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Reclaimed water

W Kloppmann, Ido Negev, Joseph Guttman, Orly Goren, Ittai Gavrieli, Catherine Guerrot, Christine Flehoc, Marie Pettenati, Avihu Burg
"Man-made" or unconventional freshwater, like desalinated seawater or reclaimed effluents, is increasingly introduced into regional water cycles in arid or semi-arid countries. We show that the breakthrough of reverse osmosis-derived freshwater in the largely engineered water cycle of the greater Tel Aviv region (Dan Region) has profoundly changed previous isotope fingerprints. This new component can be traced throughout the system, from the drinking water supply, through sewage, treated effluents, and artificially recharged groundwater at the largest Soil-Aquifer Treatment system in the Middle East (Shafdan) collecting all the Dan region sewage...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Wang, Ying-Jun Li, Ying Xiong, Wen-Bing Tan, Lie-Yu Zhang, Xiang Li, Xiao-Shu Wang, Jian-Feng Xu, Tong-Tong Li, Jin-Sheng Wang, Ming-Xuan Cai, Bei-Dou Xi, Di-Hua Wang
The performance of the Sha-he wastewater reclamation plant was evaluated in this study. To remove residual nitrogen after Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2O) treatment, three multistage Anoxic-Oxic (A/O) were added to investigate the nitrogen removal efficiency and its mechanism. In addition, the constituents and evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during wastewater reclamation was also investigated using a method combining fluorescence spectroscopy with fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The results suggested that multistage A/O treatment can effectively improve the nitrogen removal ability under low concentrations of carbon sources...
2017: PloS One
Paula Santiago, Ana Jiménez-Belenguer, Jorge García-Hernández, Rosa Montes Estellés, Manuel Hernández Pérez, M Angeles Castillo López, María Antonia Ferrús, Yolanda Moreno
Salmonella spp. is one of the most important causal agents of food-borne illness in developed countries and its presence in irrigation water poses a risk to public health. Its detection in environmental samples is not easy when culture methods are used, and molecular techniques such as PCR or ribosomal rRNA probe hybridization (Fluorescent in situ Hybridization, FISH) are outstanding alternatives. The aim of this work was to determine the environmental risk due to the presence of Salmonella spp. in wastewater by culture, PCR and FISH...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
J P S Sidhu, K Sena, L Hodgers, A Palmer, S Toze
Microbiological safety of reclaimed water is one of the most important issues in managing potential health risks related to wastewater recycling. Presence and removal of human adenovirus (HAdV), human polyomavirus (HPyV), human torque teno virus (HTtV) and somatic coliphage family Microviridae in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in sub-tropical Brisbane, Australia was investigated. All three WWTPs employ activated sludge process with added on Bardenpho process for nutrient removal. HPyV, HAdV, HTtV and Microviridae were consistently detected in the influent (10(5) to 10(6) Genomic copies (GC) L(-1)) and secondary treated effluent (10(2) to 10(3)GCL(-)(1))...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lu Du, Xuantung Trinh, Qianru Chen, Chuan Wang, Huihui Wang, Xue Xia, Qiaohong Zhou, Dong Xu, Zhenbin Wu
Constructed wetland is an efficient way to lower N load from wastewater treatment plants. Here, the nitrogen removal rate and nitrogen balance, as well as the microbial community structure in IVCWs planted with different vegetation for treating reclaimed water were investigated. The results showed that IVCWs planted with vegetation generally achieved a higher TN removal rate than unplanted treatment, especially for Canna indica L. with 10.35% enhancement. Moreover, the microbial process proportion (83.87-87...
