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Reclaimed water

Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Bing Liu, Li Gu, Qingfei Li, Guozhong Yu, Chengmei Zhao, Huimin Zhai
Municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is increasingly used as reclaimed water and as water sources for downstream areas. Effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is considered to be the precursor to nitrogen disinfection by-products (N-DBPs), which have come into increasing focus due to environmental and public health risks associated with them. Here, we investigated DON removal by pre-ozonation enhanced coagulation and found that: (1) pre-ozonation significantly enhanced the removal of DON, DOC and UV254 by coagulation...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Emmanuel Mousset, Steve Pontvianne, Marie-Noëlle Pons
The fate of inorganic nitrogen species has been studied for the first time in electro-Fenton (EF) conditions in acid media. A redox cycle is first obtained and validated with a kinetic model in synthetic solution and highlights the removal of nitrite that is quickly oxidized into nitrate while the reduction conditions are sufficient to reduce nitrate into ammonium cation. However, NH4 + and gaseous nitrogen accumulate in such solution. The study in reclaimed municipal wastewater emphasize the removal of NH4 + with formation of chloramines in the presence of initial chloride ions, a species widely present in wastewater effluent...
February 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Jia Liu, Philip C Williams, Jane Geisler-Lee, Boyd M Goodson, Masoud Fakharifar, Meisam Peiravi, Da Chen, David A Lightfoot, Max E Gemeinhardt
The amount of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment has been increasing due to their industrial and commercial applications. Different types of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been detected in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The effluents have been reclaimed for crop irrigation in many arid and semi-arid areas. Here, a soil micro-ecosystem was established including a microbiome, 4 Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and 3 Eisenia fetida earthworms, for a duration of 95 days. The impact of wastewater effluent (WE) containing aged NPs was studied...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Research
Juan Carlo Intriago, Francisco López-Gálvez, Ana Allende, Gaetano Alessandro Vivaldi, Salvatore Camposeo, Emilio Nicolás Nicolás, Juan José Alarcón, Francisco Pedrero Salcedo
The DESERT-prototype, a state-of-the-art compact combination of water treatment technologies based on filtration and solar-based renewable energy, was employed to reclaim water for agricultural irrigation. Water reclaimed through the DESERT-prototype (PW) from a secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, as well as conventional irrigation water (CW) and the secondary effluent (SW) itself, were employed to cultivate baby romaine lettuces in a greenhouse in Murcia (Spain), by means of drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, thus establishing six treatments...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Emily S Bailey, Lisa M Casanova, Otto D Simmons, Mark D Sobsey
Treated wastewater is increasingly of interest for either nonpotable purposes, such as agriculture and industrial use, or as source water for drinking water supplies; however, this type of advanced treatment for water supply is not always possible for many low resource settings. As an alternative, multiple barriers of physical, chemical and biological treatment with lower cost and simpler operation and maintenance have been proposed as more globally applicable. One such water reclamation system for both non-potable and potable reuse, is that approved by the State of North Carolina "for Type 2" reclaimed water (NCT2RW)...
February 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Weifang Ma, Jiaji Sun, Yangyao Li, Xiaoxiu Lun, Dan Shan, Chao Nie, Miaomiao Liu
This study investigated 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) biodegradation process and primary metabolic pathways associated with community structures of microorganism during groundwater recharge using reclaimed water. The attenuation rate is 1.58 times higher in wetting and drying alternative recharge (WDAR) than in continual recharge (CR). The primary biotransformation pathways of EE2 in WDAR system began with the oxidation of C-17 on ring D to form a ketone group, and D-ring was subsequently hydroxylated and cleaved...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Hsin-Bai Yin, Xiangwu Nou, Ganyu Gu, Jitendra Patel
AIMS: The effect of reclaimed wastewater (RCW) and roof-harvest rainwater (RHW) on microbiological quality of irrigated spinach was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spinach grown in the controlled environment chamber was irrigated by RCW, RHW, or creek water (CW; control water) for four weeks, and then six replicate spinach samples from each treatment were collected weekly at 0 h and 24 h post-irrigation. Spinach samples were analyzed for populations of fecal bacterial indicators and pathogens...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yang Xiao, Yunkai Li, Zigong Ning, Pengxiang Li, Peiling Yang, Chengcheng Liu, Zhongwei Liu, Feipeng Xu, Paul Dylan Hynds
Wastewater reclamation now represents an effective measure for sustainable water resource management in arid regions, however wastewater components (organic micropollutants) may potentially impact local ecological and/or human health. Previous studies have shown that sodium bentonite/natural clay (BC) mixes may be used to effectively reduce riverbed infiltration in regions characterized by excessively high hydraulic conductivity. Accordingly, the current study sought to investigate the contaminant removal efficiency (Re) of several BC mass ratios in simulated dry riverbeds...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Suntae Lee, Shota Tasaki, Akihiko Hata, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
Evaluating the reduction of virus load in water reclamation plants is important to ensuring the hygienic safety of the reclaimed water. A virus-spiking test is usually used to estimate virus reduction but is not practicable at large-scale plants. Thus, we evaluated virus reduction by ultrafiltration (UF) plus ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at a large-scale reclamation plant (1000 m3 /d) by quantifying indigenous F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs). To detect the infectious FRNAPH, we used both plaque assay and integrated culture-reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction combined with the most probable number assay, which can detect infectious FRNAPH genotypes...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Technology
Iman F Abou-El-Naga
Schistosomiasis is a snail-transmitted infectious disease caused by a long lasting infection with a blood fluke of the genus Schistosoma. S. haematobium and S. mansoni are the species endemic in Egypt. The country has been plagued and seriously suffered from schistosomiasis over the past 5000 years. Great strides had been done in controlling the disease since 1922. The history, epidemiology and the different control approaches were reviewed. Currently, Egypt is preparing towards schistosomiasis elimination by 2020...
