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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101715/cortex-and-amygdala-dependent-learning-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-gene-expression-is-severely-impaired-in-mice-orally-treated-with-alcl3
#1
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Aamra Mahboob, Touqeer Ahmed
Recent industrialization has increased human exposure to bio-available aluminum (Al). If more Al enters the brain than leaves, Al concentration will rise in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine Al concentration, neurodegeneration, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene expression in the cortex and amygdala after oral ingestion of Al salt. The effect of Al on cortex- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory functions was also assessed. Mice were given AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) in drinking water for 42 days...
January 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101446/hypertonicity-clinical-entities-manifestations-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Christos Argyropoulos, Todd S Ing, Dominic S Raj, Deepak Malhotra, Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Zeid J Khitan, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and is associated with mortality and severe short-term and long-term neurological sequelae. The main clinical syndromes of hypertonicity are hypernatremia and hyperglycemia. Hypernatremia results from relative excess of body sodium over body water. Loss of water in excess of intake, gain of sodium salts in excess of losses or a combination of the two are the main mechanisms of hypernatremia. Hypernatremia can be hypervolemic, euvolemic or hypovolemic. The management of hypernatremia addresses both a quantitative replacement of water and, if present, sodium deficit, and correction of the underlying pathophysiologic process that led to hypernatremia...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100920/within-country-variation-of-salt-intake-assessed-via-urinary-excretion-in-japan-a-multilevel-analysis-in-all-47-prefectures
#3
Ken Uechi, Keiko Asakura, Shizuko Masayasu, Satoshi Sasaki
Salt intake in Japan remains high; therefore, exploring within-country variation in salt intake and its cause is an important step in the establishment of salt reduction strategies. However, no nationwide evaluation of this variation has been conducted by urinalysis. We aimed to clarify whether within-country variation in salt intake exists in Japan after adjusting for individual characteristics. Healthy men (n=1027) and women (n=1046) aged 20-69 years were recruited from all 47 prefectures of Japan. Twenty-four-hour sodium excretion was estimated using three spot urine samples collected on three nonconsecutive days...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098983/redox-initiated-reactivity-of-dinuclear-%C3%AE-diketiminatoniobium-imido-complexes
#4
Benjamin M Kriegel, Lara C E Naested, Grégory Nocton, K V Lakshmi, Trevor D Lohrey, Robert G Bergman, John Arnold
High-valent dichloride and dimethylniobium complexes 1 and 2 bearing tert-butylimido and N,N'-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-β-diketiminate (BDI(Ar)) ligands were prepared. The dimethyl complex reacted with dihydrogen to release methane and generate the hydride-bridged diniobium(IV) complex 3 in high yield. One-electron oxidation of 3 with silver salts resulted in the release of dihydrogen and conversion to a mixed-valent Nb(III)-Nb(IV) complex, 4, that displayed a frozen-solution X-band electron paramagnetic resonance signal consistent with a slight dissymmetry between the two Nb centers...
January 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098462/total-synthesis-of-resolvin-d5
#5
Narihito Ogawa, Takuo Sugiyama, Masao Morita, Yuta Suganuma, Yuichi Kobayashi
Resolvin D5 (RvD5) is a metabolite of docosahexanoic acid with anti-inflammatory activity that has not yet been thoroughly investigated because of its low biological availability. A synthetic route to optically active RvD5 was developed by assembling the C1-C10 aldehyde, C11-C13 phosphonium salt, and C14-C22 aldehyde building blocks. The aldehyde fragments were prepared by Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of corresponding racemic (E)-1-TMS-1-alken-3-ols followed by reaction of the TBS ethers of the resulting epoxy alcohols with Et2AlCN, and DIBAL reduction of the (E)-1-cyano-1-alken-3-ol derivatives...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098077/salt-reduction-at-a-population-level-to-do-or-not-to-do
#6
EDITORIAL
A P Jose, D Prabhakaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097771/solution-synthesis-structure-and-co2-reduction-reactivity-of-a-scandium-ii-complex-sc-n-sime3-2-3
#7
David H Woen, Guo P Chen, Joseph W Ziller, Timothy J Boyle, Filipp Furche, William J Evans
The first crystallographically characterizable complex of Sc(2+) , [Sc(NR2 )3 ](-) (R=SiMe3 ), has been obtained by LnA3 /M reactions (Ln=rare earth metal; A=anionic ligand; M=alkali metal) involving reduction of Sc(NR2 )3 with K in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) and 18-crown-6 (18-c-6) and with Cs in the presence of crypt. Dark maroon [K(crypt)](+) , [K(18-c-6)](+) , and [Cs(crypt)](+) salts of the [Sc(NR2 )3 ](-) anion are formed, respectively. The formation of this oxidation state of Sc is also indicated by the eight-line EPR spectra arising from the I=7/2 (45) Sc nucleus...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096625/the-effect-of-dietary-supplementation-of-salts-of-organic-acid-on-production-performance-of-laying-hens
