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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097362/folic-acid-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#1
Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Karina W Davidson, John W Epling, Francisco A R García, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, William R Phillips, Maureen G Phipps, Michael P Pignone, Michael Silverstein, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Neural tube defects are among the most common major congenital anomalies in the United States and may lead to a range of disabilities or death. Daily folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period can prevent neural tube defects. However, most women do not receive the recommended daily intake of folate from diet alone. Objective: To update the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on folic acid supplementation in women of childbearing age...
January 10, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095776/genetic-and-economic-benefits-of-selection-based-on-performance-recording-and-genotyping-in-lower-tiers-of-multi-tiered-sheep-breeding-schemes
#2
Bruno F S Santos, Julius H J van der Werf, John P Gibson, Timothy J Byrne, Peter R Amer
BACKGROUND: Performance recording and genotyping in the multiplier tier of multi-tiered sheep breeding schemes could potentially reduce the difference in the average genetic merit between nucleus and commercial flocks, and create additional economic benefits for the breeding structure. METHODS: The genetic change in a multiple-trait breeding objective was predicted for various selection strategies that included performance recording, parentage testing and genomic selection...
January 17, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092759/effects-of-donor-proliferation-in-development-aid-for-health-on-health-program-performance-a-conceptual-framework
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Wood Pallas, Jennifer Prah Ruger
Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework...
January 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091570/increasing-the-potential-for-malaria-elimination-by-targeting-zoophilic-vectors
#4
Jessica L Waite, Sunita Swain, Penelope A Lynch, S K Sharma, Mohammed Asrarul Haque, Jacqui Montgomery, Matthew B Thomas
Countries in the Asia Pacific region aim to eliminate malaria by 2030. A cornerstone of malaria elimination is the effective management of Anopheles mosquito vectors. Current control tools such as insecticide treated nets or indoor residual sprays target mosquitoes in human dwellings. We find in a high transmission region in India, malaria vector populations show a high propensity to feed on livestock (cattle) and rest in outdoor structures such as cattle shelters. We also find evidence for a shift in vector species complex towards increased zoophilic behavior in recent years...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089943/resveratrol-supplementation-and-plasma-adipokines-concentrations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
REVIEW
Mohsen Mohammadi Sartang, Zohreh Mazloom, Zahra Sohrabi, Saeed Sherafatmanesh, Reza Barati Boldaji
The results of human clinical trials have revealed that the effects of resveratrol on adipokines are inconsistent. Our objective was to elucidate the role of resveratrol supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs).(1) The search included PubMed-MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI web of sciences database till up to 6th November 2016. Weight mean differences (WMD)(2) were calculated for net changes in adipokines using fixed-effects or random-effects models; meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted in accordance with standard methods...
January 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089247/-mid-gut-neuroendocrine-tumors-news-on-medical-treatment
#6
Marie Dior, Johann Dreanic, Caroline Prieux-Klotz, Bertrand Brieau, Catherine Brezault, Romain Coriat
CONTEXT: Mid gut neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare tumors whose incidence is increasing. Curative surgery remains the gold standard for the treatment of NETs of the small intestine. Surgery should be considered as soon as possible even if a metastatic stage is diagnosed. The management of unresectable well-differentiated metastatic NETs of the small intestine recently changed with the publication of trials demonstrating the benefit of targeted therapies and metabolic radiotherapy, leading to a change of practices and update of French and international recommendations...
January 11, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087821/selection-of-first-line-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis-using-risk-benefit-decision-analysis
#7
David Bargiela, Matthew T Bianchi, M Brandon Westover, Lori B Chibnik, Brian C Healy, Philip L De Jager, Zongqi Xia
OBJECTIVE: To integrate long-term measures of disease-modifying drug efficacy and risk to guide selection of first-line treatment of multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We created a Markov decision model to evaluate disability worsening and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) risk in patients receiving natalizumab (NTZ), fingolimod (FGL), or glatiramer acetate (GA) over 30 years. Leveraging publicly available data, we integrated treatment utility, disability worsening, and risk of PML into quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087139/retention-of-faculty-of-color-in-academic-nursing
#8
Nalo Hamilton, Emily A Haozous
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic diversity among nursing faculty is low, preventing schools of nursing (SON) from reflecting the populations that they serve academically and clinically. Few studies address the experience and success of faculty of color (FOC) in nursing. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to summarize the current literature related to FOC retention and promotion. METHODS: We reviewed 25 articles from the nursing literature following PRISMA guidelines, using a critical race theory framework...
