamsiri, Pimchai Chaiyen, Kanlaya Prapainop
p -Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase component 1 ( C 1 ) is a useful enzyme for generating reduced flavin and NAD+ intermediates. In this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were used to encapsulate the C 1 (PLGA- C 1 NPs). Enzymatic activity, stability, and reusability of PLGA- C 1 NPs prepared using three different methods [oil in water (o/w), water in oil in water (w/o/w), and solid in oil in water (s/o/w)] were compared. The s/o/w provided the optimal conditions for encapsulation of C 1 (PLGA- C 1,s NPs), giving the highest enzyme activity, stability, and reusability...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Daiane R B Belgini, Virgínia M Siqueira, Douglas M Oliveira, Samantha G Fonseca, Viviane Piccin-Santos, Roberto S Dias, Larissa Quartaroli, Rodrigo S Souza, Ana Paula R Torres, Maíra P Sousa, Cláudio M Silva, Cynthia C Silva, Sérgio O De Paula, Valéria M Oliveira
Oil refineries are known for the large volume of water used in their processes, as well as the amount of wastewater generated at the end of the production chain. Due to strict environmental regulations, the recycling of water has now become a viable alternative for refineries. Among the many methods available to treat wastewater for reuse, the use of membranes in reverse osmosis systems stands out due to several economic and environmental benefits. However, these systems are vulnerable to contamination and deposition of microorganisms, mainly because of the feedwater quality...
April 13, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Har'el Agra, Ariel Solodar, Omar Bawab, Shay Levy, Gyongyver J Kadas, Leon Blaustein, Noam Greenbaum
Green roofs provide important ecosystem services in urban areas. In Mediterranean and other semi-arid climate regions, most perennial plants on green roofs need to be irrigated during the dry season. However, the use of freshwater in such regions is scarce. Therefore, the possibility of using grey water should be examined. Coal ash, produced primarily from the burning of coal in power plants, constitutes an environmental contaminant that should be disposed. One option is to use ash as a growing substrate for plants...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A M G A Laheij, J J de Soet, C M C Volgenant
The increasing resistance to antibiotics and the aging of the population of patients who visit the dental practice can lead to more frequent infections with (resistant) microorganisms. The prevention of cross contamination by the implementation of effective measures in the area of hygiene and procedures of infection control is therefore important. The furnishing of a dental practice can play an important part in prevention. What are the important issues in furnishing a practice? A distinction is made between 'critical' and 'non-critical' rooms...
May 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Yueming Ren, Huiyu Zhang, Hongze An, Ying Zhao, Jing Feng, Lili Xue, Tianzhu Luan, Zhuangjun Fan
Graphene oxide doping MnFe2 O4 (rGO-MnFe2 O4 ) nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning method and applied to degrade refractory Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DBP) by catalytic ozonation in the water. Characterizations and effect of various conditions on DBP removal were investigated. Meanwhile, the mechanism of enhanced DBP degradation after rGO incorporation was explored intensively. Results showed that 5 wt% GO doping into MnFe2 O4 improved the concentration of surface hydroxyl sites (SHSC), the oxidation potential, material diffusion and charge electronic transfer ability in contrast to MnFe2 O4 nanofibers, resulting in significantly enhanced DBP degradation compared with ozonation alone...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Diego Alberto Morales Urrea, Patricia Mónica Haure, Fernando Sebastián García Einschlag, Edgardo Martín Contreras
Enzymatic decolourization of azo-dyes could be a cost-competitive alternative compared to physicochemical or microbiological methods. Stoichiometric and kinetic features of peroxidase-mediated decolourization of azo-dyes by hydrogen peroxide (P) are central for designing purposes. In this work, a modified version of the Dunford mechanism of peroxidases was developed. The proposed model takes into account the inhibition of peroxidases by high concentrations of P, the substrate-dependant catalatic activity of peroxidases (e...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Emily Garner, Chaoqi Chen, Kang Xia, Jolene Bowers, David Engelthaler, Jean McLain, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
Water reclamation provides a valuable resource for meeting non-potable water demands. However, little is known about the potential for wastewater reuse to disseminate antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, samples were collected seasonally in 2014-2015 from four U.S. utilities' reclaimed and potable water distribution systems before treatment, after treatment, and at five points of use (POU). Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to profile the resistome (i.e., full contingent of ARGs) of a subset (n=38) of samples...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sergio Gutiérrez-Alfaro, Juan J Rueda-Márquez, José A Perales, Manuel A Manzano
Solar disinfection (SODIS) of urban wastewater can be a suitable technology for improving the microbiological quality of reclaimed water as a complement to other extensive and environmentally friendly technologies such as microalgae biotreatment. The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating the SODIS technology at the end of a pilot scale urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) where the processes are based on microalgae biotechnology and comprising three Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB, 20m3 each one) reactor, six High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP, 32m2 each one), and a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF, 1m3 ) unit...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hanna Pei, Jing Wang, Qingfeng Yang, Weixia Yang, Na Hu, Yourui Suo, Daohong Zhang, Zhonghong Li, Jianlong Wang
Lead(II) is a highly toxic upon accumulation in the human body and a thorough cleanup of this pollutant in water resources has become a rising worldwide concern. In this study, multi-functional nitrogen-doped carbon-MoS2 (NC-MoS2 ) nanohybrid composite was successfully synthesized by a step-by-step approach and applied as an effective heavy metal ions adsorbent. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis presents multilayer irregular nanosheets and reveals the uniform distribution of C, N and O elements in the fabricated nanomaterials, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shahzad Jamil, Sanghyun Jeong, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from wastewater reclamation plants have high concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds, which have to be removed before its disposal. Forward osmosis (FO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were tested to treat the ROC for possible water reuse. This research investigated the combined and individual influence of organic and inorganic matter on the fouling of NF and FO membranes. The results revealed that the NF membrane removed most of the organic compounds and some inorganics...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Craig Jowett, Irina Solntseva, Lingling Wu, Chris James, Susan Glasauer
Clear sand adsorbs 15-35% total phosphorus (P) from septic tank effluent, but P is mobilized when low-P effluent is applied. Amorphous P compounds formed by alkali aluminate chemical addition may also be subject to leaching. Crystalline mineralization is the desired end effect that isolates P thoroughly from the water resource. Using new low-energy iron electrochemistry (EC-P process), dissolved ferrous iron reacts with sewage phosphate ions (PO4 ) and precipitates onto filtration medium as vivianite [Fe3 (PO4 )2 ·8H2 O], as identified by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction and predicted from Eh-pH-aHPO4 2- phase relations...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Sharon P Nappier, Jeffrey A Soller, Sorina E Eftim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing interest in recycling water for potable reuse purposes, it is important to understand the microbial risks associated with potable reuse. This review focuses on potable reuse systems that use high-level treatment and de facto reuse scenarios that include a quantifiable wastewater effluent component. RECENT FINDINGS: In this article, we summarize the published human health studies related to potable reuse, including both epidemiology studies and quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA)...
May 2, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Taleb H Ibrahim, Muhammad A Sabri, Mustafa I Khamis
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their magnetite derivatives were employed as adsorbents for emulsified oil removal from produced water. The experimental parameters for maximum emulsified oil removal efficiency and effective regeneration of these adsorbents were determined. The optimum parameters in terms of adsorbent dosage, contact time, salinity, pH and temperature were 3.0 g/L, 20.0 min, 0 ppm, 7.0 and 25°C for both adsorbents. Due to their low density, multiwalledcarbon nanotubes could not be successfully employed in packed bed columns...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Technology
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