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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926857/the-amelioration-of-insulin-resistance-in-salt-loading-subjects-by-potassium-supplementation-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-plasma-il-17a-levels
#1
Wen Wen, Zhaofei Wan, Dong Zhou, Juan Zhou, Zuyi Yuan
Background High dietary salt intake contributes to the development of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases including metabolic syndrome (MetS) which potassium supplementation can potentially reverse. T helper (Th) 17 cells as well as its production interleukin (IL)-17A are involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. The polarization of Th17 cells and enhanced IL-17A production induced by high salt might increase the risk of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Methods 45 normotensive subjects (aged 29 to 65 years) were enrolled from a rural community of Northern China at random...
September 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926128/copper-catalysed-aminoboration-of-vinylarenes-with-hydroxylamine-esters-a-computational-mechanistic-study
#2
Sven Tobisch
This first comprehensive computational study of the copper-mediated formal aminoboration utilising an electrophilic strategy has identified the most accessible pathway for the productive catalysis. The mechanistic picture derived from smooth energy profiles acquired by employing a reliable computational protocol applied to a realistic catalyst model conforms to all available experimental data. The high degree of chemo- and stereoselectivity achieved in syn-borylcupration and Umpolung electrophilic amination is instrumental to the exclusive generation of the (syn)-beta-aminoalkylborane product...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925291/isolation-of-a-novel-compound-mimo2-from-the-methanolic-extract-of-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protective-effects-against-vanadium-induced-cytotoxity
#3
Olumayowa O Igado, Jan Glaser, Mario Ramos-Tirado, Ezgi Eylül Bankoğlu, Foluso A Atiba, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Helga Stopper, James O Olopade
Moringa oleifera is reported to be a miracle plant, with positive effects on practically every system in the animal body. The methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was fractionated using liquid-liquid fractionation, column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay guided fractionation using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) was used to determine the fraction with the highest antioxidative power. Chemical structure was elucidated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
September 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921960/boron-difluoride-adducts-of-a-flexidentate-pyridine-substituted-formazanate-ligand-property-modulation-via-protonation-and-coordination-chemistry
#4
Stephanie M Barbon, Jasmine V Buddingh, Ryan R Maar, Joe B Gilroy
The synthesis and characterization of a flexidentate pyridine-substituted formazanate ligand and its boron difluoride adducts, formed via two different coordination modes of the title ligand, are described. The first adduct adopted a structure that was typical of other boron difluoride adducts of triarylformazanate ligands and contained a free pyridine subsituent, while the second was formed via the chelation of nitrogen atoms from the formazanate backbone and the pyridine substituent. Stepwise protonation of the pydridine-functionalized adduct, which is essentially nonemissive, resulted in a significant increase in the fluorescence quantum yield up to a maximum of 18%, prompting the study of this adduct as a pH sensor...
September 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919865/coping-with-salt-water-habitats-metabolic-and-oxidative-responses-to-salt-intake-in-the-rufous-collared-sparrow
#5
Pablo Sabat, Cristóbal Narváez, Isaac Peña-Villalobos, Carolina Contreras, Karin Maldonado, Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, Seth D Newsome, Roberto Nespolo, Francisco Bozinovic
Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis) could generate differences in basal (BMR) and maximum metabolic rates (Msum), as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919516/time-dependent-effects-of-perfluorinated-compounds-on-viability-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons-dependence-on-carbon-chain-length-and-functional-group-attached
#6
Hanne Friis Berntsen, Cesilie Granum Bjørklund, Jean-Nicolas Audinot, Tim Hofer, Steven Verhaegen, Esther Lentzen, Arno Christian Gutleb, Erik Ropstad
The toxicity of long chained perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) has previously been reported to be related to the length of the perfluorinated carbon chain and functional group attached. In the present study, we compared the cytotoxicity of six PFAAs, using primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Two perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, chain length C6 and C8) and four perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, chain length C8-C11) were studied. These PFAAs have been detected in human blood and the brain tissue of mammals...
