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salt reduction

Maria Peleli, Peter Flacker, Zhengbing Zhuge, Cristina Gomez, Craig E Wheelock, A Erik G Persson, Mattias Carlstrom
Oxidative stress is considered a central pathophysiological event in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Early age reduction in renal mass is associated with hypertension and oxidative stress in later life, which is aggravated by increased salt intake. The aim of the present study was to examine if renal sympathetic denervation can exert blood pressure lowering effects in uninephrectomized (UNX) rats (3-week old) fed with high salt (HS, 4%; w/w) diet for 4 weeks. Moreover, we investigated if renal denervation is associated with changes in NADPH and xanthine oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species...
July 5, 2017: Redox Biology
Noushin Mohammadifard, Arsalan Khaledifar, Alireza Khosravi, Fatemeh Nouri, Ali Pourmoghadas, Awat Feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
AIM: The association of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake with blood pressure (BP) is an ongoing debate, especially in central Iran. We aimed to examine the mean Na and K intake, major sources of Na and the relationship between BP and dietary and urinary Na and K. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in central Iran in 2013-2014. A total of 796 non-hypertensive adults aged >18 years were randomly recruited. The semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary Na and K intake...
July 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Inna L Soroka, Nadezda V Tarakina, Anton Hermansson, Lukas Bigum, Rickard Widerberg, Mikael S Andersson, Roland Mathieu, Alagar R Paulraj, Yohannes Kiros
A facile synthesis of 3d-metal based electro-catalysts directly incorporated into a carbon support was carried out by γ-radiation. Transition metals of period 4, i.e. Ni and Co, were precipitated and reduced from their respective salt solutions. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, SQUID and the BET methods. Thereafter, the electrodes for fuel cells were fabricated out of synthesized material and their electrochemical performance for the oxygen reduction reaction in 6 M KOH was measured. Although the concentrations of Co and Ni in the electrode material were low (3...
July 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Saeed Alshahrani, Robert M Rapoport, Kamyar Zahedi, Min Jiang, Michelle Nieman, Sharon Barone, Andrea L Meredith, John N Lorenz, Jack Rubinstein, Manoocher Soleimani
Thiazide derivatives including Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) represent the most common treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Thiazides initially enhance diuresis via inhibition of the kidney Na+-Cl- Cotransporter (NCC). However, chronic volume depletion and diuresis are minimal while lowered blood pressure (BP) is maintained on thiazides. Thus, a vasodilator action of thiazides is proposed, likely via Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in vascular smooth muscles. This study ascertains the role of volume depletion induced by salt restriction or salt wasting in NCC KO mice on the non-diuretic hypotensive action of HCTZ...
2017: PloS One
Adam E Mullick, Steve T Yeh, Mark J Graham, Jeffery A Engelhardt, Thazha P Prakash, Rosanne M Crooke
Uncontrolled hypertension is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease. Despite the armamentarium of antihypertensive treatments, there remains a need for novel agents effective in individuals who cannot reach acceptable blood pressure levels. Inhibitors targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are widely used but may not optimally inhibit RAAS and demonstrate an acceptable safety profile. Experiments were conducted to characterize a series of AGT (angiotensinogen) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and compare their efficacy and tolerability to traditional RAAS blockade...
July 17, 2017: Hypertension
Mohammed Loudiyi, Romdhane Karoui, Douglas N Rutledge, Marie-Christine Montel, Etienne Rifa, Abderrahmane Aït-Kaddour
BACKGROUND: Reduction of NaCl content of cheeses has received considerable attention by researches during the past decades due to its health effects. Nonetheless, NaCl reduction is a challenge since it plays an important role in cheese quality, such as structure, texture and functional properties. Serval methods were used to evaluate the effect of NaCl on these attributes. In this study, Cantal-type cheeses with different salts (NaCl and KCl) were analyzed for their structure at a molecular level and rheological properties during heating (20 to 60 °C) and cooling (60 to 20 °C)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jianghong Fan, Xinyuan Zhang, Liang Zhao
Prasugrel HCl may convert to prasugrel base during manufacturing or storage. It was reported that formulations with different ratios of salt to base were bioequivalent in healthy subjects, but formulations with a higher extent of conversion were not bioequivalent in subjects taking proton pump inhibitor (PPI) whose stomach pH is elevated. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of impact of salt-to-base conversion on prasugrel HCl products BE evaluation in healthy subjects on PPI. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model was constructed to predict pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of active metabolite after oral administration of prasugrel HCl products containing various fractions of base based on the prasugrel salt and base intrinsic solubility...
