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Di-cyclic gmp

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186120/dimerisation-induced-formation-of-the-active-site-and-the-identification-of-three-metal-sites-in-eal-phosphodiesterases
#1
Dom Bellini, Sam Horrell, Andrew Hutchin, Curtis W Phippen, Richard W Strange, Yuming Cai, Armin Wagner, Jeremy S Webb, Ivo Tews, Martin A Walsh
The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key regulator of bacterial motility and virulence. As high levels of c-di-GMP are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, c-di-GMP hydrolysing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) have been identified as key targets to aid development of novel strategies to treat chronic infection by exploiting biofilm dispersal. We have studied the EAL signature motif-containing phosphodiesterase domains from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins PA3825 (PA3825(EAL)) and PA1727 (MucR(EAL))...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171809/the-ins-and-outs-of-cyclic-di-gmp-signaling-in-vibrio-cholerae
#2
REVIEW
Jenna G Conner, David Zamorano-Sánchez, Jin Hwan Park, Holger Sondermann, Fitnat H Yildiz
The second messenger nucleotide cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) governs many cellular processes in the facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. This organism copes with changing environmental conditions in aquatic environments and during transitions to and from human hosts. Modulation of c-di-GMP allows V. cholerae to shift between motile and sessile stages of life, thus allowing adaptation to stressors and environmental conditions during its transmission cycle. The V. cholerae genome encodes a large set of proteins predicted to degrade and produce c-di-GMP...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167523/the-role-of-cyclic-di-gmp-and-exopolysaccharide-in-type-iv-pilus-dynamics
#3
Jan Ribbe, Amy E Baker, Sebstian Euler, George A O'Toole, Berenike Maier
For Pseudomonas aeruginosa the levels of cyclic di-GMP govern the transition from the planktonic state to biofilm formation. Type IV pili (T4P) are crucial determinants of biofilm structure and dynamics, but it is unknown how the levels of c-di-GMP affect pilus dynamics. Here, we scrutinized how c-di-GMP affects molecular motor properties and adhesive behavior of T4P. By means of retraction, T4P generated forces of ∼ 30 pN. Deletion mutants in the proteins with known roles in biofilm formation, swarming motility and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, specifically, the diguanulate cyclases sadC and roeA or the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase bifA, showed only modest effects on velocity or force of T4P retraction...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163311/cyclic-di-gmp-second-messenger-extraordinaire
#4
REVIEW
Urs Jenal, Alberto Reinders, Christian Lori
Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are highly versatile signalling molecules that control various important biological processes in bacteria. The best-studied example is cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Known since the late 1980s, it is now recognized as a near-ubiquitous second messenger that coordinates diverse aspects of bacterial growth and behaviour, including motility, virulence, biofilm formation and cell cycle progression. In this Review, we discuss important new insights that have been gained into the molecular principles of c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation, which are mediated by diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, respectively, and the cellular functions that are exerted by c-di-GMP-binding effectors and their diverse targets...
February 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148244/detailed-analysis-of-c-di-gmp-mediated-regulation-of-csgd-expression-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#5
Irfan Ahmad, Annika Cimdins, Timo Beske, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: The secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP promotes biofilm formation by up regulating the expression of csgD, encoding the major regulator of rdar biofilm formation in Salmonella typhimurium. The GGDEF/EAL domain proteins regulate the c-di-GMP turnover. There are twenty- two GGDEF/EAL domain proteins in the genome of S. typhimurium. In this study, we dissect the role of individual GGDEF/EAL proteins for csgD expression and rdar biofilm development. RESULTS: Among twelve GGDEF domains, two proteins upregulate and among fifteen EAL domains, four proteins down regulate csgD expression...
February 2, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138140/hit-the-right-spots-cell-cycle-control-by-phosphorylated-guanosines-in-alphaproteobacteria
#6
REVIEW
Régis Hallez, Marie Delaby, Stefano Sanselicio, Patrick H Viollier
The class Alphaproteobacteria includes Gram-negative free-living, symbiotic and obligate intracellular bacteria, as well as important plant, animal and human pathogens. Recent work has established the key antagonistic roles that phosphorylated guanosines, cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp), have in the regulation of the cell cycle in these bacteria. In this Review, we discuss the insights that have been gained into the regulation of the initiation of DNA replication and cytokinesis by these second messengers, with a particular focus on the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus...
