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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640973/production-of-red-flowered-oilseed-rape-via-the-ectopic-expression-of-orychophragmus-violaceus-ovpap2
#1
Wenqin Fu, Daozong Chen, Qi Pan, Fengfeng Li, Zhigang Zhao, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), which has yellow flowers, is both an important oil crop and a traditional tourism resource in China, whereas the Orychophragmus violaceus, which has purple flowers, likely possesses a candidate gene or genes to alter the flower color of oilseed rape. A previously established B. napus line has a particular pair of O. violaceus chromosomes (M4) and exhibits slightly red petals. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis of M4, B. napus (H3), and O. violaceus with purple petals (OvP) and with white petals (OvW) revealed that most anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in both M4 and OvP...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640964/targeted-mutagenesis-in-tetraploid-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-using-crispr-cas9
#2
Yang Liu, Paul Merrick, Zhengzhi Zhang, Chonghui Ji, Bing Yang, Shui-Zhang Fei
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a powerful tool for targeted mutagenesis. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high yielding perennial grass species that has been designated as a model biomass crop by the U.S. Department of Energy. The self infertility and high ploidy level make it difficult to study gene function or improve germplasm. To overcome these constraints, we explored the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted mutagenesis in a tetraploid cultivar 'Alamo' switchgrass. We first developed a transient assay by which a non-functional green fluorescent protein gene containing a 1 bp frameshift insertion in its 5' coding region was successfully mutated by a Cas9/sgRNA complex resulting in its restored function...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#3
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637159/methane-production-and-fertilizing-value-of-organic-waste-organic-matter-characterization-for-a-better-prediction-of-valorization-pathways
#4
Julie Jimenez, Han Lei, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Sabine Houot, Dominique Patureau
Organic wastes are potential sources of both energy as well as crop production fertilizers. Correlations and models, involving organic matter characterization, have been previously described by several authors although there is still a lack in knowledge on the potential of simultaneous predictions of methane and organic fertilizer quality to optimize the wastes treatments. A methodology combining chemical accessibility and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize 82 different organic wastes. Characterization data were compared with the biochemical methane potential (BMP), and with the biodegradable organic carbon obtained by soil incubation (C_bio)...
May 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634804/biocontrol-of-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici-using-cyclic-lipopeptides-from-bacillus-subtilis
#5
Samara Mejri, Ali Siah, François Coutte, Maryline Magnin-Robert, Béatrice Randoux, Benoit Tisserant, François Krier, Philippe Jacques, Philippe Reignault, Patrice Halama
Innovation toward ecofriendly plant protection products compatible with sustainable agriculture and healthy food is today strongly encouraged. Here, we assessed the biocontrol activity of three cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis (mycosubtilin, M; surfactin, S; fengycin, F) and two mixtures (M + S and M + S + F) on wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici, the main pathogen on this crop. Foliar application of these biomolecules at a 100-mg L(-1) concentration on the wheat cultivars Dinosor and Alixan, 2 days before fungal inoculation, provided significant reductions of disease severity...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634801/ameliorating-soil-acidity-and-physical-properties-of-two-contrasting-texture-ultisols-with-wastewater-sludge-biochar
#6
Yutong Zong, Yefeng Wang, Ye Sheng, Chengfeng Wu, Shenggao Lu
The production of biochar is a safe and beneficial disposal way for wastewater sludge. The biochar produced from wastewater sludge can be used as soil amendments for improving soil properties and for increasing crop yield. This work investigated the influences of wastewater sludge biochar (WSB) on the pH, exchangeable acidity, and physical properties of strongly acidic Ultisols with contrasting texture (clayey soil and sandy loam). Two soils were mixed with WSB at the rate of 0, 10, 20, and 40 g biochar kg(-1) soil and incubated for 240 days at 75% field water capacity...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633653/household-cereal-crop-harvest-and-children-s-nutritional-status-in-rural-burkina-faso
#7
