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Reclaimed water

Samuel Patton, Mariano Romano, Vincenzo Naddeo, Kenneth P Ishida, Haizhou Liu
Growing demands and increasing scarcity of fresh water resources necessitate potable water reuse, which has been implemented with the aid of UV-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) that remove potentially hazardous trace organic contaminants from reclaimed water. During the potable reuse treatment process, chloramines are added to prevent membrane fouling that are carried over to the UV/AOP, where hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is commonly added. However, the impact of chloramines on the photolysis of H2O2 and the overall performance of the UV/AOP remains unknown...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhanbin Luo, Jing Ma, Fu Chen, Xiaoxiao Li, Shaoliang Zhang
Secondary lead smelting is a widespread industrial activity which has exacerbated Pb or Cd contamination of soil and water across the world. Soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, heavy metal concentrations, and bacterial diversity near a secondary lead plant in Xuzhou, China were examined in this study. The results showed that secondary lead smelting activities influenced nearby soils. Soil acidification decreased one order of magnitude, with a mean value of 7.3. Soil organic matter also showed a downward trend, while potassium and nitrogen appeared to accumulate...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dongliang Kuang, Yuan Jiao, Zhou Ye, Zaihong Lu, Huaxin Chen, Jianying Yu, Ning Liu
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was employed as a novel penetrant cooperating with a conventional rejuvenator (CR) for the recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). The influence of ESO on the diffusibility and the regenerating effects of CR on RAP were investigated. The diffusibility testing result shows that the diffusibility of CR is enhanced by the addition of ESO because the epoxy group in ESO can facilitate asphaltene dispersion due to its high polarity, which simultaneously reduces the viscosity and improves the fluidity of aged bitumen so as to allow diffusion of the rejuvenator into the aged bitumen...
May 18, 2018: Materials
Cagla Temiz, Gokhan Cayci
Alkali soils have undesirable properties for crop production. However, these problematic areas can be reclaimed and regained for cultivation. Mulch materials have been used in the past to decrease salinity damage in saline soils. But information about using mulch materials for alkali soil reclamation is rare. The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of different levels of gypsum applied with straw or pumice mulch materials on the reclamation of an alkali soil. Results obtained from soil extracts during the leaching water cycles showed that gypsum and mulch materials caused significant differences in sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) values...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mengqi Wang, Yimei Tian, Xin Zhao, Xiang Li
High color concentrations in inflows at reclaimed water treatment plants are typically considered as emergency situations, which must be solved using an appropriate decolorizing process. Using the decoloration mechanism of a modified dicyandiamide-formaldehyde polymer (DFP), a urea-formaldehyde polymer and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer (MFP) were prepared with ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate as the modifiers. An orthogonal experiment indicated that a modified urea-formaldehyde polymer had no effect on decolorization; however, the MFP modified by ammonium chloride in number 16 (MMFP-C16), the DFP modified by ammonium chloride in number 9 (MDFP-C9) and modified by ammonium sulfate in number 6 (MDFP-S6) were successful...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Er-Ping Cui, Feng Gao, Yuan Liu, Xiang-Yang Fan, Zhong-Yang Li, Zhen-Jie Du, Chao Hu, Andrew L Neal
The spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has become a cause for serious concern because of its potential risk to public health. The use of unconventional water resources (e.g., reclaimed water or piggery wastewater) in agriculture to relieve groundwater shortages may result in an accumulation of ARGs in soil. Biochar addition has been proven to be a beneficial method to alleviate the pollution of ARGs in manure-amended soil. However, the role of biochar on ARGs in soil-plant systems repeatedly irrigated with unconventional water resources is unknown...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Somdeep Ghosh, Madhurima Bakshi, Alok Kumar, A L Ramanathan, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Subarna Bhattacharyya, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, Sabry M Shaheen, Jörg Rinklebe
Hooghly-Matla estuarine system along with the Sundarbans mangroves forms one of the most diverse and vulnerable ecosystems in the world. We have investigated the distribution of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn along with sediment properties at six locations [Shamshernagar (S1), Kumirmari (S2 and S3), Petuaghat (S4), Tapoban (S5) and Chemaguri (S6)] in the Hooghly estuary and reclaimed islands of the Sundarbans for assessing the degree of contamination and potential ecological risks. Enrichment factor values (0.9-21.6) show enrichment of Co, Cu and Zn in the intertidal sediments considering all sampling locations and depth profiles...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Emily Garner, Chaoqi Chen, Kang Xia, Jolene Bowers, David Engelthaler, Jean McLain, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
Water reclamation provides a valuable resource for meeting non-potable water demands. However, little is known about the potential for wastewater reuse to disseminate antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, samples were collected seasonally in 2014-2015 from four U.S. utilities' reclaimed and potable water distribution systems before treatment, after treatment, and at five points of use (POU). Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to profile the resistome (i.e., full contingent of ARGs) of a subset (n=38) of samples...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sergio Gutiérrez-Alfaro, Juan J Rueda-Márquez, José A Perales, Manuel A Manzano
Solar disinfection (SODIS) of urban wastewater can be a suitable technology for improving the microbiological quality of reclaimed water as a complement to other extensive and environmentally friendly technologies such as microalgae biotreatment. The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating the SODIS technology at the end of a pilot scale urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) where the processes are based on microalgae biotechnology and comprising three Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB, 20m3 each one) reactor, six High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP, 32m2 each one), and a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF, 1m3 ) unit...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jeffrey M Novak, James A Ippolito, Thomas F Ducey, Donald W Watts, Kurt A Spokas, Kristin M Trippe, Gilbert C Sigua, Mark G Johnson
Biochar may be a tool for mine spoil remediation; however, its mechanisms for achieving this goal remain unclear. In this study, Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar was evaluated for its ability to reclaim acidic mine spoils (pH < 3) through reducing metal availability, improving soil microbial enzymatic activity, and initial growth of grass seedlings. Biochar was applied at 0, 1, 2.5 and 5% (w/w) along with lime/no lime and fertilizer additions. Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus cv. 'Elkton') was planted and later the shoots and roots were collected and metal concentrations determined...
