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Reclaimed water

Fadua Latif-Eugenín, Roxana Beaz-Hidalgo, Carolina Silvera-Simón, Xavi Fernandez-Cassi, María J Figueras
Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Research
Jie Sun, Rui Zhang, Long Qin, Haixiao Zhu, Yu Huang, Yingang Xue, Shuqing An, Xianchuan Xie, Aimin Li
To further treat the reclaimed municipal wastewater and rehabilitate the aquatic ecosystem of polluted urban rivers, an 18.5-km field-scale ecological restoration project was constructed along Jialu River, a polluted urban river which receives only reclaimed municipal wastewater from Zhengzhou City without natural upland water dilution. This study investigated the potential efficiency of water quality improvement, as well as genotoxicity and cytotoxicity reduction along the ecological restoration project of this polluted urban river...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Venu Kandiah, Andrew R Binder, Emily Z Berglund
Water reuse can serve as a sustainable alternative water source for urban areas. However, the successful implementation of large-scale water reuse projects depends on community acceptance. Because of the negative perceptions that are traditionally associated with reclaimed water, water reuse is often not considered in the development of urban water management plans. This study develops a simulation model for understanding community opinion dynamics surrounding the issue of water reuse, and how individual perceptions evolve within that context, which can help in the planning and decision-making process...
January 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Lei Yang, Jiangtao He, Yumei Liu, Jian Wang, Lie Jiang, Guangcai Wang
To reveal the basic characteristics and controlling factors of water quality change in the project Wenyu to Chaobai reclaimed water diversion, the water quality in the study area was monitored for one year at seven monitoring sites. Inverse geochemical models of the statistical groups were developed using PHREEQC to elucidate the hydrochemistry characteristics of reclaimed water and the factors. The monitoring results indicated that nitrogen and phosphorus contents were significantly reduced along the river mainly caused by seasonal and location variation...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
J Tatarko, S J van Donk, J C Ascough, D G Walker
Wind erosion not only affects agricultural productivity but also soil, air, and water quality. Dust and specifically particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM-10) has adverse effects on respiratory health and also reduces visibility along roadways, resulting in auto accidents. The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service to simulate wind erosion and provide for conservation planning on cultivated agricultural lands. A companion product, known as the Single-Event Wind Erosion Evaluation Program (SWEEP), has also been developed which consists of the stand-alone WEPS erosion submodel combined with a graphical interface to simulate soil loss from single (i...
December 2016: Heliyon
Imen Rekik, Zayneb Chaabane, Amara Missaoui, Ali Chenari Bouket, Lenka Luptakova, Amine Elleuch, Lassaad Belbahri
Wastewater reuse in agriculture may help mitigate water scarcity. This may be reached if high quality treatments removing harmful pollutants are applied. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of untreated (UTW) and treated wastewater (TW) on germination and seedlings development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). UTW presented high turbidity (130 NTU), chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, 719mgL(-1), BOD5, 291mgL(-1)) and metal concentrations...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qiuguo Fu, Qingfu Ye, Jianbo Zhang, Jaben Richards, Dan Borchardt, Jay Gan
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are continuously introduced into the soil-plant system, through practices such as agronomic use of reclaimed water and biosolids containing these trace contaminants. Plants may accumulate PPCPs from soil, serving as a conduit for human exposure. Metabolism likely controls the final accumulation of PPCPs in plants, but is in general poorly understood for emerging contaminants. In this study, we used diclofenac as a model compound, and employed (14)C tracing, and time-of-flight (TOF) and triple quadruple (QqQ) mass spectrometers to unravel its metabolism pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana cells...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Bao-Nan He, Jiang-Tao He, Jian Wang, Jie Li, Fei Wang
The pH is a primary index reflecting water quality in rivers. The Jian River and Chaobai River are two reclaimed water intake areas which have elevated pH. This elevated pH has a marked effect on both the phytoplankton, species in water and vegetation on the shore. Understanding the main reasons causing pH elevation in river water has important implications for river ecosystem management and the improvement of water quality and can provide a theoretical basis for the direction of water quality improvement. For this reason, each biogeochemical and physical process influencing pH changes in water was quantified along the flow direction in the Wenyu to Chaobai reclaimed water diversion project, in which proton consumption and production by such processes were monitored and calculated at five monitoring sections...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Ye Zhang, April Z Gu, Miao He, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
The greater abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in point-of-use tap and reclaimed water than that in freshly treated water raise the question whether residual disinfectants in distribution systems facilitate the spread of ARGs. This study investigated three widely used disinfectants (free chlorine, chloramine, and hydrogen peroxide) on promoting ARGs transfer within Escherichia coli strains and across genera from Escherichia coli to Salmonella typhimurium. The results demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations (lower than minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs]) of these disinfectants, namely 0...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
José Ramón Acosta-Motos, José Antonio Hernández, Sara Álvarez, Gregorio Barba-Espín, María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco
Salts present in irrigation water are serious problems for commercial horticulture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Reclaimed water (RW) typically contains, among others elements, high levels of salts, boron and heavy metal. Phytotoxic ion accumulation in the substrate has been linked to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied...
