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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779094/-cell-grafting-a-new-approach-for-transferring-cytoplasmic-or-nuclear-genome-between-plants
#1
Vladimir Sidorov, Charles Armstrong, Thomas Ream, Xudong Ye, Annie Saltarikos
A new method based on mixing and wounding of callus tissue was used to transfer plastid or nuclear DNA between cells. Methods alternative to sexual hybridization can be powerful tools for crop improvement. We have developed a new hybridization technology based on wounding a mixed population of cells of two parents growing in vitro as callus ("cell grafting"), and have demonstrated the utility of this system for plastid or nuclear genome transfer. In our proof-of concept experiments, non-organized growing tissue (callus) from tobacco var...
May 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778812/ameliorative-effects-of-boron-on-aluminum-induced-variations-of-cell-wall-cellulose-and-pectin-components-in-trifoliate-orange-poncirus-trifoliate-l-raf-rootstock
#2
Lei Yan, Muhammad Riaz, Xiuwen Wu, Chenqing Du, Yalin Liu, Cuncang Jiang
Aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity is a major limitation in the production of crops in the soils with pH ≤ 5. Boron (B) is indispensable nutrient for the development of higher plants and B role has been reported in the alleviation Al toxicity. Trifoliate orange rootstock was grown in two B and two Al concentrations. The results of the present study showed that Al toxicity adversely inhibited root elongation and exhibited higher oxidative stress in terms of H2 O2 and O2 - under B-deficiency. Additionally, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the increase of the cellulose crystallinity in the cell wall (CW)...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778687/droplets-deposition-pattern-from-a-prototype-of-a-fixed-spraying-system-in-a-sloping-vineyard
#3
Stefan Otto, Donato Loddo, Arno Schmid, Christian Roschatt, Maria Venturelli, Gerd Innerebner
In Italy high-quality vines are sometimes grown in small fields with slope steeper than 5-10%, where an air-blast sprayer is impractical so spray-gun application of pesticides is used, a technique that is very costly and labour intensive, and that causes high pesticide exposure of the operators. A possible alternative is the use of a fixed spraying system, and the first researches are in progress in Italy. A fixed spraying system prototype was built in a vineyard at Laimburg Research Centre with an upper line with micro-sprinkler and a lower line with cooler-type nozzles, and a trial was performed with the aim of measuring the deposition pattern of droplets on the row and between rows with water sensitive papers, also in comparison with a precise low-drift air-blast sprayer...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778168/development-of-a-novel-myconanomining-approach-for-the-recovery-of-agriculturally-important-elements-from-jarosite-waste
#4
Ankita Bedi, Braj Raj Singh, Sunil K Deshmukh, Nisha Aggarwal, Colin J Barrow, Alok Adholeya
In this study, an ecofriendly and economically viable waste management approach have been attempted towards the biosynthesis of agriculturally important nanoparticles from jarosite waste. Aspergillus terreus strain J4 isolated from jarosite (waste from Debari Zinc Smelter, Udaipur, India), showed good leaching efficiency along with nanoparticles (NPs) formation under ambient conditions. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of NPs...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776927/ecological-engineering-helps-maximize-function-in-algal-oil-production
#5
Sara L Jackrel, Anita Narwani, Bastian Bentlage, Robert B Levine, David C Hietala, Phillip E Savage, Todd H Oakley, Vincent J Denef, Bradley J Cardinale
Algal biofuels have the potential to curb emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, but current growing methods fail to produce fuels that meet the multiple standards necessary for economical industrial use. For example, algae grown as monocultures for biofuel production have not simultaneously and economically achieved high yields of the high-quality, lipid-rich biomass desired for the industrial-scale production of bio-oil. Decades of study in the field of ecology have demonstrated that simultaneous increases in multiple functions, such as the quantity and quality of biomass, can occur in natural ecosystems by increasing biological diversity...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775862/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-max2-ortholog-from-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#6
Tingting Cheng, Donghua Wang, Yongfeng Wang, Shumeng Zhang, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi, Fengli Sun
