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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942843/differential-antagonistic-responses-of-bacillus-pumilus-msua3-against-rhizoctonia-solani-and-fusarium-oxysporum-causing-fungal-diseases-in-fagopyrum-esculentum-moench
#1
Mohit Agarwal, Shrivardhan Dheeman, Ramesh Chand Dubey, Pradeep Kumar, Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari, Vivek K Bajpai
Chitinase and surfactin-mediated biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum causing wilt and root rot of Fagopyrum esculentum respectively has been studied in this communication. Bacillus pumilus MSUA3 as a potential bacterial strain strongly inhibited the growth of R. solani and F. oxysporum involving the chitinolytic enzymes and an antibiotic surfactin. Plant growth promoting attributes seem to be involved in plant growth promotion and yield attributes. The action of cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) was found deleterious to F...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941676/effect-of-xylanase-and-%C3%AE-amylase-on-don-and-its-conjugates-during-the-breadmaking-process
#2
Arnau Vidal, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring mycotoxins in wheat crops worldwide and poses a risk to human and animal health due to its wide range of adverse effects. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a DON plant conjugate that is widely found in cereal products. As DON accumulation in the field seems unavoidable, it is important to investigate all of the conditions that affect its stability during food processing. One of the most consumed cereal product around the world is bread, however the published information about DON stability in bread shows a large variability of results because a huge amount of factors affect DON and its modified forms...
November 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941614/development-of-a-simple-and-rapid-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-rt-lamp-assay-for-sensitive-detection-of-citrus-tristeza-virus
#3
Ashish Warghane, Pragati Misra, Sumit Bhose, Kajal Kumar Biswas, Ashwani Kumar Sharma, M Krishna Reddy, Dilip Kumar Ghosh
Tristeza is a devastating disease of citrus and reported to be present in almost all countries where it is cultivated as a commercial crop. The etiological agent of this disease is Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus with in the family Closteroviridae. The pathogen is restricted to the phloem tissue of the infected citrus plant and has a monopartite ss (+) RNA genome of ∼20kb size. Till date, there is no effective control measure available for this virus. Management of tristeza depends on destruction of CTV infected field plants, production of virus-free planting material for new orchard establishment and controlling viruliferous aphid vectors responsible for field spread of the pathogen...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941346/-progress-in-improving-photosynthetic-efficiency-by-synthetic-biology
#4
Lixin Zhang, Congming Lu, Lianwei Peng, Weimin Ma, Wanqiang Qian
The contradiction between the increasing population and the decrease of tillable land areas is becoming more and more serious in our country. Food security is an important guarantee for sustainable development of our national economy. Photosynthesis is the basis for crop yield. Improving crop photosynthetic efficiency is one of the important approaches to increase crop yield. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in engineering photosynthetic performance by synthetic biology from three key aspects including absorption, transduction and conversion of light energy, light utilization efficiency and carbon assimilation...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941315/host-induced-silencing-of-essential-genes-in-puccinia-triticina-through-transgenic-expression-of-rnai-sequences-reduces-severity-of-leaf-rust-infection-in-wheat
#5
Vinay Panwar, Mark Jordan, Brent McCallum, Guus Bakkeren
Leaf rust, caused by the pathogenic fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt), is one of the most serious biotic threats to sustainable wheat production worldwide. This obligate biotrophic pathogen is prevalent worldwide and is known for rapid adaptive evolution to overcome resistant wheat varieties. Novel disease control approaches are therefore required to minimize the yield losses caused by Pt. Having shown previously the potential of host-delivered RNA interference (HD-RNAi) in functional screening of Pt genes involved in pathogenesis, we here evaluated the use of this technology in transgenic wheat plants as a method to achieve protection against wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection...
September 23, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941083/from-model-to-crop-functional-characterization-of-spl8-in-m-truncatula-led-to-genetic-improvement-of-biomass-yield-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-alfalfa
#6
Jiqing Gou, Smriti Debnath, Liang Sun, Amy Flanagan, Yuhong Tang, Qingzhen Jiang, Jiangqi Wen, Zeng-Yu Wang
Biomass yield, salt tolerance and drought tolerance are important targets for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) improvement. Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model plant for alfalfa and other legumes. By screening a Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged M. truncatula mutant population, we identified three mutants with enhanced branching. Branch development determines shoot architecture which affects important plant functions like light acquisition, resource use and ultimately impacts biomass production. Molecular analyses revealed that the mutations were caused by Tnt1 insertions in the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 8 (SPL8) gene...
September 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940830/cultivar-mixtures-a-meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-intraspecific-diversity-on-crop-yield
#7
Emily R Reiss, Laurie E Drinkwater
Extensive research has shown that greater plant community diversity leads to higher levels of productivity and other ecosystem services, and such increased diversity has been suggested as a way to improve yield and agricultural sustainability. Increasing intraspecific diversity with cultivar mixtures is one way to increase diversity in agricultural systems. We examined the relationship between intraspecific diversity and yield in cultivar mixtures using a meta-analysis of 91 studies and >3600 observations...