December 5, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ru Cai, Xin Wang, Xionghui Ji, Bo Peng, Changyin Tan, Xi Huang
In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of aqueous phosphate removal by magnetic biochar derived from water hyacinth (MW) were investigated. The MW pyrolyzed at 450 °C (MW450) exhibited the most prominent phosphate sorption capacity, which was estimated to be 5.07 mg g(-1) based on Langmuir-Freundlich model. At an initial phosphorus (P) concentration of 1 mg l(-1), >90% P removal was achieved over pH 3-9, but the efficiency decreased sharply at pH > 10. The presence of arsenate and carbonate could remarkably decrease P sorption, while the inhibition effects of antimonate, nitrate and sulfate were less significant...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Rong Chen, Dong Ao, Jiayuan Ji, Xiaochang C Wang, Yu-You Li, Yue Huang, Tao Xue, Hongbing Guo, Nan Wang, Lu Zhang
Increasing use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) for replenishing urban landscape ponds has aroused public concern about the water quality. Three ponds replenished with RW in three cities in China were chosen to investigate 22 indexes of water quality in five categories. This was achieved by comparing three pairs of ponds in the three different cities, where one pond in each pair was replenished with RW and the other with surface water (SW). The nutrients condition, heavy metal concentration and ecotoxicity did not differ significantly between RW- and SW-replenished ponds...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Feng-Chi Yen, Sheng-Jie You, Tien-Chin Chang
Wastewater reclamation is considered an absolute necessity in Taiwan, as numerous industrial parks experience water shortage. However, the water quality of secondary treated effluents from sewage treatment plants generally does not meet the requirements of industrial water use because of the high inorganic constituents. This paper reports experimental data from a pilot-plant study of two treatment processes-(i) fiber filtration (FF)-ultrafiltration (UF)-reverse osmosis (RO) and (ii) sand filtration (SF)-electrodialysis reversal (EDR)-for treating industrial high conductivity effluents from the Xianxi wastewater treatment plant in Taiwan...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Gyan Chhipi-Shrestha, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq
Although Canada has abundant freshwater resources, many cities still experience seasonal water shortage. Supply-side and demand-side management is a core strategy to address this water shortage. Under this strategy, reclaimed water, which the Canadian public is willing to use for non-potable purposes, is an option. However, no universal guidelines exist for reclaimed water use. Despite the federal government's long-term goal to develop guidelines for many water reuse applications, guidelines have only been prescribed for reclaimed water use in toilet and urinal flushing in Canada...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yong Cui, Shuming Liu, Kate Smith, Hongying Hu, Fusheng Tang, Yuhong Li, Kanghua Yu
Stainless steels generally have extremely good corrosion resistance, but are still susceptible to pitting corrosion. As a result, corrosion scales can form on the surface of stainless steel after extended exposure to aggressive aqueous environments. Corrosion scales play an important role in affecting water quality. These research results showed that interior regions of stainless steel corrosion scales have a high percentage of chromium phases. We reveal the morphology, micro-structure and physicochemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scales...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ronald Esteban Aguilar Alvarez, Mauricio Bustamante Roman, Dana Kirk, Jose Alberto Miranda Chavarria, Daniel Baudrit, Jose Francisco Aguilar Pereira, Werner Rodriguez Montero, Dawn Reinhold, Wei Liao
The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a pilot-scale and closed-loop system that synergistically combines solar thermal collector, anaerobic digester, and constructed treatment wetland to simultaneously treat and utilize organic wastes. The system utilizes 863 kg of mixed animal and food wastes to generate 263 MJ renewable energy, produced 28 kg nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and reclaimed 550 kg water per day. The net revenue considering electricity and fertilizer was $2436 annually...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Yingna Xing, Xijuan Chen, Xin Chen, Jie Zhuang
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
C Silva, J Saldanha Matos, M J Rosa
Sludge (or biosolids) management is highly complex and has a significant cost associated with the biosolids disposal, as well as with the energy and flocculant consumption in the sludge processing units. The sludge management performance indicators (PIs) and indices (PXs) are thus core measures of the performance assessment system developed for urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The key PIs proposed cover the sludge unit production and dry solids concentration (DS), disposal/beneficial use, quality compliance for agricultural use and costs, whereas the complementary PIs assess the plant reliability and the chemical reagents' use...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Erik Anderson, Min Addy, Huan Ma, Paul Chen, Roger Ruan
In the U.S., the total amount of municipal solid waste is continuously rising each year. Millions of tons of solid waste and scum are produced annually that require safe and environmentally sound disposal. The availability of a zero-cost energy source like municipal waste scum is ideal for several types of renewable energy technologies. However, the way the energy is produced, distributed and valued also contributes to the overall process sustainability. An economic screening method was developed to compare the potential energy and economic value of three waste-to-energy technologies; incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jinling Xue, Jinshan Zhang, Bi Xu, Jiani Xie, Wenzhao Wu, Yun Lu
Use of reclaimed water for non potable uses requires consideration of potential adverse health effects. Considering that inhalation can be a significant transmission route of microorganisms and inflammatory agents, this study used a mouse model to test the possible adverse effects of reclaimed water use during car washing where aerosols are generated. Intensive innate immune responses were found in the lungs after acute exposure, and lavage polymorphonuclear cell proportion was the most sensitive endpoint. Four types of evidence are presented to demonstrate that the main risk factor initiating innate inflammation is the free endotoxin: 1) Small molecules (<10KD) cannot induce inflammation; 2) The endotoxin levels of 11 water samples from 5 different plants showed positive correlations with inflammatory responses; 3) Actual water samples showed similar activities with free endotoxins other than bacteria-bound endotoxins; and 4) Specific removal of endotoxins with polymyxin B affinity chromatography further confirmed the role of free endotoxins...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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