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a sustainable cellulosic energy crop with high biomass yield on marginal soils. Tillering, an important agronomic characteristic related to biomass production in gramineous plants, is regulated by complex interacting factors, such as plant hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) comprise a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)/DWARF 3 (D3)/RAMOSUS (RMS4) genes encode proteins involved in the SL signaling pathway in various plants...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775722/inflammatory-and-oxidative-mechanisms-potentiate-bifenthrin-induced-neurological-alterations-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#7
Brahim Gargouri, Harsharan S Bhatia, Michèle Bouchard, Bernd L Fiebich, Hamadi Fetoui
Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms by which BF induces neurological and anxiety alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum are not well known. The present in vivo study was carried out to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation are involved in such alterations...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775612/crystal-structure-of-wa352-provides-insight-into-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-rice
#8
Xiang Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Zhou Gong, Junjie Yan, Guangsheng Yang, Yao-Guang Liu, Ping Yin
Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important phenomenon and is widely utilized in hybrid crop breeding. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA), a well-known CMS type, has been successfully applied in the commercial production of hybrid rice seeds for more than 40 years. The CMS-WA causal gene WA352 encodes a novel transmenbrane protein and the interacts with the mitochondrial copper chaperone COX11, triggering reactive oxygen species production and resulting in male sterility in CMS-WA lines. However, the structure of WA352 is currently unknown, and the structural mechanism whereby WA352 perturbs COX11 function to cause CMS remains largely unknown...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774547/petunia-as-model-for-elucidating-adventitious-root-formation-and-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-at-the-nexus-of-physiology-genetics-microbiology-and-horticulture
#9
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774513/coordinated-effects-of-lead-toxicity-and-nutrient-deprivation-on-growth-oxidative-status-and-elemental-composition-of-primed-and-non-primed-rice-seedlings
#10
Fahad Khan, Saddam Hussain, Mohsin Tanveer, Sehrish Khan, Hafiz Athar Hussain, Biland Iqbal, Mingjian Geng
Rice crop is highly susceptible to the toxic levels of lead (Pb) during early growth stages. Moreover, a sufficient availability of mineral nutrients is critical for survival of plants particularly under stressful conditions. An experiment was carried out to unravel the coordinated effects of Pb stress (1-mM PbCl2 ) and different nutrient treatments (sufficient nutrient supply, nitrogen (N) deprivation, phosphorus (P) deprivation, and potassium (K) deprivation) on morphological growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidants, and nutrient status in primed and non-primed rice seedlings...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772529/microbial-bio-fuels-a-solution-to-carbon-emissions-and-energy-crisis
#11
Arun Kumar, Sumit Kaushal, Shubhini A Saraf, Jay Shankar Singh
Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772462/photocatalytic-mineralization-and-degradation-kinetics-of-sulphamethoxazole-and-reactive-red-194-over-silver-zirconium-co-doped-titanium-dioxide-reaction-mechanisms-and-phytotoxicity-assessment
#12
Saraschandra Naraginti, Yi Li, Gianluca Li Puma
The photodegradation and phytotoxicity of the pharmaceutical antibiotic, sulphamethoxazole (SMX) and the azo-dye reactive-red-194 (RR194) under visible-light irradiation of TiO2 nanoparticles modified by silver and zirconium was investigated. The results indicated that sulphamethoxazole and its toxic degradation by product, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole and RR-194 could be degraded efficiently by the co-doped Zr/Ag-TiO2 catalyst. PL studies and ROS generation results suggested that the effective charge separation was carried out while irradiation of the modified TiO2 nanoparticles...
May 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772270/identification-of-certain-panax-species-to-be-potential-substitutes-for-panax-notoginseng-in-hemostatic-treatments
#13
REVIEW
Bin Rui Yang, Sze Chung Yuen, Guang Yi Fan, Wei-Hong Cong, Siu-Wai Leung, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. H. Chow (P. notoginseng) is a highly valued Chinese materia medica having a hemostatic effect and mainly used for the treatment of trauma and ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Stringent growth requirements, weak resistance to insect pests and plant diseases, arsenic contamination and continuous cropping constitute hurdles to further increases in the agricultural production of P. notoginseng. This review focuses on the traditional uses (based on traditional Chinese medicine theory), major chemical components, biological activities, pharmacological properties, geographical distributions and historical development of taxonomy of P...