September 22, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940511/climate-mitigation-by-dairy-intensification-depends-on-intensive-use-of-spared-grassland
#8
David Styles, Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia, Jon Moorby, Andreas Foskolos, James Gibbons
Milk and beef production cause 9% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown that dairy intensification reduces the carbon footprint of milk by increasing animal productivity and feed conversion efficiency. None of these studies simultaneously evaluated indirect GHG effects incurred via teleconnections with expansion of feed crop production and replacement suckler-beef production. We applied consequential LCA to incorporate these effects into GHG mitigation calculations for intensification scenarios among grazing-based dairy farms in an industrialized country (UK), in which milk production shifts from average to intensive farm typologies, involving higher milk yields per cow and more maize and concentrate feed in cattle diets...
September 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940378/potential-risk-of-weed-outbreak-by-increasing-biochar-s-application-rates-in-slow-growth-legume-lentil-lens-culinaris-medik
#9
Mahdi Safaei Khorram, Akram Fatemi, Md Asaduzzaman Khan, Rudolf Kiefer, Sasan Jafarnia
BACKGROUND: Biochar amendment as a promising tool to improve the soil quality and consequently, higher crop yield has received more attention during last decades. The positive effects of biochar have been getting more attention especially in the areas with low precipitation rate like Middle East, due to low soil organic carbon content, higher drought intensity, and increasing demands for food production. However, biochar can lead to lower herbicide efficacy, resulting in higher consumption of herbicides...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940238/soil-bacterial-diversity-changes-in-different-broomcorn-millet-intercropping-systems
#10
Xiaoning Cao, Sichen Liu, Junjie Wang, Haigang Wang, Ling Chen, Xiang Tian, Lijun Zhang, Jianwu Chang, Lun Wang, Zhixin Mu, Zhijun Qiao
Plants growing in soil and the diverse microorganisms with which they are in direct contact have adapted to exploit their close association for mutual benefit. Various intercropping systems have been used to control plant disease and improve productivity in fields. Although high-throughput sequencing approaches have provided new insights into the soil bacterial community, current knowledge of intercropping of broomcorn millet with different leguminous plants is limited. In this study, characterization of different bacterial communities of monoculture and intercropping systems was achieved by deep sequencing...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940131/nitrogen-nutrition-in-cotton-and-control-strategies-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions-a-review
#11
Aziz Khan, Daniel Kean Yuen Tan, Fazal Munsif, Muhammad Zahir Afridi, Farooq Shah, Fan Wei, Shah Fahad, Ruiyang Zhou
Cotton (Gossypium hirustum L.) is grown globally as a major source of natural fiber. Nitrogen (N) management is cumbersome in cotton production systems; it has more impacts on yield, maturity, and lint quality of a cotton crop than other primary plant nutrient. Application and production of N fertilizers consume large amounts of energy, and excess application can cause environmental concerns, i.e., nitrate in ground water, and the production of nitrous oxide a highly potent greenhouse gas (GHG) to the atmosphere, which is a global concern...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938215/evaluation-of-bioenergy-crop-growth-and-the-impacts-of-bioenergy-crops-on-streamflow-tile-drain-flow-and-nutrient-losses-in-an-extensively-tile-drained-watershed-using-swat
#12
Tian Guo, Raj Cibin, Indrajeet Chaubey, Margaret Gitau, Jeffrey G Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, James R Kiniry, Bernard A Engel
Large quantities of biofuel production are expected from bioenergy crops at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study biomass production of bioenergy crops and the impacts of these crops on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstock systems. SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, and nutrient losses under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938176/genotypic-differences-in-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-to-salinity-stress-in-melon-cucumis-melo-l-plants-prospects-for-selection-of-salt-tolerant-landraces
#13
Behrooz Sarabi, Sahebali Bolandnazar, Nasser Ghaderi, Jaleh Ghashghaie
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran often cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the country with salinity problems. The objective of this work was to better understand the mechanisms of physiological and biochemical responses to salinity stress of five Iranian melon landraces "Samsuri", "Kashan", "Khatouni", "Suski-e-Sabz", and "Ghobadlu" from different geographical origins, and "Galia" F1 cultivar. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and irrigated with half-strength Hoagland solution containing 0, 30, 60, or 90 mM NaCl for 60 days...
