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Reclaimed water

Miriam Biel-Maeso, Carmen Corada-Fernández, Pablo A Lara-Martín
The use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation is foreseen as a possible strategy to mitigate the pressure on water resources in dry regions. However, there is the risk of potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the edaphic environment, their percolation and consequently contamination of aquifers. In the present study, we measured the levels of a wide range of commonly used pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in sewage from a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in soils irrigated with treated wastewater...
January 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yongfeng Deng, Melvin Bonilla, Hongqiang Ren, Yan Zhang
Contaminated reclaimed wastewater has the potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wastewater workers and residents. However, few studies have focused on these health risks. In this study, we assessed the health risk of samples collected from different treatment processing units used in a typical water reclamation plant in Nanjing, China. Chemical analysis revealed that 40 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 6 N-nitrosamines (NAs) persisted after wastewater treatment. A health risk assessment revealed that the SVOCs in effluents pose negligible non-carcinogenic risk to wastewater workers and local residents as both the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were all below 1...
December 29, 2017: Environment International
Tingting Gao, Rong Chen, Yanzheng Liu, Xiaochang C Wang, Yuyou Li
A disease burden (DB) evaluation for environmental pathogens is generally performed using disability-adjusted life years with the aim of providing a quantitative assessment of the health hazard caused by pathogens. A critical step in the preparation for this evaluation is the estimation of morbidity between exposure and disease occurrence. In this study, the method of a traditional dose-response analysis was first reviewed, and then a combination of the theoretical basis of a "single-hit" and an "infection-illness" model was performed by incorporating two critical factors: the "infective coefficient" and "infection duration...
December 26, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
A B Martínez-Piernas, M I Polo-López, P Fernández-Ibáñez, A Agüera
Reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural purposes can mitigate water stress in some regions where the lack of water is an extended problem. However, the environmental long-term consequences of this practice are still unknown. It is demonstrated that using reclaimed water for irrigation lead to accumulation and translocation of some microcontaminants (MCs) in soil and crops. However, so far, only a small group of contaminants has been investigated. This study aims to develop and validate a simple and efficient multiresidue method based on QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective and Rugged) extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Lisa Emhofer, Markus Himmelsbach, Wolfgang Buchberger, Christian W Klampfl
The metabolization of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by cress ((Lepidium sativum) was investigated using a HPLC-MS2 method. Cress was grown hydroponically in water containing 0.1 mg L-1 of each drug for investigations on the kinetics of drug uptake and metabolization over a growing period of 12 days. It could be shown that the parent drugs are metabolized and the abundance of both the parent drug and the metabolites formed, varies over time. Furthermore the distribution of the investigated substances within the different plant parts changed throughout the duration of the experiment due to translocation...
December 18, 2017: Electrophoresis
Vittoria Giannini, Andrea Bertacchi, Enrico Bonari, Nicola Silvestri
A pilot experimental field combining rewetting of reclaimed peaty soils and water phyto-treatment was set up in the Massaciuccoli Lake basin (Tuscany, Italy) to reduce the water eutrophication and peat degradation caused by almost a century of drainage-based agricultural use. In this paper, we investigated the restoration process occurring consequently to the conversion of a drained area in a natural wetland system (NWS) (the partial top soil removal, the realization of a perimeter levee to contain the waters, the rewetting with the drainage waters coming from the of surrounding cultivated areas) and the capability of the spontaneous vegetation to catch nutrients acting as a vegetation filter...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Natacha S Hogan, Karen L Thorpe, Michael R van den Heuvel
Oil sands-affected water from mining must eventually be incorporated into the reclaimed landscape or treated and released. However, this material contains petrogenic organic compounds, such as naphthenic acids and traces of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This has raised concerns for impacts of oil sands process-affected waters on the heath of wildlife and humans downstream of receiving environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal association of disease states in fish with water chemistry of oil sands-affected waters over more than a decade and determine the pathogens associated with disease pathologies...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Li Guo, Weituo Zhao, Xiaowen Gu, Xinyun Zhao, Juan Chen, Shenggao Cheng
Background: Mining activities always emit metal(loid)s into the surrounding environment, where their accumulation in the soil may pose risks and hazards to humans and ecosystems. Objective: This paper aims to determine of the type, source, chemical form, fate and transport, and accurate risk assessment of 17 metal(loid) contaminants including As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ag, B, Bi, Co, Mo, Sb, Ti, V, W and Sn in the soils collected from an abandoned tungsten mining area, and to guide the implementing of appropriate remediation strategies...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Francesco Guarino, Barbara Conte, Giovanni Improta, Rosaria Sciarrillo, Stefano Castiglione, Angela Cicatelli, Carmine Guarino
In the last decade, many scientists have focused their attention on the search for new plant species that can offer improved capacities to reclaim polluted soils and waters via phytoremediation. In this study, seed batches from three natural populations of Dittrichia viscosa, harvested in rural, urban, and industrial areas of central and southern Italy, were used to: (i) evaluate the genetic and morphological diversity of the populations; (ii) develop an efficient protocol for in-vitro propagation from seedling microcuttings; (iii) achieve optimal acclimatization of micropropagated plants to greenhouse conditions; (iv) test the response to arsenic (As) soil contamination of micropropagated plants...