May 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771910/the-influence-of-crop-production-and-socioeconomic-factors-on-seasonal-household-dietary-diversity-in-burkina-faso
#14
Jérôme W Somé, Andrew D Jones
Households in low-income settings are vulnerable to seasonal changes in dietary diversity because of fluctuations in food availability and access. We assessed seasonal differences in household dietary diversity in Burkina Faso, and determined the extent to which household socioeconomic status and crop production diversity modify changes in dietary diversity across seasons, using data from the nationally representative 2014 Burkina Faso Continuous Multisectoral Survey (EMC). A household dietary diversity score based on nine food groups was created from household food consumption data collected during four rounds of the 2014 EMC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770890/the-effects-of-gypsum-and-mulch-applications-on-reclamation-parameters-and-physical-properties-of-an-alkali-soil
#15
Cagla Temiz, Gokhan Cayci
Alkali soils have undesirable properties for crop production. However, these problematic areas can be reclaimed and regained for cultivation. Mulch materials have been used in the past to decrease salinity damage in saline soils. But information about using mulch materials for alkali soil reclamation is rare. The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of different levels of gypsum applied with straw or pumice mulch materials on the reclamation of an alkali soil. Results obtained from soil extracts during the leaching water cycles showed that gypsum and mulch materials caused significant differences in sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) values...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768904/comparative-analysis-of-physiological-impact-of-%C3%AE-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-nanoparticles-on-dicotyledon-and-monocotyledon
#16
Jing Hu, Chan Wu, Hongxuan Ren, Yunqiang Wang, Junli Li, Jin Huang
Currently, the impact of nanoparticles (NPs) on plants is a provocative and promising field. As well-known, dicotyledon and monocotyledon show significant differences in the structural features of the roots and iron absorption mechanisms, and hence it is very meaningful to carry out the comparative study on the diverse impact of NPs on the physiological behaviors of monocotyledon and dicotyledon. In this study, two typical monocotyledon and dicotyledon crops, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and maize (Zea mays L...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768137/organic-amendments-beneficial-microbes-and-soil-microbiota-toward-a-unified-framework-for-disease-suppression
#17
Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L Woo
Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767736/pollination-of-granadilla-passiflora-ligularis-benefits-from-large-wild-insects
#18
Catalina Gutiérrez-Chacón, Felix Fornoff, Rodulfo Ospina-Torres, Alexandra-Maria Klein
The contribution of wild pollinators to food production has recently been assessed for many crops, although it remains unclear for several tropical crops. Granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss), a crop native to the tropical Andes, is one such crop where a gap exists regarding comprehensive knowledge about its pollination system. In a field experiment in the Colombian Andes, we 1) describe flower visitors in terms of visit quantity (visitation rate) and quality (touches of flower-reproductive structures), 2) assess the pollination system by comparing fruit set and fruit weight per flower in three pollination treatments: pollinator exclusion, open pollination, and supplementary pollination, and 3) evaluate pollination deficits (difference between open and supplementary pollination) in relation to pollinator density...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766789/metabolomics-a-high-throughput-screen-for-biochemical-and-bioactivity-diversity-in-plants-and-crops
#19
Alexandre Foito, Derek Stewart
Plants and crops contain a staggering diversity of compounds, many of which have pharmacological activity towards a variety of diseases. These properties have been exploited by traditional and modern medicine providing important sources of healthcare to this day. The contribution of natural products (such as plant-derived) to the modern pharmacopeia is indeed significant; however, the process of identifying novel bioactive compounds from biological sources has been a central challenge in the discovery of natural products...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766638/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-chlorantraniliprole-on-spodoptera-cosmioides-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#20
Alejandra L Lutz, Isabel Bertolaccini, Roberto R Scotta, María C Curis, María A Favaro, Laura N Fernandez, Daniel E Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) population has increased in Bt soybean crops in Argentina. As there are no registered products for its control, the recommended insecticides for S. frugiperda are used. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the lethal concentration (LC) and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on the biological and reproductive functions of S. cosmioides, an emerging soybean pest in Argentina. RESULTS: An ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorantraniliprole was active against larvae of the second instar, and after 48 h exposure LC50 was 0...
May 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
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