Kristine Belesova, Antonio Gasparrini, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn, Paul Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Reduction of child undernutrition is one of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Achievement of this goal may be made more difficult in some settings by climate change through adverse impact on agricultural productivity. However, there is only limited quantitative evidence on the link between household crop harvests and child nutrition. We examined this link in a largely subsistence farming population in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: Data on the middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of 975 children ≤5 years of age, household crop yields, and other parameters were obtained from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633633/utilization-and-farmers-knowledge-on-pigeonpea-diversity-in-benin-west-africa
#8
Mathieu Anatole Tele Ayenan, Agyemang Danquah, Léonard Essehou Ahoton, Kwadwo Ofori
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors driving farmers' uses of crop genetic resources is a key component not only to design appropriate conservation strategies but also to promote sustainable production. However, in Benin, limited information is available on farmers' knowledge related to pigeonpea uses and conservation. This study aimed at i) identifying and investigating the different uses of pigeonpea in relation with socio-cultural factors, namely age, gender, ethnic group and respondents' residence, ii) assessing pigeonpea varieties richness at household level and iii) evaluating the extent and distribution of pigeonpea varieties...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633114/do-glucosinolate-hydrolysis-products-reduce-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-urine-affected-soil
#9
S F Balvert, J Luo, L A Schipper
New Zealand agriculture is predominantly comprised of pastoral grazing systems and deposition of animal excreta during grazing has been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Nitrification inhibitors have been shown to significantly reduce nitrous oxide emissions from grazing pastoral systems, and some plants have been identified as having nitrification inhibiting properties. Brassica crops are one such example as they contain the secondary metabolite glucosinolate (GLS) whose hydrolysis products are thought to slow soil nitrogen cycling...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632773/simulation-of-oak-early-life-history-and-interactions-with-disturbance-via-an-individual-based-model-soel
#10
Kenneth F Kellner, Robert K Swihart
Early tree life history and demography are driven by interactions with the environment such as seed predation, herbivory, light availability, and drought. For oak (Quercus) in the eastern United States, these interactions may contribute to oak regeneration failure. Numerous studies have examined the impact of individual factors (like seed predation) on the oak regeneration process, but less information is available on the relative and combined impacts of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors on early oak life history...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#11
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630784/elemental-characterization-of-romanian-crop-medicinal-plants-by-neutron-activation-analysis
#12
Daniela Haidu, Dénes Párkányi, Radu Ioan Moldovan, Cecilia Savii, Iulia Pinzaru, Cristina Dehelean, Ludovic Kurunczi
The metallic elements concentrations of medicinal plants (coriander, dill, Echinacea, lavender, chamomile, mint, and plantain, used for phytopharmaceutical products), cultivated in unpolluted region, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The essential nutrients, macro-, micro-, and trace elements (K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Rb, Sr, and Zn), potentially toxic elements (Al, As, Ba, Co, Sb, Cr, and V), and rare earth elements were monitored and were compared with those presented in the literature. An estimation of their contributions to intake and toxicity for a person was made, which revealed that (a) teas prepared from the examined plants represent useful contribution to the food provided intake of three essential macronutrients (K, Ca, and Mg); (b) the Cu, Mn, Rb, Sr, Zn, and rare earths levels are normal or low; (c) the quantities of As, Ba, Co, Sb, Cr, and V do not represent toxicological concerns; (d) the examination of the estimated Al and Fe quantities recovered in infusions in the conditions of usual daily tea consumption is below the Tolerable Daily Intake values...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630559/drug-policy-and-indigenous-peoples
#13
Julian Burger, Mary Kapron
This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629471/improving-child-nutrition-and-development-through-community-based-childcare-centres-in-malawi-the-neep-ie-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Aulo Gelli, Amy Margolies, Marco Santacroce, Katie Sproule, Sophie Theis, Natalie Roschnik, Aisha Twalibu, George Chidalengwa, Amrik Cooper, Tyler Moorhead, Melissa Gladstone, Patricia Kariger, Mangani Kutundu
BACKGROUND: The Nutrition Embedded Evaluation Programme Impact Evaluation (NEEP-IE) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the impact of a childcare centre-based integrated nutritional and agricultural intervention on the diets, nutrition and development of young children in Malawi. The intervention includes activities to improve nutritious food production and training/behaviour-change communication to improve food intake, care and hygiene practices. This paper presents the rationale and study design for this randomised control trial...