April 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Tatiana Prado, Antônio de Castro Bruni, Mikaela Renata Funada Barbosa, Vilma Marques Santos Bonanno, Suzi Cristina Garcia, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato
Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 have been described as potential markers of human fecal contamination in water sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of GB-124 phages in raw sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water of the São Paulo city using a low-cost microbial source tracking method. Samples were collected monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 in four municipal wastewater treatment plants that operate with activated sludge processes followed by different tertiary treatments (sand-anthracite filtration, membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis) and final chlorination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Shiyu Wang, Fei Liu, Wenyong Wu, Yaqi Hu, Renkuan Liao, Gaoting Chen, Jiulong Wang, Jialin Li
Reclaimed water reuse has become an important means of alleviating agricultural water shortage worldwide. However, the presence of endocrine disrupters has roused up considerable attention. Barrel test in farmland was conducted to investigate the migration of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in soil-winter wheat system simulating reclaimed water irrigation. Additionally, the health risks on humans were assessed based on US EPA risk assessment model. The migration of NP and BPA decreased from the soil to the winter wheat; the biological concentration factors (BCFs) of NP and BPA in roots, stems, leaves, and grains all decreased with their added concentrations in soils...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
J A Acosta, A Abbaspour, G R Martínez, S Martínez-Martínez, R Zornoza, M Gabarrón, A Faz
Mine tailings have adverse chemical and physical conditions, including high concentrations of metals and salts, low organic matter content, and unbalanced rates of nutrients which limit the development of vegetation. A large scale field experiment was conducted to reclaim a tailing pond by triggering the growth of native species by spontaneous colonization by tilling (TL) the tailing pond surface and using marble waste (CaCO3 ; MW), pig slurry (PS) and their combination (MW + PS) as soil amendments. Soil physicochemical properties and water and DTPA extractable metal concentrations of bulk and rhizosphere soils were analyzed after five year from the application of the treatments...
April 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Josep Mas-Pla, Anna Menció
Climate change will affect the dynamics of the hydrogeological systems and their water resources quality; in particular nitrate, which is herein taken as a paradigmatic pollutant to illustrate the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. Based on climatic predictions of temperature and precipitation for the horizon of 2021 and 2050, as well as on land use distribution, water balances are recalculated for the hydrological basins of distinct aquifer systems in a western Mediterranean region as Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to determine the reduction of available water resources...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaoyan Y Ma, Qiyuan Li, Xiaochang C Wang, Yongkun Wang, Donghong Wang, Huu Hao Ngo
As reclaimed water use is increasing, its safety attracts growing attention, particularly with respect to the health risks associated with the wide range of micropollutants found in the reclaimed water. In this study, sophisticated analysis was conducted for water samples from a water reclamation and ecological reuse system where domestic wastewater was treated using an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic unit followed by a membrane bioreactor (A2 O-MBR), and the reclaimed water was used for replenishing a landscape lake...
March 27, 2018: Water Research
Jiaji Sun, Lei Chen, Eldon R Rene, Qian Hu, Weifang Ma, Zhenyao Shen
The main aim of this study was to remove nitrogen compounds from reclaimed water and reuse the water in semi-arid riverine lake systems. In order to assess the nitrogen removal efficiencies in different natural environments, laboratory scale column experiments were performed using sterilized soil (SS), silty clay (SC), soil with submerged plant (SSP) and biochar amendment soil (BCS). The initial concentration of NO3 - -N and the flow rate was maintained constant at 15 mg L-1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 m d-1 , respectively...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Antonios Papadakis, Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Vassilios Sandalakis, Maria Keramarou, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
Several Travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (TALD) cases occur annually in Europe. Except from the most obvious sites (cooling towers and hot water systems), infections can also be associated with recreational, water feature, and garden areas of hotels. This argument is of great interest to better comprehend the colonization and to calculate the risk to human health of these sites. From July 2000-November 2017, the public health authorities of the Island of Crete (Greece) inspected 119 hotels associated with TALD, as reported through the European Legionnaires' Disease Surveillance Network...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eric D Kessel, Scott J Ketcheson, Jonathan S Price
Post-mine landscape reclamation of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region requires the use of tailings sand, an abundant mine-waste material that often contains large amounts of sodium (Na+ ). Due to the mobility of Na+ in groundwater and its effects on vegetation, water quality is a concern when incorporating mine waste materials, especially when attempting to construct groundwater-fed peatlands. This research is the first published account of Na+ redistribution in groundwater from a constructed tailings sand upland to an adjacent constructed fen peat deposit (Nikanotee Fen)...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Huihui Han, Hengfeng Miao, Yajing Zhang, Minfeng Lu, Zhenxing Huang, Wenquan Ruan
Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors in wastewater during the reversed anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2 /O) process, as well as their molecular weight (MW) and polarity-based fractions, were characterized with UV scanning, fluorescence excitation emission matrix, Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Their DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) after chlorination were further tested. Results indicated that the reversed A2 /O process could not only effectively remove the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved total nitrogen in the wastewater, but also affect the MW distribution and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
June 15, 2018: Water Research
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