September 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917787/gas-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric-analysis-of-urinary-volatile-organic-metabolites-optimization-of-the-hs-spme-procedure-and-sample-storage-conditions
#7
Tanja Živković Semren, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Toni Safner, Nataša Brajenović, Blanka Tariba Lovaković, Alica Pizent
Non-targeted metabolomics research of human volatile urinary metabolome can be used to identify potential biomarkers associated with the changes in metabolism related to various health disorders. To ensure reliable analysis of urinary volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), parameters affecting the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure have been evaluated and optimized. The influence of incubation and extraction temperatures and times, coating fibre material and salt addition on SPME efficiency was investigated by multivariate optimization methods using reduced factorial and Doehlert matrix designs...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917241/dietary-sodium-reduction-in-new-zealand-influence-of-the-tick-label
#8
Sherry X Ning, Louise A Mainvil, Rachel K Thomson, Rachel M McLean
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Tick programme of the National Heart Foundation (NHF) is the longest standing voluntary front of pack signpost nutrition logo in New Zealand. It provides a platform for collaboration with the food industry to encourage development of healthier products. This study evaluated the impact of the Tick programme on sodium in processed food. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-two Tick programme products from food categories known to contribute substantially to sodium intake were identified...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917211/bactericidal-and-catalytic-performance-of-green-nanocomposite-based-on-chitosan-carbon-black-fiber-supported-monometallic-and-bimetallic-nanoparticles
#9
Fayaz Ali, Sher Bahadar Khan, Tahseen Kamal, Yasir Anwar, Khalid A Alamry, Abdullah M Asiri
Nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of green nanocomposite based on carbon black dispersed in chitosan (CB-CS) fibres. The nanoparticles were monometallic Co, Ag and Cu and bimetallic Co + Cu and Co + Ag. The CB-CS fibres were prepared and introduced into separate metal salt solutions containing Co(2+), Ag(+) and Cu(2+) and mixed Co(2+)+Cu(2+) and Co(2+)+Ag(+) ions. The metal ions immobilized on the surface of CB-CS were reduced using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent to synthesize the corresponding zero-valent metal nanoparticles-loaded CB-CS fibres...
August 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914244/comparative-evaluation-of-salt-water-rinse-with-chlorhexidine-against-oral-microbes-a-school-based-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
V Aravinth, M B Aswath Narayanan, S G Ramesh Kumar, A Leena Selvamary, A Sujatha
BACKGROUND: Mouth rinse that is natural, safe, cost-effective, readily available and culturally acceptable is required as an adjunct to routine tooth brushing to combat dental diseases. The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of salt water rinse with chlorhexidine mouth rinse in reducing dental plaque and oral microbial count. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of salt water against S. mutans, L.acidophilus, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P...
October 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913533/synthesis-and-redox-reactions-of-bis-verdazyl-palladium-complexes
#11
Corey A Sanz, Zach R McKay, Shaun W C MacLean, Brian O Patrick, Robin G Hicks
The synthesis and ligand-centered redox chemistry of palladium complexes bearing two potentially bidentate verdazyl ligands is explored. Reaction of 1,5-diisopropyl-3-pyridin-2-yl-6-oxoverdazyl radical 1 with Pd(NCMe)4·2BF4 gives a complex containing two coordinated verdazyl radicals. The structure of this complex consists of one verdazyl bound to Pd in a bidentate mode and the second verdazyl bound in a monodentate fashion through the pyridine substituent; the fourth coordination site is occupied by a solvent molecule (acetonitrile (3) or dimethyl sulfoxide (4))...
September 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911682/relation-between-salt-tolerance-and-biochemical-changes-in-cumin-cuminum-cyminum%C3%A2-l-seeds
#12
Iness Bettaieb Rebey, Soumaya Bourgou, Fatma Zohra Rahali, Kamel Msaada, Riadh Ksouri, Brahim Marzouk
In this study, the effects of salinity on growth, fatty acid, essential oil, and phenolic composition of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds as well as the antioxidant activities of their extracts were investigated. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NaCl treatment: 0, 50, 75, and 125 mmoL. Plant growth was significantly reduced with the severity of saline treatment. This also caused important reductions in the seed yield and yield components. Besides, NaCl treatments affected fatty acid composition...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905948/bistriazole-p-benzoquinone-and-its-alkali-salts-electrochemical-behaviour-in-aqueous-alkaline-solutions
#13
H Bunzen, A Lamp, M Grzywa, C Barkschat, D Volkmer
Quinones are well known as redox-active compounds. In this work bistriazole-p-benzoquinone was prepared and its electrochemical behaviour in aqueous alkaline solutions was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Two successive one-electron reduction steps were observed - the first step was reversible and the second quasireversible. Based on the nature of the alkali cation, the potential of the cathodic peak minimum and the anodic peak maximum was shifted towards positive direction as follows Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+)...
