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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213031/antimicrobial-resistance-and-its-association-with-tolerance-to-heavy-metals-in-agriculture-production
#1
REVIEW
Zhongyi Yu, Lynda Gunn, Patrick Wall, Séamus Fanning
Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212406/accumulation-of-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acyl-moieties-in-seed-oils-of-transgenic-camelina-sativa
#2
Zhaohui Hu, Qian Wu, Jyoti Dalal, Naresh Vasani, Harry O Lopez, Heike W Sederoff, Rongda Qu
With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210981/assessing-common-bean-cultivars-for-resistance-to-the-soybean-looper-chrysodeixis-includens-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#3
R Morando, E L L Baldin, P L Cruz, A L Lourenção
The soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is known as an important pest of leguminous plants worldwide. In Brazil, this pest species is gaining importance to producers of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) because it limits field production of the crop. Chemical control is still the primary method of insect control. However, due to the possible harmful effects of pesticides to humans and the environment, alternative and less aggressive practices are being investigated...
February 16, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209328/plant-functional-traits-soil-and-ecosystem-services
#4
REVIEW
Michel-Pierre Faucon, David Houben, Hans Lambers
Decline of ecosystem services has triggered numerous studies aiming at developing more sustainable agricultural management practices. Some agricultural practices may improve soil properties by expanding plant biodiversity. However, sustainable management of agroecosystems should be performed from a functional plant trait perspective. Advances in functional ecology, especially plant functional trait effects on ecosystem processes and services, provide pivotal knowledge for ecological intensification of agriculture; this approach acknowledges that a crop field is an agroecosystem whose ecological processes influence soil properties...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208692/economic-impact-of-the-introduction-and-establishment-of-drosophila-suzukii-on-sweet-cherry-production-in-switzerland
#5
REVIEW
Dominique Mazzi, Esther Bravin, Manuela Meraner, Robert Finger, Stefan Kuske
First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs...
February 8, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208645/polyphenol-oxidases-in-crops-biochemical-physiological-and-genetic-aspects
#6
Francesca Taranto, Antonella Pasqualone, Giacomo Mangini, Pasquale Tripodi, Monica Marilena Miazzi, Stefano Pavan, Cinzia Montemurro
Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208605/quantification-of-climate-warming-and-crop-management-impacts-on-cotton-phenology
#7
Shakeel Ahmad, Qaiser Abbas, Ghulam Abbas, Zartash Fatima, Atique-Ur-Rehman, Sahrish Naz, Haseeb Younis, Rana Jahanzeb Khan, Wajid Nasim, Muhammad Habib Ur Rehman, Ashfaq Ahmad, Ghulam Rasul, Muhammad Azam Khan, Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Understanding the impact of the warming trend on phenological stages and phases of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in central and lower Punjab, Pakistan, may assist in optimizing crop management practices to enhance production. This study determined the influence of the thermal trend on cotton phenology from 1980-2015 in 15 selected locations. The results demonstrated that observed phenological stages including sowing (S), emergence (E), anthesis (A) and physiological maturity (M) occurred earlier by, on average, 5...
February 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208114/efficient-degradation-of-chlorimuron-ethyl-by-a-bacterial-consortium-and-shifts-in-the-aboriginal-microorganism-community-during-the-bioremediation-of-contaminated-soil
#8
Chunyan Li, Tongyang Lv, Wanjun Liu, Hailian Zang, Yi Cheng, Dapeng Li
Excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil contamination and limited crop rotation; therefore, tactics to decrease and eliminate residual chlorimuron-ethyl in the environment have attracted increasing attention. In this study, two chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial strains (Rhodococcus sp. D310-1; Enterobacter sp. D310-5) were used to ferment and prepare a chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial consortium. To improve the degradation efficiency of the bacterial consortium, the cultivation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM)...
February 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208096/how-the-structure-of-agro-food-systems-shapes-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-carbon-fluxes-the-generalized-representation-of-agro-food-system-applied-at-the-regional-scale-in-france
#9
Julia Le Noë, Gilles Billen, Josette Garnier
The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework to analyze the agro-food system of French agricultural regions from the angle of N, P and C circulation through five major compartments (cropland, grassland, livestock biomass, local population and potential environmental losses). To reach that goal we extended the Generalized Representation of Agro-Food System approach to P and C and applied it to French regions. Using this methodology we analyzed the relation between production pattern and N surplus, P budget, and efficient organic carbon inputs (OCeff), assuming these three indicators to be good proxies for (i) N losses to waterbodies and the atmosphere, (ii) P accumulation or depletion in soils, and (iii) potential additional C sequestration in soils, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203644/optimization-of-the-functional-characteristics-pasting-and-rheological-properties-of-pearl-millet-based-composite-flour
#10
Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu
Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours), run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours) and run 13 (75...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203244/pistil-transcriptome-analysis-to-disclose-genes-and-gene-products-related-to-aposporous-apomixis-in-hypericum-perforatum-l
#11
Giulio Galla, Sara Zenoni, Linda Avesani, Lothar Altschmied, Paride Rizzo, Timothy F Sharbel, Gianni Barcaccia
Unlike sexual reproduction, apomixis encompasses a number of reproductive strategies, which permit maternal genome inheritance without genetic recombination and syngamy. The key biological features of apomixis are the circumvention of meiosis (i.e., apomeiosis), the differentiation of unreduced embryo sacs and egg cells, and their autonomous development in functional embryos through parthenogenesis, and the formation of viable endosperm either via fertilization-independent means or following fertilization with a sperm cell...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202904/genome-wide-dna-de-methylation-is-associated-with-noninfectious-bud-failure-exhibition-in-almond-prunus-dulcis-mill-d-a-webb
#12
Jonathan Fresnedo-Ramírez, Helen M Chan, Dan E Parfitt, Carlos H Crisosto, Thomas M Gradziel
Noninfectious bud-failure (BF) remains a major threat to almond production in California, particularly with the recent rapid expansion of acreage and as more intensive cultural practices and modern cultivars are adopted. BF has been shown to be inherited in both vegetative and sexual progeny, with exhibition related to the age and propagation history of scion clonal sources. These characteristics suggest an epigenetic influence, such as the loss of juvenility mediated by DNA-(de)methylation. Various degrees of BF have been reported among cultivars as well as within sources of clonal propagation of the same cultivar...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202406/cannabis-cultivation-methodological-issues-for-obtaining-medical-grade-product
#13
REVIEW
Suman Chandra, Hemant Lata, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Larry A Walker, David Potter
As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods...