November 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Quanliang Ye, Yi Li, La Zhuo, Wenlong Zhang, Wei Xiong, Chao Wang, Peifang Wang
This study provides an innovative application of virtual water trade in the traditional allocation of physical water resources in water scarce regions. A multi-objective optimization model was developed to optimize the allocation of physical water and virtual water resources to different water users in Beijing, China, considering the trade-offs between economic benefit and environmental impacts of water consumption. Surface water, groundwater, transferred water and reclaimed water constituted the physical resource of water supply side, while virtual water flow associated with the trade of five major crops (barley, corn, rice, soy and wheat) and three livestock products (beef, pork and poultry) in agricultural sector (calculated by the trade quantities of products and their virtual water contents)...
November 14, 2017: Water Research
Yan-Shan Wang, Zhong-Hua Tong, Long-Fei Wang, Guo-Ping Sheng, Han-Qing Yu
Mechanical harvest of massive harmful algal blooms is an effective measure for bloom mitigation. Yet subsequent processing of the resulting water from algae water separation after the harvesting becomes a new problem since individual algal cells or small algal aggregates are still present in the water. Here, we proposed a novel approach for effectively flocculating the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa with a removal efficiency of 97% in 6 h using hydrolyzed urine. Nitrogen and phosphorus were simultaneously reclaimed through struvite formation...
November 11, 2017: Chemosphere
W Kloppmann, Ido Negev, Joseph Guttman, Orly Goren, Ittai Gavrieli, Catherine Guerrot, Christine Flehoc, Marie Pettenati, Avihu Burg
"Man-made" or unconventional freshwater, like desalinated seawater or reclaimed effluents, is increasingly introduced into regional water cycles in arid or semi-arid countries. We show that the breakthrough of reverse osmosis-derived freshwater in the largely engineered water cycle of the greater Tel Aviv region (Dan Region) has profoundly changed previous isotope fingerprints. This new component can be traced throughout the system, from the drinking water supply, through sewage, treated effluents, and artificially recharged groundwater at the largest Soil-Aquifer Treatment system in the Middle East (Shafdan) collecting all the Dan region sewage...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Wang, Ying-Jun Li, Ying Xiong, Wen-Bing Tan, Lie-Yu Zhang, Xiang Li, Xiao-Shu Wang, Jian-Feng Xu, Tong-Tong Li, Jin-Sheng Wang, Ming-Xuan Cai, Bei-Dou Xi, Di-Hua Wang
The performance of the Sha-he wastewater reclamation plant was evaluated in this study. To remove residual nitrogen after Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2O) treatment, three multistage Anoxic-Oxic (A/O) were added to investigate the nitrogen removal efficiency and its mechanism. In addition, the constituents and evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during wastewater reclamation was also investigated using a method combining fluorescence spectroscopy with fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The results suggested that multistage A/O treatment can effectively improve the nitrogen removal ability under low concentrations of carbon sources...
2017: PloS One
Paula Santiago, Ana Jiménez-Belenguer, Jorge García-Hernández, Rosa Montes Estellés, Manuel Hernández Pérez, M Angeles Castillo López, María Antonia Ferrús, Yolanda Moreno
Salmonella spp. is one of the most important causal agents of food-borne illness in developed countries and its presence in irrigation water poses a risk to public health. Its detection in environmental samples is not easy when culture methods are used, and molecular techniques such as PCR or ribosomal rRNA probe hybridization (Fluorescent in situ Hybridization, FISH) are outstanding alternatives. The aim of this work was to determine the environmental risk due to the presence of Salmonella spp. in wastewater by culture, PCR and FISH...