July 14, 2017: AAPS Journal
Nasrin Jafari, Shahla Rezaei, Rezvan Rezaie, Haleh Dilmaghani, Mohammad Reza Khoshayand, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi
Extremozymes have gained importance for their ability to efficiently develop the processes in rigorous industrial conditions with incidence in the recycling of especially robust natural wastes. The production of an extracellular laccase from the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens aided for the bio-delignification of almond shell was optimized using response surface methodology followed by one-factor-at-a-time, resulting in an 80-fold increase in the enzyme yield. Out of 10 different medium components, CuSO4, ZnSO4, glucose, and urea were shown to have the greatest effects on the laccase production...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eduardo A F Nilson, Ana M Spaniol, Vivian S S Gonçalves, Iracema Moura, Sara A Silva, Mary L'Abbé, Patricia C Jaime
Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70-90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
Chaturong Suparpprom, Thanesuan Nuanyai, Haruthai Pansuwan, Tirayut Vilaivan, Supason Wanichwecharungruang, Boonsong Ditmangklo, Tanapat Palaga, Porntip Pan-In, Banphot Jiangchareon, Chotima Vilaivan
Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) is a nucleic acid mimic in which the deoxyribose-phosphate was replaced by a peptide-like backbone. The absence of negative charge in the PNA backbone leads to several unique behaviors including a stronger binding and salt-independency of the PNA-DNA duplex stability. However, PNA possesses poor aqueous solubility and cannot directly penetrate cell membranes. These are major obstacles that limited in vivo applications of PNA. In previous strategies, the PNA can be conjugated to macromolecular carrier, or modified with positively charged side chains such as guanidinium groups to improve the aqueous solubility and/or cell permeability...
July 13, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Mary E Cogswell, Sheena M Patel, Keming Yuan, Cathleen Gillespie, WenYen Juan, Christine J Curtis, Michel Vigneault, Jenifer Clapp, Paula Roach, Alanna Moshfegh, Jaspreet Ahuja, Pamela Pehrsson, Lauren Brookmire, Robert Merritt
Background: Approximately 2 in 3 US adults have prehypertension or hypertension that increases their risk of cardiovascular disease. Reducing sodium intake can decrease blood pressure and prevent hypertension. Approximately 9 in 10 Americans consume excess sodium (≥2300 mg/d). Voluntary sodium standards for commercially processed and prepared foods were established in North America, but their impact on sodium intake is unclear.Objective: We modelled the potential impact on US sodium intake of applying voluntary sodium standards for foods...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ben Bogun, Sarah Moore
In this study, the use of benchtop NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of solids and liquids used and/or produced during the HI reduction of pseudoephedrine was evaluated. The study focused on identifying organic precursors and phosphorus containing compounds used in and/or produced during the manufacturing process. Samples taken from clandestine laboratories, where this synthesis process was suspected of occurring, were also analysed and evaluated. Benchtop NMR was able to distinguish between ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine as the free base and hydrochloride salt...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
Pamela Nyaradzai Magande, Daniel Chirundu, Notion Tafara Gombe, More Mungati, Mufuta Tshimanga
BACKGROUND: Clients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are living longer and have risk of hypertension. Side effects of medicines and aging increase this risk. Hypertension prevalence among clients on ART in Kadoma City was estimated to be 30% in 2015. Of these, 61% had uncontrolled hypertension. This was high compared to 46% of hypertensives in the general population who had uncontrolled hypertension. We determined factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension among clients on ART...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
M Cluff, I A Kobane, C Bothma, C J Hugo, A Hugo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of intermediate added salt levels (1.33% w/w and 1.84% w/w) as a strategy for reducing the total sodium content of polony, an emulsified, heat-treated meat product, which is reliant on the various functions of salt normally included at a 2.5% (w/w) level. Chemical, microbial, and textural stability over 180days as well as sensory quality were evaluated. At 1.84% (w/w) added salt content, the product was indistinguishable from the positive control except for a slightly wetter cutting surface...