January 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120848/nanogel-based-nasal-ghrelin-vaccine-prevents-obesity
#7
T Azegami, Y Yuki, S Sawada, M Mejima, K Ishige, K Akiyoshi, H Itoh, H Kiyono
Obesity is associated with multiple comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases and has a huge economic impact on the health-care system. However, the treatment of obesity remains insufficient in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Here we created a nasal vaccine against obesity for the first time. To avoid the injectable administration-caused pain and skin-related adverse event, we focused on the intranasal route of antigen delivery. We developed a vaccine antigen (ghrelin-PspA (pneumococcal surface protein A)), which is a recombinant fusion protein incorporating ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure, and PspA, a candidate of pneumococcal vaccine as a carrier protein...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078398/potential-coupling-effects-of-ammonia-oxidizing-and-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidizing-bacteria-on-completely-autotrophic-nitrogen-removal-over-nitrite-biofilm-formation-induced-by-the-second-messenger-cyclic-diguanylate
#8
Chao Wang, Sitong Liu, Xiaochen Xu, Chuanqi Zhao, Fenglin Yang, Dong Wang
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on the coupling effects between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria for the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) biofilm formation in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). Analysis of the quantity of EPS and cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) confirmed that the contents of polysaccharides and c-di-GMP were correlated in the AOB sludge, anammox sludge, and CANON biofilm...
January 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057864/adenylate-cyclase-a-acting-on-pka-mediates-induction-of-stalk-formation-by-cyclic-diguanylate-at-the-dictyostelium-organizer
#9
Zhi-Hui Chen, Reema Singh, Christian Cole, Hajara Mohammed Lawal, Christina Schilde, Melanie Febrer, Geoffrey J Barton, Pauline Schaap
Coordination of cell movement with cell differentiation is a major feat of embryonic development. The Dictyostelium stalk always forms at the organizing tip, by a mechanism that is not understood. We previously reported that cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), synthesized by diguanylate cyclase A (DgcA), induces stalk formation. Here we used transcriptional profiling of dgca- structures to identify target genes for c-di-GMP, and used these genes to investigate the c-di-GMP signal transduction pathway. We found that knockdown of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in prestalk cells reduced stalk gene induction by c-di-GMP, whereas PKA activation bypassed the c-di-GMP requirement for stalk gene expression...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031943/supramolecular-polymer-formation-by-cyclic-dinucleotides-and-intercalators-affects-dinucleotide-enzymatic-processing
#10
Shizuka Nakayama, Jie Zhou, Yue Zheng, Henryk Szmacinski, Herman O Sintim
BACKGROUND: Cyclic dinucleotides form supramolecular aggregates with intercalators, and this property could be utilized in nanotechnology and medicine. METHODS & RESULTS: Atomic force microscopy and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to show that cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) forms G-wires in the presence of intercalators. The average fluorescence lifetime of thiazole orange, when bound to c-di-GMP was greater than when bound to DNA G-quadruplexes or dsDNA...
March 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031279/progress-in-understanding-of-the-molecular-basis-underlying-functional-diversification-of-cyclic-di-nucleotide-turnover-proteins
#11
Ute Römling, Zhao-Xun Liang, J Maxwell Dow
Cyclic di-GMP was the first cyclic di-nucleotide second messenger described, presaging the discovery of additional cyclic di-nucleotide messengers in bacteria and eukaryotes. The GGDEF diguanylate cyclase (DGC) and EAL and HD-GYP phosphodiesterase (PDE) domains conduct the turnover of cyclic di-GMP. These three unrelated domains belong to superfamilies that exhibit significant variations in function, to include both enzymatically active and inactive members with a subset involved in synthesis and degradation of other cyclic di-nucleotides...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011630/a-polycystin-type-transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-that-is-activated-by-atp
#12
David Traynor, Robert R Kay
ATP and ADP are ancient extra-cellular signalling molecules that in Dictyostelium amoebae cause rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium due to an influx through the plasma membrane. This response is independent of hetero-trimeric G-proteins, the putative IP3 receptor IplA and all P2X channels. We show, unexpectedly, that it is abolished in mutants of the polycystin-type transient receptor potential channel, TrpP. Responses to the chemoattractants cyclic-AMP and folic acid are unaffected in TrpP mutants...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990276/recent-advances-in-understanding-streptomyces
#13
REVIEW
Keith F Chater
About 2,500 papers dated 2014-2016 were recovered by searching the PubMed database for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of antibiotics. This review integrates around 100 of these papers in sections dealing with evolution, ecology, pathogenicity, growth and development, stress responses and secondary metabolism, gene expression, and technical advances. Genomic approaches have greatly accelerated progress. For example, it has been definitively shown that interspecies recombination of conserved genes has occurred during evolution, in addition to exchanges of some of the tens of thousands of non-conserved accessory genes...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986717/flra-represses-transcription-of-the-biofilm-associated-bpfa-operon-in-shewanella-putrefaciens
#14
Yuan-Yuan Cheng, Chao Wu, Jia-Yi Wu, Hui-Ling Jia, Ming-Yu Wang, Huan-Yu Wang, Si-Min Zou, Rui-Rui Sun, Rong Jia, Ya-Zhong Xiao
: Manipulation of biofilm formation in Shewanella is beneficial for application to industrial and environmental biotechnology. BpfA is an adhesin largely responsible for biofilm formation in many Shewanella species. However, the mechanism underlying BpfA production and the resulting biofilm remains vaguely understood. We previously described the finding that BpfA expression is enhanced by DosD, an oxygen-stimulated diguanylate cyclase, under aerobic growth. In the present work, we identify FlrA as a critical transcription regulator of the bpfA operon in Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 by transposon mutagenesis...