February 14, 2018: Acta Tropica
Kerry A Hamilton, Mark T Hamilton, William Johnson, Patrick Jjemba, Zia Bukhari, Mark LeChevallier, Charles N Haas
The use of reclaimed water brings new challenges for the water industry in terms of maintaining water quality while increasing sustainability. Increased attention has been devoted to opportunistic pathogens, especially Legionella pneumophila, due to its growing importance as a portion of the waterborne disease burden in the United States. Infection occurs when a person inhales a mist containing Legionella bacteria. The top three uses for reclaimed water (cooling towers, spray irrigation, and toilet flushing) that generate aerosols were evaluated for Legionella health risks in reclaimed water using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA)...
December 13, 2017: Water Research
Eun Jung Lee, Craig S Criddle, Mengistu Geza, Tzahi Y Cath, David L Freyberg
Planning of water reuse systems is a complex endeavor. We have developed a software toolkit, IRIPT (Integrated Urban Reclaimed Water Infrastructure Planning Toolkit) that facilitates planning and design of reclaimed water infrastructure for both centralized and hybrid configurations that incorporate satellite treatment plants (STPs). The toolkit includes a Pipeline Designer (PRODOT) that optimizes routing and sizing of pipelines for wastewater capture and reclaimed water distribution, a Selector (SelWTP) that assembles and optimizes wastewater treatment trains, and a Calculator (CalcBenefit) that estimates fees, revenues, and subsidies of alternative designs...
January 30, 2018: Water Research
Marcus John Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael Bellinger Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Many countries are utilizing reclaimed wastewater for agriculture as water demands due to drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations. Unfortunately, wastewater often contains biologically active, pseudopersistant pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Runoff from agriculture and effluent from wastewater treatment plants also contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on an agricultural pest, the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Hemiptera: Aphididae)...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Dong Ao, Rong Chen, Xiaochang C Wang, Yanzheng Liu, Mawuli Dzakpasu, Lu Zhang, Yue Huang, Tao Xue, Nan Wang
The extensive use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) as a source of urban landscape pond replenishment, stimulated by the lack of surface water (SW) resources, has raised public concern. Greater attention should be paid to pond sediments, which act as 'sinks' and 'sources' of contaminants to the overlying pond water. Three ponds replenished with RW (RW ponds) in three Chinese cities were chosen to investigate 22 indices of sediment quality in four categories: eutrophication, heavy metal, ecotoxicity and pathogens risk...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xin Wang, Juan Wang, Kuixiao Li, Haifeng Zhang, Min Yang
Municipal wastewater reclamation is becoming of increasing importance in the world to solve the problem of water scarcity. A better understanding of the molecular composition of effluent organic matter (EfOM) in the treated effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is crucial for ensuring the safety of water reuse. In this study, the molecular composition of EfOM in the secondary effluent of a WWTP in Beijing and the reclaimed water further treated with a coagulation-sedimentation-ozonation process were characterized using a non-target Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) method and compared to that of natural organic matter (NOM) in the local source water from a reservoir...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Zhuo Chen, Tong Yu, Huu Hao Ngo, Yun Lu, Guoqiang Li, Qianyuan Wu, Kuixiao Li, Yu Bai, Shuming Liu, Hong-Ying Hu
This review highlights the importance of conducting biological stability evaluation due to water reuse progression. Specifically, assimilable organic carbon (AOC) has been identified as a practical indicator for microbial occurrence and regrowth which ultimately influence biological stability. Newly modified AOC bioassays aimed for reclaimed water are introduced. Since elevated AOC levels are often detected after tertiary treatment, the review emphasizes that actions can be taken to either limit AOC levels prior to disinfection or conduct post-treatment (e...
February 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Miriam Biel-Maeso, Carmen Corada-Fernández, Pablo A Lara-Martín
The use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation is foreseen as a possible strategy to mitigate the pressure on water resources in dry regions. However, there is the risk of potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the edaphic environment, their percolation and consequently contamination of aquifers. In the present study, we measured the levels of a wide range of commonly used pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in sewage from a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in soils irrigated with treated wastewater...
January 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yongfeng Deng, Melvin Bonilla, Hongqiang Ren, Yan Zhang
Contaminated reclaimed wastewater has the potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wastewater workers and residents. However, few studies have focused on these health risks. In this study, we assessed the health risk of samples collected from different treatment processing units used in a typical water reclamation plant in Nanjing, China. Chemical analysis revealed that 40 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 6 N-nitrosamines (NAs) persisted after wastewater treatment. A health risk assessment revealed that the SVOCs in effluents pose negligible non-carcinogenic risk to wastewater workers and local residents as both the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were all below 1...
December 29, 2017: Environment International
Tingting Gao, Rong Chen, Yanzheng Liu, Xiaochang C Wang, Yuyou Li
A disease burden (DB) evaluation for environmental pathogens is generally performed using disability-adjusted life years with the aim of providing a quantitative assessment of the health hazard caused by pathogens. A critical step in the preparation for this evaluation is the estimation of morbidity between exposure and disease occurrence. In this study, the method of a traditional dose-response analysis was first reviewed, and then a combination of the theoretical basis of a "single-hit" and an "infection-illness" model was performed by incorporating two critical factors: the "infective coefficient" and "infection duration...
December 26, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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