June 28, 2017: Meat Science
Fereshteh Ansari, Hadi Pourjafar, Vahid Jodat, Javad Sahebi, Amir Ataei
In this study, we examined a novel method of microencapsulation with calcium alginate-chitosan and Eudragit S100 nanoparticles for the improving viability of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Extrusion technique was carried out in microencapsulation process. The viability of two probiotics in single coated beads (with only chitosan), double coated beads (with chitosan and Eudragit nanoparticles), and as free cells (unencapsulated) were conducted in simulated gastric juice (pH 1...
December 2017: AMB Express
Jose L Gomez-Ballesteros, Perla B Balbuena
Surface modification of Si anodes in Li-ion batteries by deposition of a thin alucone coating has demonstrated an effective way to help maintain a stable anode/electrolyte interface and good battery performance. In this work, we investigate the interactions and reactivity of the film with electrolyte components using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Adsorption of solvent molecules (ethylene carbonate, EC) and salt (LiPF6) and reduction by two mechanisms depending on the Li content of the film (yielding open EC adsorbed on the film or C2H4 + CO3(2-)) take place near the film/electrolyte and film/anode interfaces...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Polly Louise Arnold, Bradley Cowie, Marketa Suvova, Markus Zegke, Nicola Magnani, Eric Colineau, Jean-Christophe Griveau, Roberto Caciuffo, Jason Love
The reduction of UVI uranyl halides or amides by simple LnII or UIII salts forms highly symmetrical, linear, oxo-bridged trinuclear UV-LnIII-UV, LnIII-UIV-LnIII and UIV-UIV-UIV complexes or linear LnIII-UV polymers according to the stoichiometry and solvent choice. Reactions can be tuned to give one- or two-electron uranyl reduction. Some features of their reactivity and magnetism are discussed in the context of using a series of strongly oxo-coupled homo and heterometallic poly(f-block) chains to better understand fundamental electronic structure in the f-block...
July 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Mireia Rovira, Steven Roldán-Gómez, Vlad Martin-Diaconescu, Christopher J Whiteoak, Anna Company, Josep M Luis, Xavi Ribas
Ni-mediated trifluoromethylation of an aryl-Br bond in model macrocyclic ligands, Ln-Br, has been thoroughly studied, starting with an oxidative addition at Ni0 to obtain well-defined aryl-NiII-Br complexes ([Ln-NiII]Br). Abstraction of the halide with AgX (X = OTf- or ClO4-) thereafter provides [Ln-NiII](OTf). The nitrate analogue has been obtained through a direct C-H activation of an aryl-H bond using NiII salts, and this route has been studied by XAS. Crystallographic (XRD) and XAS characterization has shown a tight macrocyclic coordination in the aryl-NiII complex, which may hamper their direct reaction with nucleophiles...
July 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Remya Vijayan, Siby Joseph, Beena Mathew
This study reports the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles, namely silver and gold from their respective salt by leaf extract of a medicinal plant Indigofera tinctoria. This leaf extract plays a dual role as stabilizing and reducing agent for the formation of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis. spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, EDX and AFM analysis. All these techniques confirm the formation of crystalline nanoparticles. The cytotoxic effect of I...
July 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Lixia Yuan, Xue Mao, Kui Zhao, Xiajie Ji, Chunli Ji, Jinai Xue, Runzhi Li
As an important oilseed worldwide, Camelina sativa is being increasingly explored for its use in production of food, feed, biofuel and industrial chemicals. However, detailed mechanisms of camelina oil biosynthesis and accumulation, particularly in vegetative tissues, are understood to a very small extent. Here, we present genome-wide identification, cloning and functional analysis of phospholipid diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in C. sativa, which catalyses the final acylation step in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis by transferring a fatty acyl moiety from a phospholipid to diacylglycerol (DAG)...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
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