#8
Ravinder Dahiya, Raj Singh Berwal, Sajjan Sihag, Chandrashekhar Santosh Patil, Lalit
AIM: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen's diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094370/probing-sub-nano-level-molecular-packing-and-correlated-positron-annihilation-characteristics-of-ionic-cross-linked-chitosan-membranes-using-positron-annihilation-spectroscopy
#9
Rui Xia, Xingzhong Cao, Meizhen Gao, Peng Zhang, Minfeng Zeng, Baoyi Wang, Long Wei
Chitosan, CS, cross-linked with bivalent palladium has shown enhanced mechanical and thermal properties depending on the transformation of the structure at a microscopic scale. In the present study, CS directly cross-linked by palladium cation membranes (CS-cr-PM) was prepared through a solution-casting method. Mobility of chitosan chains were greatly reduced after crosslinking, making a great reduction in the swelling ratio studied by a water-swelling degree measurement, which led to an improvement in molecular chain rigidity...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092617/supplementation-of-pigs-diet-with-zinc-and-copper-as-alternative-to-conventional-antimicrobials
#10
B Dębski
Modern commercial pig farming systems inflict increased stress in animals, which often leads to various negative changes in the gastro-intestinal tract, especially in the case of piglets. Ban of antibiotics, used as growth promoters, has caused a need for alternatives to conventional antimicrobials in swine diets. Use of pre-/or probiotics, organic acids and plant extracts is often recommended, but it seems that zinc oxide and cooper salts, which were traditionally included in high doses to piglets diet, possess the highest efficacy...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078832/pattern-of-clinical-benign-euthyroid-goitre-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-the-central-province-of-sri-lanka-from-1981-2011
#11
P C Ratnatunga, R Dassanayaka, A N Kumari, A B Aglawatta, K B Galketiya, N V Ratnatunga
Objectives: To describe the pattern of clinical euthyroidgoitre in a tertiary care unit in Sri Lanka before and after iodination of salt in Sri Lanka. Methods: We reviewed our thirty-one year computerised database of patients with goitres, spanning iodination in 1995. Results: Prevalence of euthyroid clinical simple diffuse goitre did not reduce during the first thirteen years (p=0.822). However, it reduced in the latter four years from 2008 to 2011...
30, 2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076953/effects-of-lithium-and-other-monovalent-ions-on-palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine-bilayer
#12
James Kruczek, See-Wing Chiu, Eric Jakobsson, Sagar A Pandit
Interations of monovalent salts with lipid membranes are explored with Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations. The simulations included the monovalent ions Na(+) and K(+), for their importance in physiology, Li(+) for its small size and importance in several medical conditions including bipolar disorder, and Rb(+) for its large size. All the simulations included Cl(-) as counter ions. One bilayer was simulated without salt as a control. POPC bilayers experienced reductions in area per lipid with the addition of salt, the smaller the ion the smaller the area, with the exception of Li(+)...
January 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075565/redox-couple-involving-nox-in-aerobic-pd-catalyzed-oxidation-of-sp-3-c-h-bonds-direct-evidence-for-pd-no3-no2-interactions-involved-in-oxidation-and-reductive-elimination
#13
Margot N Wenzel, Philippa K Owens, Joshua T W Bray, Jason M Lynam, Pedro M Aguiar, Christopher Reed, James D Lee, Jacqueline F Hamilton, Adrian C Whitwood, Ian J S Fairlamb
NaNO3 is used in oxidative Pd-catalyzed processes as a complementary co-catalyst to common oxidants, e.g., Cu(II) salts, in C-H bond activation and Wacker oxidation processes. NaNO3 and NaNO2 (with air or O2) assist the sp(3)-C-H bond acetoxylation of substrates bearing an N-directing group. It has been proposed previously that a redox couple is operative. The role played by NOx anions is examined in this investigation. Evidence for an NOx anion interaction at Pd(II) is presented. Palladacyclic complexes containing NOx anions are competent catalysts for acetoxylation of 8-methylquinoline, with and without exogenous NaNO3...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073698/ectopic-expression-of-an-apple-cytochrome-p450-gene-mdcypm1-negatively-regulates-plant-photomorphogenesis-and-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#14
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Cytochrome P450s play an important role in plant growth and are involved in multiple stresses response. However, little is known about the functions of cytochrome P450s in apple. Here, a Malus × domestica cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1 gene, MdCYPM1, was identified and subsequently cloned from apple 'Gala' (Malus × domestica). To verify the functions of MdCYPM1, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the apple MdCYPM1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter...
