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Reclaimed water

Yong Cui, Shuming Liu, Kate Smith, Hongying Hu, Fusheng Tang, Yuhong Li, Kanghua Yu
Stainless steels generally have extremely good corrosion resistance, but are still susceptible to pitting corrosion. As a result, corrosion scales can form on the surface of stainless steel after extended exposure to aggressive aqueous environments. Corrosion scales play an important role in affecting water quality. These research results showed that interior regions of stainless steel corrosion scales have a high percentage of chromium phases. We reveal the morphology, micro-structure and physicochemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scales...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ronald Esteban Aguilar Alvarez, Mauricio Bustamante Roman, Dana Kirk, Jose Alberto Miranda Chavarria, Daniel Baudrit, Jose Francisco Aguilar Pereira, Werner Rodriguez Montero, Dawn Reinhold, Wei Liao
The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a pilot-scale and closed-loop system that synergistically combines solar thermal collector, anaerobic digester, and constructed treatment wetland to simultaneously treat and utilize organic wastes. The system utilizes 863 kg of mixed animal and food wastes to generate 263 MJ renewable energy, produced 28 kg nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and reclaimed 550 kg water per day. The net revenue considering electricity and fertilizer was $2436 annually...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Yingna Xing, Xijuan Chen, Xin Chen, Jie Zhuang
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
C Silva, J Saldanha Matos, M J Rosa
Sludge (or biosolids) management is highly complex and has a significant cost associated with the biosolids disposal, as well as with the energy and flocculant consumption in the sludge processing units. The sludge management performance indicators (PIs) and indices (PXs) are thus core measures of the performance assessment system developed for urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The key PIs proposed cover the sludge unit production and dry solids concentration (DS), disposal/beneficial use, quality compliance for agricultural use and costs, whereas the complementary PIs assess the plant reliability and the chemical reagents' use...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Erik Anderson, Min Addy, Huan Ma, Paul Chen, Roger Ruan
In the U.S., the total amount of municipal solid waste is continuously rising each year. Millions of tons of solid waste and scum are produced annually that require safe and environmentally sound disposal. The availability of a zero-cost energy source like municipal waste scum is ideal for several types of renewable energy technologies. However, the way the energy is produced, distributed and valued also contributes to the overall process sustainability. An economic screening method was developed to compare the potential energy and economic value of three waste-to-energy technologies; incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel...
October 4, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jinling Xue, Jinshan Zhang, Bi Xu, Jiani Xie, Wenzhao Wu, Yun Lu
Use of reclaimed water for non potable uses requires consideration of potential adverse health effects. Considering that inhalation can be a significant transmission route of microorganisms and inflammatory agents, this study used a mouse model to test the possible adverse effects of reclaimed water use during car washing where aerosols are generated. Intensive innate immune responses were found in the lungs after acute exposure, and lavage polymorphonuclear cell proportion was the most sensitive endpoint. Four types of evidence are presented to demonstrate that the main risk factor initiating innate inflammation is the free endotoxin: 1) Small molecules (<10KD) cannot induce inflammation; 2) The endotoxin levels of 11 water samples from 5 different plants showed positive correlations with inflammatory responses; 3) Actual water samples showed similar activities with free endotoxins other than bacteria-bound endotoxins; and 4) Specific removal of endotoxins with polymyxin B affinity chromatography further confirmed the role of free endotoxins...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhiguo Liu, Wei Liao, Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: Animal wastes are of particular environmental concern due to greenhouse gases emissions, odor problem, and potential water contamination. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective and widely used technology to treat them for bioenergy production. However, the sustainability of AD is compromised by two by-products of the nutrient-rich liquid digestate and the fiber-rich solid digestate. To overcome these limitations, this paper demonstrates a biorefinery concept to fully utilize animal wastes and create a new value-added route for animal waste management...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Emanuele Moccia, Adriano Intiso, Angela Cicatelli, Antonio Proto, Francesco Guarino, Patrizia Iannece, Stefano Castiglione, Federico Rossi
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated aliphatic organic compound often detected as pollutant in soils and ground water. "Green technologies" based on phytoremediation were proven to be effective to reclaim organic pollutants (e.g. TCE) and heavy metals from different environmental matrices. In this work, we use Zea mays L. for the removal of high TCE concentrations from medium cultures. In particular, we investigated a sealed bioreactor where the growth medium was contaminated with an increasing amount of TCE, in the range 55-280 mg/L; the removal capability of the maize plants was assessed by means of GC-MS and LC-MS analyses...