February 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201992/high-flavonoid-accompanied-with-high-starch-accumulation-triggered-by-nutrient-starvation-in-bioenergy-crop-duckweed-landoltia-punctata
#14
Xiang Tao, Yang Fang, Meng-Jun Huang, Yao Xiao, Yang Liu, Xin-Rong Ma, Hai Zhao
BACKGROUND: As the fastest growing plant, duckweed can thrive on anthropogenic wastewater. The purple-backed duckweed, Landoltia punctata, is rich in starch and flavonoids. However, the molecular biological basis of high flavonoid and low lignin content remains largely unknown, as does the best method to combine nutrients removed from sewage and the utilization value improvement of duckweed biomass. RESULTS: A combined omics study was performed to investigate the biosynthesis of flavonoid and the metabolic flux changes in L...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199875/examining-the-impacts-of-increased-corn-production-on-groundwater-quality-using-a-coupled-modeling-system
#15
Valerie Garcia, Ellen Cooter, James Crooks, Brian Hinckley, Mark Murphy, Xiangnan Xing
This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199444/new-biotechnological-tools-to-accelerate-scab-resistance-trait-transfer-to-apple
#16
Roberta Cusin, Luís Fernando Revers, Felipe Dos Santos Maraschin
Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed...
February 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198510/letter-partial-diallel-crosses-for-predicting-yield-of-semiexotic-maize-populations
#17
C M Silva, J B Miranda Filho, U C Mendes, E F Reis
In Brazil, the total production of maize has increased continuously due to the advances in technology but also to the new frontiers for the maize crop, including the expansion of the second crop (safrinha; usually maize after soybean). Therefore, the exploitation of new sources of germplasm seems to be imperative to attend the actual and future demands for modern cultivars adapted to the greatly variable environments available to the maize crop. The present study was based on a partial diallel (intergroup) cross to provide quantitative information on the potential of two groups of varieties (NAP - exotics and HG - local) and their combining abilities to direct the synthesis of new populations to be used in hybrid crosses or as a base for breeding programs...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198425/organic-nitrogen-rearranges-both-structure-and-activity-of-the-soil-borne-microbial-seedbank
#18
Márcio F A Leite, Yao Pan, Jaap Bloem, Hein Ten Berge, Eiko E Kuramae
Use of organic amendments is a valuable strategy for crop production. However, it remains unclear how organic amendments shape both soil microbial community structure and activity, and how these changes impact nutrient mineralization rates. We evaluated the effect of various organic amendments, which range in Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio and degradability, on the soil microbiome in a mesocosm study at 32, 69 and 132 days. Soil samples were collected to determine community structure (assessed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences), microbial biomass (fungi and bacteria), microbial activity (leucine incorporation and active hyphal length), and carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198080/proteomic-profiling-of-mature-leaves-from-oil-palm-elaeis-guineensis-jacq
#19
Hooi Sin Tan, Richard P Jacoby, Meilina Ong-Abdullah, Nicolas L Taylor, Susan Liddell, Wong Wei Chee, Chiew Foan Chin
Oil palm is one of the most productive oil bearing crops grown in Southeast Asia. Due to the dwindling availability of agricultural land and increasing demand for high yielding oil palm seedlings, clonal propagation is vital to the oil palm industry. Most commonly, leaf explants are used for in vitro micropropagation of oil palm and to optimise this process it is important to unravel the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryo production from leaves. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to determine protein abundance of mature oil palm leaves...
February 15, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197689/influence-of-straw-incorporation-with-and-without-straw-decomposer-on-soil-bacterial-community-structure-and-function-in-a-rice-wheat-cropping-system
#20
Jun Zhao, Tian Ni, Weibing Xun, Xiaolei Huang, Qiwei Huang, Wei Ran, Biao Shen, Ruifu Zhang, Qirong Shen
To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha(-1) straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha(-1) straw incorporation and 300 kg ha(-1) straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively...
February 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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