October 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Mark Everard, James W S Longhurst
The concept of sustainable development evolved from growing awareness of the interdependence of social and economic progress with the limits of the supporting natural environment, becoming progressively integrated into global agreements and transposition into local regulatory and implementation frameworks. We argue that transposition of the concept into regulation and supporting tools reduced the focus to minimal environmental and social standards, perceived as imposing constraints rather than opportunities for innovation to meet human needs...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Peter B Skou, Bekzod Khakimov, Thomas H Hansen, Stina D Aunsbjerg, Susanne Knøchel, Dorrit Thaysen, Frans van den Berg
Reusing reverse osmosis (RO) membrane permeate instead of potable water in the dairy industry is a very appealing tactic. However, to ensure safe use, the quality of reclaimed water must be guaranteed. To do this, qualitative and quantitative information about which compounds permeate the membranes must be established. In the present study, we provide a detailed characterization of ultrafiltration, RO, and RO polisher (ROP) permeate with regard to organic and inorganic compounds. Results indicate that smaller molecules and elements (such as phosphate, but mainly urea and boron) pass the membrane, and a small set of larger molecules (long-chain fatty acids, glycerol-phosphate, and glutamic acid) are found as well, though in minute concentrations (<0...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Wen-Huai Wang, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Cun-Zhi Wei, Jing-Chan Zhao, Lu-Qin Sun
A floating bed (FB) system vegetated with calamus, iris, lythrum, and Hydrocotyle vulgaris, and a strengthened FB (SFB) system with zeolite and sponge iron as fillers were simultaneously applied to purify urban landscape water in different zones. The urban landscape water, an artificial lake of approximately 326m(2), was supplied with reclaimed water during a six-month experiment. Results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the SFB zone (SFBZ) were significantly lower than those in the control zone (CZ) and the FB zone (FBZ) after six months of operation...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Qiwan Chai, Allen Hu, Yukun Qian, Xiuwei Ao, Wenjun Liu, Hongwei Yang, Yuefeng F Xie
Effluents before disinfection from four wastewater reclamation plants were treated with chlorine (Cl2), ozone (O3), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), medium-pressure ultraviolet (MPUV) and four different combinations of the above, to evaluate the effect of disinfection processes on the genotoxicity removal by the SOS/umu test. Results showed that the genotoxicity increased after MPUV irradiation (10-100 mJ/cm(2)), but declined when adopting other disinfection processes. The effectiveness of genotoxicity reduction by five chemical disinfectants was identified as: O3 > pre-ozonation with Cl2 ≈ ClO2 > combination of ClO2 and Cl2 > Cl2...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Rui Wang, Xin Jin, Ziyuan Wang, Wantao Gu, Zhechao Wei, Yuanjie Huang, Zhuang Qiu, Pengkang Jin
This paper proposes a new system of multilevel reuse with source separation in printing and dyeing wastewater (PDWW) treatment in order to dramatically improve the water reuse rate to 35%. By analysing the characteristics of the sources and concentrations of pollutants produced in different printing and dyeing processes, special, highly, and less contaminated wastewaters (SCW, HCW, and LCW, respectively) were collected and treated separately. Specially, a large quantity of LCW was sequentially reused at multiple levels to meet the water quality requirements for different production processes...
September 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Amaël Borzée, Kyungmin Kim, Kyongman Heo, Piotr G Jablonski, Yikweon Jang
Knowledge about the distribution and habitat preferences of a species is critical for its conservation. The Suweon Treefrog (Dryophytes suweonensis) is an endangered species endemic to the Republic of Korea. We conducted surveys from 2014 to 2016 at 890 potentially suitable sites across the entire range of the species in South Korea. We then assessed whether D. suweonensis was found in the current and ancestral predicted ranges, reclaimed and protected areas, and how the presence of agricultural floodwater affected its occurrence...
2017: PeerJ
Mads Troldborg, Dominic Duckett, Richard Allan, Emily Hastings, Rupert L Hough
A generalised quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is developed to assess the potential harm to human health resulting from irrigation with reclaimed water. The QRA is conducted as a backward calculation starting from a pre-defined acceptable risk level at the receptor point (defined as an annual infection risk of 10(-4) for pathogens and by reference doses (RfD) for chemical hazards) and results in an estimate of the corresponding acceptable concentration levels of the given hazards in the effluent. In this way the QRA is designed to inform the level of water treatment required to achieve an acceptable risk level and help establish reclaimed water quality standards...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Nupur Jauhari, Sanjay Menon, Neelam Sharma, Navneeta Bharadvaja
The plant species Bacopa monnieri has been observed to reduce the heavy metal concentrations in its vicinity. The present study is a comparison of in vitro culture and soil-grown plants of B. monnieri to remove Cr and Cd, from synthetic solution and effluent obtained from industrial area. Results were obtained at every half hour interval upto 180 min. Samples were observed for light absorption using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Statistically, both systems reclaimed Cr and Cd from polluted water. In vitro cultures showed 67% and 93% removal of Cr and Cd from industrial wastewater whereas soil-grown plants showed 64% and 83% Cr and Cd removal...