December 8, 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081164/economic-evaluation-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-in-reducing-cardiovascular-risk-from-health-system-and-private-payer-perspectives
#9
Alejandro Arrieta, Timothy F Page, Emir Veledar, Khurram Nasir
The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074880/tailoring-mechanically-robust-poly-m-phenylene-isophthalamide-nanofiber-nets-for-ultrathin-high-efficiency-air-filter
#10
Shichao Zhang, Hui Liu, Xia Yin, Zhaoling Li, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Effective promotion of air filtration applications proposed for fibers requires their real nanoscale diameter, optimized pore structure, and high service strength; however, creating such filter medium has proved to be a tremendous challenge. This study first establishes a strategy to design and fabricate novel poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) nanofiber/nets (PMIA NF/N) air filter via electrospinning/netting. Our strategy results in generation of a bimodal structure including a scaffold of nanofibers and abundant two-dimensional ultrathin (~20 nm) nanonets to synchronously construct PMIA filters by combining solution optimization, humidity regulation, and additive inspiration...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069561/cancer-survivors-experience-with-telehealth-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis
#11
REVIEW
Anna Cox, Grace Lucas, Afrodita Marcu, Marianne Piano, Wendy Grosvenor, Freda Mold, Roma Maguire, Emma Ream
BACKGROUND: Net survival rates of cancer are increasing worldwide, placing a strain on health service provision. There is a drive to transfer the care of cancer survivors-individuals living with and beyond cancer-to the community and encourage them to play an active role in their own care. Telehealth, the use of technology in remote exchange of data and communication between patients and health care professionals (HCPs), is an important contributor to this evolving model of care. Telehealth interventions are "complex," and understanding patient experiences of them is important in evaluating their impact...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065488/utility-of-normal-findings-on-electrocardiogram-and-echocardiogram-in-subjects-%C3%A2-65%C3%A2-years
#12
Sanjay Venkatesh, Wesley T O'Neal, Stephen T Broughton, Amit J Shah, Elsayed Z Soliman
The lack of abnormalities found on noninvasive cardiac testing possibly improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification efforts and conveys reduced risk despite the presence of traditional risk factors. This analysis included 3,805 (95% white and 61% women) participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) without baseline CVD. The combination of a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram was assessed for the development of CVD. A normal ECG was defined as the absence of major or minor Minnesota code abnormalities...
December 18, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064150/a-novel-risk-prediction-score-in-atrial-fibrillation-for-a-net-clinical-outcome-from-the-engage-af-timi-48-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Christina L Fanola, Robert P Giugliano, Christian T Ruff, Marco Trevisan, Francesco Nordio, Michele F Mercuri, Elliott M Antman, Eugene Braunwald
AIMS: The choice between initiating a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) and a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be challenging. To assist in this decision, we developed a risk score to identify patients for whom a therapeutic benefit of NOACs over VKA is predicted. METHODS AND RESULTS: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 was a randomized clinical trial of edoxaban vs. warfarin in 21 105 patients with AF. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with a serious net clinical outcome (NCO) of disabling stroke, life-threatening bleeding, and all-cause mortality in VKA naïve patients from the warfarin arm...