January 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068063/porous-iron-tungsten-carbide-electrocatalyst-with-high-activity-and-stability-toward-oxygen-reduction-reaction-from-the-self-assisted-synthetic-mechanism-to-its-active-species-probing
#15
Li Song, Tao Wang, Yilin Wang, Hairong Xue, Xiaoli Fan, Hu Guo, Wei Xia, Hao Gong, Jianping He
We synthesized a novel nonprecious metal electrocatalyst by pyrolysis of a colloid mixture consisting of a tungsten source and phenolic resin, with the simultaneous addition of ferric salt. The rationally designed electrocatalyst has a unique structure, with nanosized WC and Fe3W3C uniformly dispersed in a three-dimensional porous carbon framework. WC, which was thought difficult to produce, is successfully prepared at a relatively low temperature of about 750 °C at an inert atmosphere. XRD studies demonstrate the self-assisted effect of Fe, which accelerates the formation of WC, getting around the pathway of direct carbonaceous reduction of tungsten by carbon...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063203/simultaneous-au-iii-extraction-and-in-situ-formation-of-polymeric-membrane-supported-gold-nanoparticles-a-sustainable-process-with-application-in-catalysis
#16
Lucia Mora-Tamez, Vicente Esquivel-Peña, Ana Lilia Ocampo, Eduardo Rodríguez de San Miguel, Daniel Grande, Josefina de Gyves
A polymeric membrane-supported catalyst with immobilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared through the extraction and in-situ reduction of gold(III) salts in a one-step strategy. Polymeric inclusion membranes (PIMs) and polymeric nanoporous membranes (PNMs) were tested as different membrane support systems. Transport experiments indicated that PIMs composed of cellulose triacetate, 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, and an aliphatic tertiary amine (Adogen® 364 or Alamine® 336) were the most efficient supports for Au(III) extraction...
January 7, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062480/mean-dietary-salt-intake-in-urban-and-rural-areas-in-india-a-population-survey-of-1395-persons
#17
Claire Johnson, Sailesh Mohan, Kris Rogers, Roopa Shivashankar, Sudhir Raj Thout, Priti Gupta, Feng J He, Graham A MacGregor, Jacqui Webster, Anand Krishnan, Pallab K Maulik, K Srinath Reddy, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Bruce Neal
BACKGROUND: The scientific evidence base in support of population-wide salt reduction is strong, but current high-quality data about salt intake levels in India are mostly absent. This project sought to estimate daily salt consumption levels in selected communities of Delhi and Haryana in north India and Andhra Pradesh in south India. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 24-hour urine samples were collected using an age- and sex-stratified sampling strategy in rural, urban, and slum areas...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060345/combining-solid-state-and-solution-based-techniques-synthesis-and-reactivity-of-chalcogenidoplumbates-ii-or-iv
#18
Günther Thiele, Carsten Donsbach, Isabell Nußbruch, Stefanie Dehnen
The phases of "PbCh2" (Ch = Se, Te) are obtained from solid-state syntheses (i.e., by the fusion of the elements under inert conditions in silica glass ampules). Reduction of such phases by elemental alkaline metals in amines affords crystalline chalcogenidoplumbate(II) salts comprised of [PbTe3](2)(-) or [Pb2Ch3](2)(-) anions, depending upon which sequestering agent for the cations is present: crown ethers, like 18-crown-6, or cryptands, like [2.2.2]crypt. Reactions of solutions of such anions with transition-metal compounds yield (poly-)chalcogenide anions or transition-metal chalcogenide clusters, including one with a µ-PbSe ligand (i...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057374/effects-of-potash-mining-on-river-ecosystems-an-experimental-study
#19
Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, Sandra Brucet, Sergi Carrasco, Núria Flor-Arnau, Marc Ordeix, Sergio Ponsá, Eckhard Coring
In spite of being a widespread activity causing the salinization of rivers worldwide, the impact of potash mining on river ecosystems is poorly understood. Here we used a mesocosm approach to test the effects of a salt effluent coming from a potash mine on algal and aquatic invertebrate communities at different concentrations and release modes (i.e. press versus pulse releases). Algal biomass was higher in salt treatments than in control (i.e. river water), with an increase in salt-tolerant diatom species. Salt addition had an effect on invertebrate community composition that was mainly related with changes in the abundance of certain taxa...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056405/size-segregated-pm-and-its-chemical-composition-emitted-from-heated-corn-oil
#20
Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh, Soudabeh Gorjinezhad, Melek Keles, Fatma Ozturk, Philip K Hopke
Characterization of the airborne particulate matter (PM) emitted from cooking components including cooking oil, and additives like salt has not been carefully investigated. This study provides new data on the concentration, composition, and emission rates/fluxes of PM (less than 3.3µm) generated during heating corn oil and corn oil with added table salt. The concept of emission flux was employed to estimate the emission rates in this study. A statistically significant reduction of 47.6% (P<0.05) in the total PM emission rate and emission flux were observed when salt was added to the heated corn oil (5...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Research
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