February 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956524/thermoregulation-of-biofilm-formation-in-burkholderia-pseudomallei-is-disrupted-by-mutation-of-a-putative-diguanylate-cyclase
#15
Brooke A Plumley, Kevin H Martin, Grace I Borlee, Nicole L Marlenee, Mary N Burtnick, Paul J Brett, David P AuCoin, Richard A Bowen, Herbert P Schweizer, Bradley R Borlee
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a tier 1 select agent and the etiological agent of melioidosis, transitions from soil and aquatic environments to infect a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. During the transition from an environmental saprophyte to a mammalian pathogen, B. pseudomallei encounters and responds to rapidly changing environmental conditions. Environmental sensing systems that control cellular levels of cyclic di-GMP promote pathogen survival in diverse environments. Cyclic di-GMP controls biofilm production, virulence factors, and motility in many bacteria...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933792/oxygen-and-bis-3-5-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine-monophosphate-binding-control-oligomerization-state-equilibria-of-diguanylate-cyclase-containing-globin-coupled-sensors
#16
Justin L Burns, Shannon Rivera, D Douglas Deer, Shawnna C Joynt, David Dvorak, Emily E Weinert
Bacteria sense their environment to alter phenotypes, including biofilm formation, to survive changing conditions. Heme proteins play important roles in sensing the bacterial gaseous environment and controlling the switch between motile and sessile (biofilm) states. Globin coupled sensors (GCS), a family of heme proteins consisting of a globin domain linked by a central domain to an output domain, are often found with diguanylate cyclase output domains that synthesize c-di-GMP, a major regulator of biofilm formation...
December 6, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914071/differential-radial-capillary-action-of-ligand-assay-dracala-for-high-throughput-detection-of-protein-metabolite-interactions-in-bacteria
#17
Mona W Orr, Vincent T Lee
Bacteria rely on numerous nucleotide second messengers for signal transduction such as cyclic AMP, cyclic-di-GMP, and cyclic-di-AMP. Although a number of receptors responsible for known regulated phenotypes have been established, the completeness of protein receptors in any given organism remains elusive. We have developed a method called differential radial capillary action of ligand assay (DRaCALA) that allows for an unbiased, systematic high-throughput screen for the detection of ligand binding proteins encoded by a genome...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899451/real-time-spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-the-distribution-of-c-di-gmp-during-biofilm-development
#18
Harikrishnan A S Nair, Saravanan Periasamy, Liang Yang, Staffan Kjelleberg, Scott A Rice
Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a dynamic intracellular signaling molecule that plays a central role in the biofilm life cycle. Current methodologies for the quantification of c-di-GMP are typically based on chemical extraction, representing end point measurements. Chemical methodologies also fail to take into consideration the physiological heterogeneity of the biofilm and thus represent an average c-di-GMP concentration across the entire biofilm. To address these problems, a ratiometric, image-based quantification method has been developed based on expression of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) under the control of the c-di-GMP-responsive cdrA promoter (Rybtke, M...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881736/reactive-oxygen-species-drive-evolution-of-pro-biofilm-variants-in-pathogens-by-modulating-cyclic-di-gmp-levels
#19
Song Lin Chua, Yichen Ding, Yang Liu, Zhao Cai, Jianuan Zhou, Sanjay Swarup, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan Christoph Schuster, Staffan Kjelleberg, Michael Givskov, Liang Yang
The host immune system offers a hostile environment with antimicrobials and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are detrimental to bacterial pathogens, forcing them to adapt and evolve for survival. However, the contribution of oxidative stress to pathogen evolution remains elusive. Using an experimental evolution strategy, we show that exposure of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to sub-lethal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels over 120 generations led to the emergence of pro-biofilm rough small colony variants (RSCVs), which could be abrogated by l-glutathione antioxidants...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855163/genetic-modulation-of-c-di-gmp-turnover-affects-multiple-virulence-traits-and-bacterial-virulence-in-rice-pathogen-dickeya-zeae
#20
Yufan Chen, Mingfa Lv, Lisheng Liao, Yanfang Gu, Zhibin Liang, Zurong Shi, Shiyin Liu, Jianuan Zhou, Lianhui Zhang
The frequent outbreaks of rice foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae have become a significant concern in rice planting regions and countries, but the regulatory mechanisms that govern the virulence of this important pathogen remain vague. Given that the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with modulation of various virulence-related traits in various microorganisms, here we set to investigate the role of the genes encoding c-di-GMP metabolism in the regulation of the bacterial physiology and virulence by construction all in-frame deletion mutants targeting the annotated c-di-GMP turnover genes in D...
2016: PloS One
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