September 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937283/engineering-rubisco-activase-from-thermophilic-cyanobacteria-into-high-temperature-sensitive-plants
#14
Chukwuma C Ogbaga, Piotr Stepien, Habib-Ur-Rehman Athar, Muhammad Ashraf
In the past decade, various strategies to improve photosynthesis and crop yield, such as leaf morphology, light interception and use efficiency, biochemistry of light reactions, stomatal conductance, carboxylation efficiency, and source to sink regulation, have been discussed at length. Leaf morphology and physiology are tightly coupled to light capturing efficiency, gas exchange capacity, and temperature regulation. However, apart from the photoprotective mechanism of photosystem-II (PSII), i.e. non-photochemical quenching, very low genetic variation in the components of light reactions has been observed in plants...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936873/biochemical-characterization-of-arsi-a-novel-c-as-lyase-for-degradation-of-environmental-organoarsenicals
#15
Shashank S Pawitwar, Venkadesh S Nadar, Ashoka Kandegedara, Timothy L Stemmler, Barry P Rosen, Masafumi Yoshinaga
Organoarsenicals such as the methylarsenical methylarsenate (MAs(V)) and aromatic arsenicals including roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsenate or Rox(V)) have been extensively used as an herbicide and growth enhancers in animal husbandry, respectively. They undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite (As(III)) that contaminates crops and drinking water. We previously identified a bacterial gene (arsI) responsible for aerobic demethylation of methylarsenite (MAs(III)). The gene product, ArsI, is an Fe(II)-dependent extradiol dioxygenase that cleaves the carbon-arsenic (C-As) bond in MAs(III) and in trivalent aromatic arsenicals...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936646/apomixis-engineering-the-ability-to-harness-hybrid-vigor-in-crop-plants
#16
Joann A Conner, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Apomixis, commonly defined as asexual reproduction through seed, is a reproductive trait that occurs in only a few minor crops, but would be highly valuable in major crops. Apomixis results in seed-derived progenies that are genetically identical to their maternal parent. The advantage of apomixis would lie in seed propagation of elite food, feed, and biofuel crops that are heterozygous such as hybrid corn and switchgrass or self-pollinating crops for which no commercial-scale hybrid production system is available...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936575/coupled-effects-of-mulching-and-nitrogen-fertilization-on-crop-yield-residual-soil-nitrate-and-water-use-efficiency-of-summer-maize-in-the-chinese-loess-plateau
#17
Zhanjun Liu, Yan Meng, Miao Cai, Jianbin Zhou
Appropriate water-saving and nitrogen management strategies are critical for achieving sustainable agricultural development in dry sub-humid areas of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The present study was conducted in 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2012 based on a long-term field experiment and aimed to investigate the coupled impacts of mulching and N fertilization on maize yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and residual soil nitrate (RSN) accumulated in the soil profile (0-200 cm). The results demonstrated that mulch is conducive to increasing summer maize yield...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936499/low-cost-ionic-liquid-water-mixtures-for-effective-extraction-of-carbohydrate-and-lipid-from-algae
#18
Trang Q To, Kerryn Procter, Blake A Simmons, Suresh Subashchandrabose, Rob Atkin
Biomass based biofuels are already an important energy source, and will increasingly be so in the future as the need for renewable energy rises. Due to their fast multiplication rates, algae can provide a sustainable supply of biomass, and are attractive because they do not compete with food crops for habitat. Here we show that biomass derived from Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis can be pretreated with low cost choline amino acid based ionic liquids to effectively yield lipids (30.6% and 51% total lipids) and sugars (71% and 26% total sugars)...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936217/evaluation-of-fertilizer-potential-of-different-k-compounds-prepared-utilizing-sea-bittern-as-feed-stock
#19
Khanjan Trivedi, Denish Kubavat, Krishna K Ghara, Ranjeet Kumar, Hardik Trivedi, K G Vijay Anand, Pratyush Maiti, Arup Ghosh
Aim: Many countries import potassic fertilizers due to dearth of K-mineral deposits. Therefore processes to obtain K-nutrient sources from sea bittern were developed by our Institute. The present investigation evaluated the fertilizer potential of three different sea bittern-derived (SBD) potassium forms developed viz., potassium schoenite, potassium nitrate and potassium ammonium sulfate on maize productivity in two cropping seasons. Methods: The pot and field experiments consisted of four treatments, wherein the three K forms were applied at the recommended rate of 40 kg K2O ha(-1) and were compared with commercially used sulfate of potash...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935951/overexpression-of-annexin-gene-annsp2-enhances-drought-and-salt-tolerance-through-modulation-of-aba-synthesis-and-scavenging-ros-in-tomato
#20
Raina Ijaz, Javeria Ejaz, Shenghua Gao, Tengfei Liu, Muhammad Imtiaz, Zhibiao Ye, Taotao Wang
Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic stresses that significantly affect agricultural crop productivity worldwide. Annexins are a multigene family that plays an essential role in plant stress responses and various cellular processes. Here, the AnnSp2 gene was cloned from drought-resistant wild tomato (Solanum pennellii) and functionally characterized in cultivated tomato. AnnSp2 protein was localized in the nucleus and had higher expression in leave, flower and fruit. It was induced by several phytohormones and some abiotic stresses...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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