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Clinical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931265/diagnostic-and-interventional-optical-angioscopy-in-ex-vivo-carotid-arteries
#1
Luis E Savastano, Neeraj Chaudhary, Carlos Murga-Zamalloa, Michael Wang, Thomas Wang, B Gregory Thompson
BACKGROUND: Angioscopy - or endovascular endoscopy - is a catheter-based technique employing a flexible fiberoptic angioscope to directly visualize arterial lumen. Poor resolution and excessive stiffness of pre-existent angioscopes limited their use clinically. Recent advances resulted in novel fused optical fiber bundle angioscopes with improved flexibility and imaging resolution. Use of these devices in endovascular neurosurgery is still largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate image quality and feasibility of optical angioscopes for diagnostic and interventional neuro-angioscopy in carotid arteries of human cadavers...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931203/scalpel-versus-electrosurgery-for-major-abdominal-incisions
#2
REVIEW
Kittipat Charoenkwan, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor, Kittipan Rerkasem, Elizabeth Matovinovic
BACKGROUND: Scalpels or electrosurgery can be used to make abdominal incisions. The potential benefits of electrosurgery may include reduced blood loss, dry and rapid separation of tissue, and reduced risk of cutting injury to surgeons. Postsurgery risks possibly associated with electrosurgery may include poor wound healing and complications such as surgical site infection. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of electrosurgery compared with scalpel for major abdominal incisions...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931184/-modern-interdisciplinary-management-of-a-uretero-iliac-artery-fistula-case-report
#3
D Benedix, F Meyer, F Fischbach, A Janitzky, Z Halloul
Introduction Abnormal links between the arterial system and other luminal systems are a challenge to those in charge of their adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management. Objective Scientific case report on an individual who underwent successful treatment combining vascular-surgical and interventional radiology techniques for a rare right uretero-iliac artery fistula based on personal clinical experience, a selective literature research and a detailed discussion of current recommendations for diagnostic workup and subsequent treatment...
September 20, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931164/impact-of-patient-education-on-influenza-vaccine-uptake-among-community-dwelling-elderly-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Ka Chun Leung, Carlo Mui, Wing Yan Chiu, Yuk Yiu Ng, Matthew H Y Chen, Pui Hung Ho, Chun Pong Kwok, Suki S M Lam, Chun Yip Wong, Kit Yee Wong, Herbert H Pang
This randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effectiveness of brief face-to-face patient education in increasing influenza vaccination rate among elderly in the community. Recruitment and intervention were conducted at two general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. 529 eligible patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control group with 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients in the intervention group received 3-min one-on-one verbal education by medical students and a pamphlet regarding influenza vaccination...
October 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931147/the-quantified-self-during-travel-mapping-health-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-travellers
#5
Andrea Farnham, Reinhard Furrer, Ulf Blanke, Emily Stone, Christoph Hatz, Milo A Puhan
Background: Travel medicine research has remained relatively unchanged in the face of rapid expansion of international travel and is unlikely to meet health challenges beyond infectious diseases. Our aim was to identify the range of health outcomes during travel using real-time monitoring and daily reporting of health behaviours and outcomes and identify traveller subgroups who may benefit from more targeted advice before and during travel. Methods: We recruited a prospective cohort of travellers ≥ 18 years and planning travel to Thailand for <5 weeks from the travel clinics in Zurich and Basel (Switzerland)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931130/challenges-to-providing-pre-travel-care-for-travellers-visiting-friends-and-relatives-an-audit-of-a-specialist-travel-medicine-clinic
#6
Kate Rowe, Nadia Chaves, Karin Leder
Travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) often have complex pre-travel needs. We identified the characteristics, destinations, vaccinations and pre-travel advice provided to VFRs and compared these with non-VFR travellers. The significant differences we found suggest that future research should focus on improving the uptake of recommended interventions in VFR travellers.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931067/in-vivo-imaging-system-for-explants-analysis-a-new-approach-for-assessment-of-cell-transplantation-effects-in-large-animal-models
#7
Weronika Zarychta-Wiśniewska, Anna Burdzinska, Radosław Zagozdzon, Bartosz Dybowski, Marta Butrym, Zdzisław Gajewski, Leszek Paczek
INTRODUCTION: Despite spectacular progress in cellular transplantology, there are still many concerns about the fate of transplanted cells. More preclinical studies are needed, especially on large animal models, to bridge the translational gap between basic research and the clinic. Herein, we propose a novel approach in analysis of cell transplantation effects in large animals explants using in vivo imaging system (IVIS®) or similar equipment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the in vitro experiment cells labeled with fluorescent membrane dyes: DID (far red) or PKH26 (orange) were visualized with IVIS®...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931031/reducing-therapeutic-misconception-a-randomized-intervention-trial-in-hypothetical-clinical-trials
#8
Paul P Christopher, Paul S Appelbaum, Debbie Truong, Karen Albert, Louise Maranda, Charles Lidz
BACKGROUND: Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930976/detection-of-residual-donor-erythroid-progenitor-cells-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-patients-with-hemoglobinopathies
#9
Roman Crazzolara, Gabriele Kropshofer, Michael Steurer, Sieghart Sopper, Wolfgang Schwinger
The presence of incomplete chimerism is noted in a large proportion of patients following bone marrow transplant for thalassemia major or sickle cell disease. This observation has tremendous implications, as subsequent therapeutic immunomodulation strategies can improve clinical outcome. Conventionally, polymerase chain reaction-based analysis of short tandem repeats is used to identify chimerism in donor-derived blood cells. However, this method is restricted to nucleated cells and cannot distinguish between dissociated single-cell lineages...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930892/costs-and-trends-in-utilization-of-low-value-services-among-older-adults-with-commercial-insurance-or-medicare-advantage
#10
Elizabeth A Carter, Pamela E Morin, Keith D Lind
BACKGROUND: Overutilization of low-value services (unnecessary or minimally beneficial tests or procedures) has been cited as a large contributor to the high costs of health care in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To analyze trends in utilization of low-value services from 2009 to 2014 among commercial and Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees 50 and older. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of deidentified claims obtained from the OptumLab Data Warehouse...