January 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
J P S Sidhu, K Sena, L Hodgers, A Palmer, S Toze
Microbiological safety of reclaimed water is one of the most important issues in managing potential health risks related to wastewater recycling. Presence and removal of human adenovirus (HAdV), human polyomavirus (HPyV), human torque teno virus (HTtV) and somatic coliphage family Microviridae in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in sub-tropical Brisbane, Australia was investigated. All three WWTPs employ activated sludge process with added on Bardenpho process for nutrient removal. HPyV, HAdV, HTtV and Microviridae were consistently detected in the influent (10(5) to 10(6) Genomic copies (GC) L(-1)) and secondary treated effluent (10(2) to 10(3)GCL(-)(1))...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lu Du, Xuantung Trinh, Qianru Chen, Chuan Wang, Huihui Wang, Xue Xia, Qiaohong Zhou, Dong Xu, Zhenbin Wu
Constructed wetland is an efficient way to lower N load from wastewater treatment plants. Here, the nitrogen removal rate and nitrogen balance, as well as the microbial community structure in IVCWs planted with different vegetation for treating reclaimed water were investigated. The results showed that IVCWs planted with vegetation generally achieved a higher TN removal rate than unplanted treatment, especially for Canna indica L. with 10.35% enhancement. Moreover, the microbial process proportion (83.87-87...
October 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Mark Everard, James W S Longhurst
The concept of sustainable development evolved from growing awareness of the interdependence of social and economic progress with the limits of the supporting natural environment, becoming progressively integrated into global agreements and transposition into local regulatory and implementation frameworks. We argue that transposition of the concept into regulation and supporting tools reduced the focus to minimal environmental and social standards, perceived as imposing constraints rather than opportunities for innovation to meet human needs...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Peter B Skou, Bekzod Khakimov, Thomas H Hansen, Stina D Aunsbjerg, Susanne Knøchel, Dorrit Thaysen, Frans van den Berg
Reusing reverse osmosis (RO) membrane permeate instead of potable water in the dairy industry is a very appealing tactic. However, to ensure safe use, the quality of reclaimed water must be guaranteed. To do this, qualitative and quantitative information about which compounds permeate the membranes must be established. In the present study, we provide a detailed characterization of ultrafiltration, RO, and RO polisher (ROP) permeate with regard to organic and inorganic compounds. Results indicate that smaller molecules and elements (such as phosphate, but mainly urea and boron) pass the membrane, and a small set of larger molecules (long-chain fatty acids, glycerol-phosphate, and glutamic acid) are found as well, though in minute concentrations (<0...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Wen-Huai Wang, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Cun-Zhi Wei, Jing-Chan Zhao, Lu-Qin Sun
A floating bed (FB) system vegetated with calamus, iris, lythrum, and Hydrocotyle vulgaris, and a strengthened FB (SFB) system with zeolite and sponge iron as fillers were simultaneously applied to purify urban landscape water in different zones. The urban landscape water, an artificial lake of approximately 326m(2), was supplied with reclaimed water during a six-month experiment. Results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the SFB zone (SFBZ) were significantly lower than those in the control zone (CZ) and the FB zone (FBZ) after six months of operation...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Qiwan Chai, Allen Hu, Yukun Qian, Xiuwei Ao, Wenjun Liu, Hongwei Yang, Yuefeng F Xie
Effluents before disinfection from four wastewater reclamation plants were treated with chlorine (Cl2), ozone (O3), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), medium-pressure ultraviolet (MPUV) and four different combinations of the above, to evaluate the effect of disinfection processes on the genotoxicity removal by the SOS/umu test. Results showed that the genotoxicity increased after MPUV irradiation (10-100 mJ/cm(2)), but declined when adopting other disinfection processes. The effectiveness of genotoxicity reduction by five chemical disinfectants was identified as: O3 > pre-ozonation with Cl2 ≈ ClO2 > combination of ClO2 and Cl2 > Cl2...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
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