September 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902989/characterizing-the-impacts-of-deposition-techniques-on-the-performance-of-mno2-cathodes-for-sodium-electrosorption-in-hybrid-capacitive-deionization
#14
Steven Hand, Roland D Cusick
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is currently limited by poor ion-selectivity and low salt adsorption capacity of porous carbon electrodes. To enhance selectivity and capacity via sodium insertion reactions, carbon aerogel electrodes were modified by depositing amorphous manganese dioxide layers via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electroless deposition (ED). MnO2-coated electrodes were evaluated in a hybrid capacitive deionization (HCDI) system to understand the relationship between oxide coating morphology, electrode capacitance, and sodium removal efficacy...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902880/cost-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-school-based-education-program-to-reduce-salt-intake-in-children-and-their-families-in-china
#15
Xian Li, Stephen Jan, Lijing L Yan, Alison Hayes, Yunbo Chu, Haijun Wang, Xiangxian Feng, Wenyi Niu, Feng J He, Jun Ma, Yanbo Han, Graham A MacGregor, Yangfeng Wu
OBJECTIVE: The School-based Education Program to Reduce Salt Intake in Children and Their Families study was a cluster randomized control trial among grade five students in 28 primary schools and their families in Changzhi, China. It achieved a significant effect in lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) in all family adults by 2.3 mmHg and in elderlies (aged > = 60 years) by 9.5 mmHg. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of this salt reduction program. METHODS: Costs of the intervention were assessed using an ingredients approach to identify resource use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902504/synthesis-of-altrose-poly-amido-saccharides-with-%C3%AE-n-1%C3%A2-2-d-amide-linkages-a-right-handed-helical-conformation-engineered-in-at-the-monomer-level
#16
Ruiqing Xiao, Eric L Dane, Jialiu Zeng, Christopher James McKnight, Mark W Grinstaff
The design and synthesis of amide-linked saccharide oligomers and polymers, which are predisposed to fold into specific ordered secondary structures, is of significant interest. Herein, right-handed helical poly-amido-saccharides (PASs) with β-N-(1→2)-D-amide linkages are synthesized by the anionic ring-opening polymerization of an altrose β-lactam monomer (alt-lactam). The right-handed helical conformation is engineered into the polymer by pre-installing the β configuration of the lactam ring in the monomer via the stereospecific [2+2] cycloaddition of trichloroacetyl isocyanate with a D-glycal possessing a 3-benzyloxyl group oriented to the α-face of the pyranose...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902403/s-nitrosylation-denitrosylation-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-of-salt-stress-sensing-in-sunflower-seedlings
#17
Prachi Jain, Christine von Toerne, Christian Lindermayr, Satish C Bhatla
Nitric oxide (NO) and various reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced in cells in normal growth conditions and their enhanced production under stress conditions, are responsible for a variety of biochemical aberrations. Present findings demonstrate that sunflower seedling roots exhibit high sensitivity to salt stress in terms of nitrite accumulation. A significant reduction in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity is evident in response to salt stress. Restoration of GSNOR activity with dithioerythritol (DTT) shows that the enzyme is reversibly inhibited under conditions of 120 mM NaCl...
September 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902380/-organ-interactions-heart-and-kidney
#18
Daniel Salleck, Stefan John
The interactions between heart and kidney are various and of clinical relevance. Worsening of one organ often influences the function of the other. With NYHA and KDIGO we have classification systems for heart and kidney failure and those should be used for cardiorenal systems as well. Furthermore there is a useful classification system for cardiorenal syndromes itself. Cardiorenal syndrome is a complex illness which should be treated by interdisciplinary medical teams. A key roll in pathophysiology is the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron-system (RAAS)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899081/-bending-models-of-halotropism-incorporating-protein-phosphatase-2a-abcb-transporters-and-auxin-metabolism
#19
Eun Hyang Han, Dominic P Petrella, Joshua J Blakeslee
Salt stress causes worldwide reductions in agricultural yields, a problem that is exacerbated by the depletion of global freshwater reserves and the use of contaminated or recycled water (i.e. effluent water). Additionally, salt stress can occur as cultivated areas are subjected to frequent rounds of irrigation followed by periods of moderate to severe evapotranspiration, which can result in the heterogeneous aggregation of salts in agricultural soils. Our understanding of the later stages of salt stress and the mechanisms by which salt is transported out of cells and roots has greatly improved over the last decade...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895400/the-role-of-electrode-catalyst-interactions-in-enabling-efficient-co2-reduction-with-mo-bpy-co-4-as-revealed-by-vibrational-sum-frequency-generation-spectroscopy
#20
Gaia Neri, Paul M Donaldson, Alexander J Cowan
Group 6 metal carbonyl complexes ([M(bpy)(CO)4], M = Cr, Mo, W) are potentially promising CO2 reduction electrocatalysts. However catalytic activity onsets at prohibitively negative potentials and is highly dependent on the nature of the working electrode. Here we report in-situ vibrational SFG (VSFG) measurements of the electrocatalyst [Mo(bpy)(CO)4] at platinum and gold electrodes. The greatly improved onset potential for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction at gold electrodes is due to the formation of the catalytically active species [Mo(bpy)(CO)3](2-) via a 2(nd) pathway at more positive potentials, likely avoiding the need for the generation of [Mo(bpy)(CO)4](2-)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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