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Rattikarn Noitem, Chaowalit Yuajit, Sunhapas Soodvilai, Chatchai Muanprasat, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
Overexpression of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) was observed and suggested to be involved in fluid secretion leading to cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). The cyst expansion deteriorates the renal function and, therefore, therapies targeting cyst enlargement are of clinical interest. Of note, inhibition of vasopressin function using vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist which decreased cAMP production along with AQP2 production and function can slow cyst growth in ADPKD. This finding supports the role of AQP2 in cyst enlargement...
March 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Bubuya Masola, Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju, Ayodeji B Oyenihi
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Family: Apiaceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to elevate mood, improve memory, treat wounds and manage kidney-related ailments in African traditional medicine practice. This study evaluated the potential benefits of C. asiatica (CA) on diabetes-induced stress in kidney and brain of rats. Following the induction of diabetes mellitus (DM), rats were orally treated with vehicle, CA or Metformin daily for 14 days. After treatment, renal and brain levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 were assessed...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sandra Nicklasson, Desirée Sjöström, Mats Amundin, Daniel Roth, Laura Teresa Hernandez Salazar, Matthias Laska
Primates have been found to differ widely in their taste perception and studies suggest that a co-evolution between plant species bearing a certain taste substance and primate species feeding on these plants may contribute to such between-species differences. Considering that only platyrrhine primates, but not catarrhine or prosimian primates, share an evolutionary history with the neotropical plant Stevia rebaudiana , we assessed whether members of these three primate taxa differ in their ability to perceive and/or in their sensitivity to its two quantitatively predominant sweet-tasting substances...
February 2018: Current Zoology
Alireza Mirzaei, Gholamreza Kavoosi, Sara Dezhsetan, Mahdi Behnamian
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a kind of perennial medicinal plant with sweetening properties which belongs to Asteraceae family. Its leaves with fundamental glycoside compounds consist of both a sugar part and a non-sugar sector. One of the glycoside compounds is Rebaudioside- A which has a greater importance in business. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ag2O, CrO3, PbO, Fe2O3, BaO and TiO2 on the expression pattern of these genes in the Stevia rebaudiana. Rebaudioside- A biosynthesis was repeated 3 times with concentrations of 50, 100 and 200µM...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Danial Kahrizi, Matin Ghaheri, Zahra Yari, Khirollah Yari, Sohbat Bahraminejad
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is one of two species that contains steviol glycosides. Among steviol glycosides that extracted from leaves, stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two major and the sweetest glycosides that are about 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose with zero calories. The best method for stevia propagation is tissue culture. So, for investigation of nutrients in medium, we studied the effect of different concentrations of MS media (MS, 0.5 MS, 0.25 MS, 0 MS) on morphological traits, UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes expression and accumulation of steviol glycosides in stevia leaves...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Matin Ghaheri, Elaheh Adibrad, Seyed Mehdi Safavi, Danial Kahrizi, Ali Soroush, Saare Muhammadi, Tayebeh Ghorbani, Ali Sabzevari, Zahra Ansarypour, Elham Rahmanian
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is One of the most important biologically sourced and low-calorie sweeteners that known as "Sweet Weed". It contains steviol glycosides that they are about 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Tissue culture is the best method with high efficiency that can overcome to problems of traditional methods, and it is the most useful tools for studying stress tolerance mechanisms under in vitro conditions to obtain drought tolerance. In the present research, we investigated the impact of life cycle, leaves location and the harvesting time on expression of UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 as well as steviol glycosides accumulation...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Fariba Akbari, Ali Arminian, Danial Kahrizi, Arash Fazeli, Matin Ghaheri
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is a non-caloric sweetener belonging to Asteraceae family. Stevia compounds such as steviol glycosides (SGs) are 200 times sweeter than sugar. Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two major steviol glycosides. Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development. In this study the effects of nitrogen influenced by different concentrations of NH4NO3 (0, 825 and 1650 mg/l) and KNO3 (0, 950 and 1900 mg/l) is examined in MS medium. To analysis the UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes expression, involved in the synthesis of SGs, RT-qPCR technique was performed...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Fatemeh Esmaeili, Matin Ghaheri, Danial Kahrizi, Mohsen Mansouri, Seyed Mehdi Safavi, Tayebeh Ghorbani, Sarre Muhammadi, Elham Rahmanian, Siavash Vaziri
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is one of the most important biologically sourced and low-calorie sweeteners that contains a lots of Steviol glycosides. Tissue culture is the best method for propagation of stevia and micro nutrients can affect both morphological traits and steviol glycosides production. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of glutamine (10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l) on expression of UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes and stevioside and rebaudioside A accumulation in the leaves of stevia under in vitro conditions...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Shoji Kobayashi, Keisuke Shibukawa, Yoshiki Hamada, Takuma Kuruma, Asako Kawabata, Araki Masuyama
We report short syntheses of (-)-tripterifordin and (-)-neotripterifordin, potent inhibitors of HIV replication, from stevioside, a natural sweetener used worldwide. The key transformations are reduction at C13 through the formation of a tertiary chloride and subsequent three-step lactonization including a selective iodination at C20 by the photoreaction of the C19-alcohol. The title compounds were reliably obtained from stevioside in 9 and 11 steps (with 5-7 isolation steps), respectively. Additionally, the related lactone-containing ent-kaurenes, doianoterpenes A and B, and two more natural products were synthesized...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Changseop Seo, Bon-Cheol Gu, Hee-Jung Lim, Jung-Min Ha, Seong-Bo Kim, Jun-Seong Park, Doman Kim
OBJECTIVE: To purify and characterize a specific enzyme from a commercial pectinase for the production of steviol from stevioside (Ste) without adding organic solvent and to improve steviol production. RESULTS: Commercial Sumizyme PX converted Ste to steviol with a yield of 98%. β-Glucosidase from Sumizyme PX (βglyPX) was purified in three steps with 12.5-fold purification and 51% yield. The specific activity of the purified βglyPX was 141 U/mg. The molecular weight of βglyPX was ~ 116 kDa on SDS-PAGE...