September 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vojtěch Václavík, Ivana Ondrašiková, Tomáš Dvorský, Kateřina Černochová
This work deals with the natural degradation of leachate from an old reclaimed landfill by means of a biological pond. Hamra is a municipal waste landfill with a limited formation of leachate, which has already been reclaimed. Leachate in this location is disposed of using natural biogeochemical method, and it is subsequently discharged into a surface stream. The main issue dealt with here is the long-term effectiveness of natural degradation of leachate and the limits of its use. The solutions of these fundamental questions took advantage of a database of analytical assessments collected during a long-term monitoring of the landfill site...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shiyang Yin, Wenyong Wu, Honglu Liu, Zhe Bao
Reclaimed water reuse is an effective method of alleviating agricultural water shortages, which entails some potential risks for groundwater. In this study, the impacts of wastewater reuse on groundwater were evaluated by combination of groundwater chemistry and isotopes. In reclaimed water infiltration, salt composition was affected not only by ion exchange and dissolution equilibrium but also by carbonic acid equilibrium. The dissolution and precipitation of calcites and dolomites as well as exchange and adsorption between Na and Ca/Mg were simultaneous, leading to significant changes in Na/Cl, (Ca+Mg)/Cl, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Fang Liu, Hongqi Zhang, Yuanwei Qin, Jinwei Dong, Erqi Xu, Yang Yang, Geli Zhang, Xiangming Xiao
Semi-natural lands are not intensively managed lands, which have ecological significance in protecting artificial oasis and preventing desertification in arid regions. The significant shrinkage and degradation of semi-natural lands in the land-use intensification process have caused severe desertification. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the spatio-temporal pattern and detailed classification of semi-natural lands and its quantitative relationship with desertification. Taking the Tarim Basin as an example, we proposed a comprehensive classification system to identify semi-natural lands for 1990, 2000, and 2010, respectively, using multi-source datasets at large scales...
August 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sophia Tsoumachidou, Theodora Velegraki, Apostolos Antoniadis, Ioannis Poulios
Greywater considers being a highly reclaimable water source particularly important for water-stressed nations. In this work, heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial and solar illumination has been applied for the mineralization of simulated light greywater (effluents from dishwashers and kitchen sinks were excluded from the study). The effects on the process' efficiency of TiO2 P25 catalyst's concentration, initial concentration of H2O2 and Fe(3+), pH of the solution, as well as the type of radiation, were evaluated in a bench-scale Pyrex reactor and a pilot-scale slurry fountain photoreactor...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Tamar Opher, Eran Friedler
Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Jia-Nan Liu, Zhuo Chen, Qian-Yuan Wu, Ang Li, Hong-Ying Hu, Cheng Yang
N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) is one of the important emerging contaminants that are being increasingly detected in reclaimed water as well as in drinking water sources. However, DEET is refractory to conventional biological treatment and pure ozone which is absent of hydroxyl radical. Current researches on the efficient removal of DEET are still quite limited. This study utilizes a novel method, namely ozone/graphene oxide (O3/GO), to investigate the effects on DEET removal in aqueous systems, especially in reclaimed water...
2016: Scientific Reports
Quynh K Tran, Kurt A Schwabe, David Jassby
Water scarcity has become a critical problem in many semiarid and arid regions. The single largest water use in such regions is for crop irrigation, which typically relies on groundwater and surface water sources. With increasing stress on these traditional water sources, it is important to consider alternative irrigation sources for areas with limited freshwater resources. One potential irrigation water resource is treated wastewater for agricultural fields located near urban centers. In addition, treated wastewater can contribute an appreciable amount of necessary nutrients for plants...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Luiz de Brito Prado Vieira, Antonio Domingues de Figueiredo
The volume of waste generated annually in concrete plants is quite large and has important environmental and economic consequences. The use of fresh concrete recyclers is an interesting way for the reuse of aggregates and water in new concrete production. This paper presents a study carried out for over one year by one of the largest ready-mix concrete producers in Brazil. This study focused on the evaluation of two recyclers with distinct material separation systems, herein referred to as drum-type and rotary sieve-type equipment...
October 2016: Waste Management
Xiaoyan Y Ma, Xiaochang C Wang, Donghong Wang, Huu Hao Ngo, Qiuya Zhang, Yongkun Wang, Dinan Dai
The storage of water in a landscape lake can act as a buffer zone between reclaimed water production and reuse, but there is still uncertainty about the variation of water quality and toxic effects during the open-storage process. In this study, long-term sample collection, chemical analyses and biotoxicity assessments were conducted on reclaimed water before and after open storage in a landscape lake. The organic contents, in terms of chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon, were found to be slightly higher in the lake water than that in the reclaimed water, but substantial reduction of the total concentration of 52 trace organic chemicals was obtained and microorganism toxicity, phytotoxicity, aquatic vertebrate toxicity and genotoxicity, were significantly weakened after open storage...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Stuart W Krasner, Tiffany Chih Fen Lee, Paul Westerhoff, Natalia Fischer, David Hanigan, Tanju Karanfil, Wilson Beita-Sandí, Liz Taylor-Edmonds, Robert C Andrews
Certain unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are more of a health concern than regulated DBPs. Brominated species are typically more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs. The impact of granular activated carbon (GAC) on controlling the formation of regulated and selected unregulated DBPs following chlorine disinfection was evaluated. The predicted cyto- and genotoxicity of DBPs was calculated using published potencies based on the comet assay for Chinese hamster ovary cells (assesses the level of DNA strand breaks)...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Chin-Min Cheng, Maria Amaya, Tarunjit Butalia, Robert Baker, Harold W Walker, John Massey-Norton, William Wolfe
Two full-scale coal mine reclamation projects using coal combustion residues (CCRs) were recently carried out at highwall pit complexes near the Conesville and Cardinal coal-fired power plants owned by American Electric Power. The environment impacts of the reclamation projects were examined by regularly monitoring the leaching characteristics of the backfilling CCRs and the water quality of the uppermost aquifers underlying the sites. With over five years of field monitoring, it shows that the water quality at both demonstration sites had changed since the reclamation began...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Owusu Amponsah, Håkan Vigre, Imoro Braimah, Torben Wilde Schou, Robert Clement Abaidoo
The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance...
March 2016: Heliyon
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