January 6, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062625/high-sensitivity-troponin-i-in-stable-patients-with-atherosclerotic-disease-in-the-tra-2%C3%A2-p-timi-50-trial
#14
Alon Eisen, Marc P Bonaca, Petr Jarolim, Benjamin M Scirica, Harvey D White, Michal Tendera, Mikael Dellborg, Jose C Nicolau, Joao Morais, Keith A A Fox, Erin A Bohula, Sabina A Murphy, Eugene Braunwald, David A Morrow
BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin I, measured with a high-sensitivity assay (hs-TnI), is well-established for risk prediction in acute coronary syndromes. However, its prognostic role in stable atherosclerotic disease, particularly for future myocardial infarction (MI), is less well defined. METHODS: We measured hs-TnI (Abbott ARCHITECT) in 15833 patients with prior MI, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease from the placebo-controlled Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2°P)-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 50 trial of the platelet inhibitor vorapaxar, excluding patients with recent MI (<30 days)...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061841/supervised-neuromuscular-exercise-prior-to-hip-and-knee-replacement-12-month-clinical-effect-and-cost-utility-analysis-alongside-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Linda Fernandes, Ewa M Roos, Søren Overgaard, Allan Villadsen, Rikke Søgaard
BACKGROUND: There are indications of beneficial short-term effect of pre-operative exercise in reducing pain and improving activity of daily living after total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. Though, information from studies conducting longer follow-ups and economic evaluations of exercise prior to THR and TKR is needed. The aim of the study was to analyse 12-month clinical effect and cost-utility of supervised neuromuscular exercise prior to THR and TKR surgery...
January 6, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058228/corticosteroid-minimization-in-renal-transplantation-careful-patient-selection-enables-feasibility
#16
Georgios Vlachopanos, Julie M Bridson, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
AIM: To explore the benefits and harms of corticosteroid (CS) minimization following renal transplantation. METHODS: CS minimization attempts to improve cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia), to enhance growth in children, to ameliorate bone disease and to lead to better compliance with immunosuppressive agents. Nevertheless, any benefit must be carefully weighed against the reduction in net immunosuppression and the potential harm to renal allograft function and survival...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056373/life-cycle-assessment-of-rice-straw-utilization-practices-in-india
#17
Shveta Soam, Pal Borjesson, Pankaj K Sharma, Ravi P Gupta, Deepak K Tuli, Ravindra Kumar
The aim of this study is to find potential utilization practice of rice straw in India from an environmental perspective. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for four most realistic utilization practices of straw including: (1) incorporation into the field as fertilizer (2) animal fodder (3) electricity (4) biogas. The results show that processing of 1 ton straw to electricity and biogas resulted in net reduction of 1471 and 1023kg CO2 eq., 15.0 and 3.4kg SO2 eq. and 6.7 and 7.1kg C2H6 eq. emissions in global warming, acidification and photochemical oxidation creation potential respectively...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056054/effect-of-dietary-types-on-feed-intakes-growth-performance-and-economic-benefit-in-tibetan-sheep-and-yaks-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau-during-cold-season
#18
Tianwei Xu, Shixiao Xu, Linyong Hu, Na Zhao, Zhe Liu, Li Ma, Hongjin Liu, Xinquan Zhao
Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054810/the-dynamic-effect-of-incentives-on-postreward-task-engagement
#19
Indranil Goswami, Oleg Urminsky
Although incentives can be a powerful motivator of behavior when they are available, an influential body of research has suggested that rewards can persistently reduce engagement after they end. This research has resulted in widespread skepticism among practitioners and academics alike about using incentives to motivate behavior change. However, recent field studies looking at the longer term effects of temporary incentives have not found such detrimental behavior. We design an experimental framework to study dynamic behavior under temporary rewards, and find that although there is a robust decrease in engagement immediately after the incentive ends, engagement returns to a postreward baseline that is equal to or exceeds the initial baseline...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052638/the-impact-of-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-on-the-quality-of-life-a-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Geoffrey Dusheiko
Instruments to assess the impact of hepatitis C virus infection on health and measurements of reported outcomes in patients (health-related quality of life [HRQOL]) are not frequently used to assign priority for treatment. Several systematic reviews have been performed that provide a comprehensive analysis to help understand patient reported outcomes (PROs) with direct acting antiviral treatment. Clinical trials with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) provide an important opportunity to assess PROs without interferon or ribavirin...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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