October 24, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Liangliang Chen, Ping Sun, Yan Li, Ming Yan, Lin Xu, Kequan Chen, Pingkai Ouyang
The UDP-glucosyltransferase UGT76G1 from Stevia rebaudiana converts stevioside to rebaudioside A via a one-step glycosylation reaction, which increases the amount of sweet-tasting rebaudioside A and decreases the amount of stevioside that has a bitter aftertaste. This enzyme could, therefore, conceivably be used to improve the organoleptic properties of steviol glycosides and offer a cost-effective preparation of high-purity rebaudioside A. Producing soluble enzymes by overexpression is a prerequisite for large-scale biocatalysis...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda, María Lara Lazarte, Fiorella Bruno, Alicia E Consolini
BACKGROUND: The sweetener and hypoglycemic properties of stevioside (STV) are well known, as the main component of the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Given its extensive use in diabetic patients, it was of interest to evaluate its effects on the most frequent cardiovascular disease, the coronary insufficiency. PURPOSE: To study whether STV could be cardioprotective against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in a model of "stunning" in rat hearts. STUDY DESIGN: A preclinical study was performed in isolated hearts from rats in the following groups: non-treated rats whose hearts were perfused with STV 0...
November 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Benno F Zimmermann
Nine state-of-the-art reversed phase (RP) columns for ultra-high performance liquid chromatography were tested for the separation of steviol glycosides. The main criteria were resolution of the critical peak pair rebaudioside A and stevioside and the retention time of rebaudioside D. Three columns yielded a resolution of 2 or more of the critical peak pair and two of them showed sufficient retention of rebaudioside D, namely 1.62 and 1.84min corresponding to retention factors of 0.98 and 1.24. The separation of nine steviol glycosides was possible in 11min with UV and MS compatible, buffer-free eluents at moderate temperature...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Cecilia Prata, Laura Zambonin, Benedetta Rizzo, Tullia Maraldi, Cristina Angeloni, Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Diana Fiorentini, Silvana Hrelia
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a shrub having a high content of sweet diterpenoid glycosides in its leaves, mainly stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are used as noncaloric, natural sweeteners. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the insulin-mimetic effect exerted by four different mixtures of steviol glycosides, rich in stevioside and rebaudioside A, in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts. The potential antioxidant activity of these steviol glycosides was also assessed, as oxidative stress is associated with diabetes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Eunju Kim, Soo-Min Lim, Min-Soo Kim, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
Latha S, Sheetal Chaudhary, Ray R S
Oxidative stress and hepatic inflammatory response is primarily implicated in the pathogenesis of LPS induced acute liver injury. Stevioside, a diterpenoidal glycoside isolated from the Stevia rebaudiana leaves, exerts potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves (STE EXT) and its major phytochemical constituent, stevioside (STE) in LPS induced acute liver injury...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jun-Ming Chen, Yong-Mei Xia, Yan-Dong Zhang, Tong-Tong Zhang, Qing-Rui Peng, Yun Fang
Steviol glycosides, a natural sweetener, may perform bioactivities via steviol, their main metabolite in human digestion. The metabolising kinetics, i.e. glucuronidation kinetics and interaction between steviol glycosides or their metabolites and metabolising enzyme, are important for understanding the bioactivity and cytotoxicity. The present study investigated kinetics of steviol glucuronidation in human liver microsome and a recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases isomer, UGT2B7, along with molecular docking to analyse interaction between UGT2B7 and steviol or glucose...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Jan Dusek, Alejandro Carazo, Frantisek Trejtnar, Lucie Hyrsova, Ondřej Holas, Tomas Smutny, Stanislav Micuda, Petr Pavek
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herb known for the high content of natural sweeteners in its leaves. Its main secondary metabolite stevioside is used as non-caloric sweetener. No information, however, is available on whether stevioside or steviol interact with drug-metabolizing enzymes and pose the potential risk of food-drug interactions. Similarly, data are lacking on the interactions of steviol and stevioside with key nuclear receptors controlling the expression of the main drug metabolizing enzymes. We studied the interactions of steviol and stevioside with the pregnane X (PXR), vitamin D (VDR), constitutive androstane (CAR), farnesoid X (FXR), glucocorticoid (GR) and aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) receptors, which control expression of genes of xenobiotic metabolism...
September 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
T Ghorbani, D Kahrizi, M Saeidi, I Arji
Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is known as sweet plant which it contains a high level of steviol glycosides in the leaves.  This plant has been used from centuries ago as a sweetener for tea. One of the most important steviol glycosides is stevioside that is attractive for diabetic persons. Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia. One of the most important factors in the medium is sucrose that is a necessary for plant growth. In the present study, we use nodal segments of the stem as explants in mediums with different sucrose concentration (50 mM, 100mM and 150mM)...
August 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Paula G Milani, Maysa Formigoni, Antonio S Dacome, Livia Benossi, Cecília E M DA Costa, Silvio C DA Costa
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13). Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds...
July 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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