June 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629321/the-biocontrol-agent-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-pa23-primes-brassica-napus-defenses-through-distinct-gene-networks
#15
Kelly A Duke, Michael G Becker, Ian J Girard, Jenna L Millar, W G Dilantha Fernando, Mark F Belmonte, Teresa R de Kievit
BACKGROUND: The biological control agent Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is capable of protecting Brassica napus (canola) from the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum via direct antagonism. While we have elucidated bacterial genes and gene products responsible biocontrol, little is known about how the host plant responds to bacterial priming on the leaf surface, including global changes in gene activity in the presence and absence of S. sclerotiorum. RESULTS: Application of PA23 to the aerial surfaces of canola plants reduced the number of S...
June 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629159/intercomparison-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-and-ground-based-narrow-band-spectrometers-applied-to-crop-trait-monitoring-in-organic-potato-production
#16
Marston Héracles Domingues Franceschini, Harm Bartholomeus, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Juha Suomalainen, Lammert Kooistra
Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling...
June 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628240/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-nodules-of-two-mesorhizobium-chickpea-associations-with-differential-symbiotic-efficiency-under-phosphate-deficiency
#17
Maryam Nasr Esfahani, Komaki Inoue, Ha Duc Chu, Kien Huu Nguyen, Chien Van Ha, Yasuko Watanabe, David J Burritt, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Keiichi Mochida, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Phosphate (Pi) deficiency is known to be a major limitation for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), and hence legume crop productivity globally. However, very little information is available on the adaptive mechanisms, particularly in the important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), which enable nodules to respond to low-Pi availability. Thus, to elucidate these mechanisms in chickpea nodules at molecular level, we used an RNA sequencing approach to investigate transcriptomes of the nodules in Mesorhizobium mediterraneum SWRI9-(MmSWRI9)-chickpea and M...
June 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627966/further-evidence-of-cucurbit-host-specificity-among-acidovorax-citrulli-groups-based-on-a-detached-melon-fruit-pathogenicity-assay
#18
Lichun Yan, Hu Baishi, Gong Chen, Mei Zhao, Ron Ricardo Walcott
Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), caused by the gram-negative bacterium Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious economic threat to cucurbit crop production worldwide. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two genetically distinct groups with group I strains infecting a range of cucurbit species, and group II strains being predominantly associated with watermelon. Group I and II A. citrulli strains differ in their arsenal of type III secreted (T3S) effector proteins and we hypothesize that these effectors are critical for cucurbit host preference...
June 19, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626931/insecticide-resistance-and-intracellular-proteases
#19
REVIEW
Richard M Wilkins
Pesticide resistance is an example of evolution in action with mechanisms of resistance arising from mutations or increased expression of intrinsic genes. Intracellular proteases have a key role in maintaining healthy cells and in responding to stressors such as pesticides. Insecticide resistant insects have constitutively elevated intracellular protease activity when compared to corresponding susceptible strains. This increase was shown for some cases originally through biochemical enzyme studies and subsequently putatively by transcriptomics and proteomics methods...
June 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626465/altered-expression-of-osnla1-modulates-pi-accumulation-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-plants
#20
Sihui Zhong, Kashif Mahmood, Yong-Mei Bi, Steven J Rothstein, Kosala Ranathunge
Current agricultural practices rely on heavy use of fertilizers for increased crop productivity. However, the problems associated with heavy fertilizer use, such as high cost and environmental pollution, require the development of crop species with increased nutrient use efficiency. In this study, by using transgenic approaches, we have revealed the critical role of OsNLA1 in phosphate (Pi) accumulation of rice plants. When grown under sufficient Pi and nitrate levels, OsNLA1 knockdown (Osnla1-1, Osnla1-2, and Osnla1-3) lines accumulated higher Pi content in their shoot tissues compared to wild-type, whereas, over-expression lines (OsNLA1-OE1, OsNLA1-OE2, and OsNLA1-OE3) accumulated the least levels of Pi...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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