November 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Christopher Power, Murugan Ramasamy, Devin MacAskill, Joseph Shea, Joseph MacPhee, David Mayich, Fred Baechler, Martin Mkandawire
Cover systems are commonly placed over waste rock piles (WRPs) to limit atmospheric water and oxygen ingress and control the generation and release of acid mine drainage (AMD) to the receiving environment. Although covers containing geomembranes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) exhibit the attributes to be highly effective, there are few, if any, published studies monitoring their performance at full-scale WRPs. In 2011, a HDPE cover was installed over the Scotchtown Summit WRP in Nova Scotia, Canada, and extensive field performance monitoring was conducted over the next five years...
September 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
P-M Stathatou, E Kampragou, H Grigoropoulou, D Assimacopoulos, C Karavitis, J Gironás
Reclaimed water is receiving growing attention worldwide as an effective solution for alleviating the growing water scarcity in many areas. Despite the various benefits associated with reclaimed water, water recycling and reuse (WR&R) practices are not widely applied around the world. This is mostly due to complex and inadequate local legal and institutional frameworks and socio-economic structures, which pose barriers to wider WR&R implementation. An integrated approach is therefore needed while planning the implementation of WR&R schemes, considering all the potential barriers, and aiming to develop favourable conditions for enhancing reclaimed water use...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Dario Di Giuseppe, Massimiliano Melchiorre, Barbara Faccini, Giacomo Ferretti, Massimo Coltorti
Reclaimed salt marshes are fragile environments where water salinization and accumulation of heavy metals can easily occur. This type of environment constitutes a large part of the Po River Delta (Italy), where intensive agricultural activities take place. Given the higher Ni background of Po River Delta soils and its water-soluble nature, the main aim of this contribution is to understand if reclamation can influence the Ni behavior over time. In this study, we investigated the geochemical features of 40 soils sampled in two different localities from the Po River Delta with different reclamation ages...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xianghao Ren, Ying-Ying Kou, Taeeung Kim, Kyu-Jung Chae, How Yong Ng
The importance of evaluating the toxic effects associated with the use of reclaimed water has been increasing. The purpose of this research was to investigate the cytotoxicity and molecular toxicity of reclaimed water on the human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. The culture medium was synthesized using the reclaimed water samples. Wastewater treatment plant influent (WTI) and effluent (WTE), containing micropollutants at the nanogram per liter level, decreased cell proliferation (93.4-98.9% and 91.5-96...
August 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Xiaomin Gu, Yong Xiao, Shiyang Yin, Xingyao Pan, Yong Niu, Jingli Shao, Yali Cui, Qiulan Zhang, Qichen Hao
In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater were analyzed to get insight into the factors affecting groundwater quality in a typical agricultural dominated area of the North China Plain. Forty-four shallow groundwater samples were collected for chemical analysis. The water type changes from Ca·Na-HCO3 type in grass land to Ca·Na-Cl (+NO3) type and Na (Ca)-Cl (+NO3+SO4) type in construction and facility agricultural land, indicating the influence of human activities. The factor analysis and geostatistical analysis revealed that the two major factors contributing to the groundwater hydrochemical compositions were the water-rock interaction and contamination from sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizers...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Emily S Bailey, Matthew Price, Lisa M Casanova, Mark D Sobsey
Somatic and F+ coliphages have been identified and validated as virus indicators of fecal contamination in ground water by US EPA and more recently they are being considered for use in managing both marine and fresh recreational water and wastewater discharges. Studies documenting their usefulness as viral indicator in reclaimed water sources in the USA are limited. However, simultaneous detection of both somatic and F+ coliphages on a single E. coli host is preferred over their separate analysis because both are abundant in wastewater, they may respond differently to wastewater reclamation treatment processes, and separate analysis for each group in separate host bacteria adds complexity and cost...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Hongwei Song, Fang Xie, Weiwei Chen, Jinrong Liu
This study investigated a forward osmosis and membrane distillation (FO/MD) hybrid system for real dairy wastewater (DWW) recycling. Two types of FO membranes, cellulose triacetate-embedded polyester screen support (CTA-ES) and aquaporin inside (AQP), were employed. Sodium chloride was used as the draw solution. A cross-flow FO cell and an air gap membrane distillation module were established to conduct individual FO experiments and FO/MD experiments. From the experiments, an analysis of the water flux (Jw), reverse draw solute flux (Js), Js/Jw ratio and contaminant rejection was performed...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
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