September 19, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930815/variability-in-usual-care-mechanical-ventilation-for-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-time-for-a-decision-support-protocol
#11
Christopher J L Newth, Katherine A Sward, Robinder G Khemani, Kent Page, Kathleen L Meert, Joseph A Carcillo, Thomas P Shanley, Frank W Moler, Murray M Pollack, Heidi J Dalton, David L Wessel, John T Berger, Robert A Berg, Rick E Harrison, Richard Holubkov, Allan Doctor, J Michael Dean, Tammara L Jenkins, Carol E Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: Although pediatric intensivists philosophically embrace lung protective ventilation for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we hypothesized that ventilator management varies. We assessed ventilator management by evaluating changes to ventilator settings in response to blood gases, pulse oximetry, or end-tidal CO2. We also assessed the potential impact that a pediatric mechanical ventilation protocol adapted from National Heart Lung and Blood Institute acute respiratory distress syndrome network protocols could have on reducing variability by comparing actual changes in ventilator settings to those recommended by the protocol...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930781/is-article-methodological-quality-associated-with-conflicts-of-interest-an-analysis-of-the-plastic-surgery-literature
#12
Brian H Cho, Joseph Lopez, Jessica Means, Sandra Lopez, Jacqueline Milton, Anthony P Tufaro, James W May, Amir H Dorafshar
PURPOSE: Conflicts of interest (COI) are an emerging area of discussion within the field of plastic surgery. Recently, several reports have found that research studies that disclose COI are associated with publication of positive outcomes. We hypothesize that this association is driven by higher-quality studies receiving industry funding. This study aimed to investigate the association between industry support and study methodological quality. METHODS: We reviewed all entries in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery, and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery within a 1-year period encompassing 2013...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930712/the-ethics-of-research-in-lower-income-countries-double-standards-are-not-the-problem
#13
David S Wendler
Discussion of the ethics of clinical trials in lower income countries has been dominated by concern over double standards. Most prominently, clinical trials of interventions that are less effective than the worldwide best treatment methods typically are not permitted in higher income countries. Commentators conclude that permitting such trials in lower income countries involves an ethical double standard. Despite significant attention to this concern, and its influence over prominent guidelines for research in lower income countries, there has been little analysis of what constitutes an ethical double standard in clinical research...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930707/re-evaluating-the-ethics-of-uterine-transplantation
#14
Danish Zaidi
In February 2016, the Cleveland Clinic initiated the first attempt at cadaveric uterine transplantation (UTx) in the United States. The transplantation was ultimately unsuccessful, but it opened doors for further research on both live and cadaveric UTx. While initial strides toward successful transplantation have been made, questions persist on the ethics of UTx: whether the uterus is a vital organ, whether we should prioritize live or cadaveric options, and how the procedure should be covered by health insurance...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930639/50-years-of-research-in-ards-tidal-volume-selection-in-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#15
Sarina K Sahetya, Jordi Mancebo, Roy G Brower
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is critical in the management of many patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, MV can also cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The selection of an appropriate tidal volume is an essential part of a lung-protective MV strategy. Since the publication of a large randomized clinical trial demonstrating the benefit of lower tidal volumes, the use of tidal volumes of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW, based on sex and height) has been recommended in clinical practice guidelines...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930604/therapeutic-startegies-for-human-papillomavirus-infection-and-associated-cancers
#16
Alok Chandra Bharti, Tejveer Singh, Anjali Bhat, Deepti Pande, Mohit Jadli
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked to development of cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, ano-genital and non-genital oro-pharyngeal sites. HPV being a sexually transmitted virus infects both genders equally but with higher chances of pathological outcome in women. In the absence of organized screening programs, women report HPV-infected lesions at relatively advanced stages where they are subjected to standard treatments that are not HPV-specific. HPV infection-driven lesions usually take 10-20 years for malignant progression and are preceded by well-characterized pre-cancer stages...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930599/dissection-of-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Can Sheng, Yue Huang, Ying Han
Pathophysiological changes of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) begin decades before clinical symptoms become apparent, providing an important window for early diagnosis and intervention. Prodromal stage of AD, a great opportunity for effective treatment and postponing the disease onset, has drawn extensive attention. The application of different biomarkers including neuroimaging, biochemical substances and genes makes AD-related pathology detectable in vivo and exploring novel biomarkers with relatively non-invasive and low cost has intrigued a wide range of interests...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930593/precision-medicine-of-frontotemporal-dementia-from-genotype-to-phenotype
#18
Xiang-Qian Che, Ning Song, Ying Gao, Ru-Jing Ren, Gang Wang
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common neurodegenerative  cause of early-onset dementia. FTD has an important genetic component contributing to its pathogenic mechanisms. Currently, extensive research on neuroimaging biomarkers and neurochemical biomarkers in FTD is being conducted to address the clinical need for a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker. Here, we review the advances in genetics, biomarkers and treatment of FTD and how this may represent a shift towards precision medicine...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930591/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-disease-current-state-and-future-directions-for-an-enigmatic-lipoprotein
#19
Anum Saeed, Salim S Virani
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a complex polymorphic lipoprotein. Although structurally similar to low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a) has a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), attached to the apolipoprotein B-100 component. Several unique properties of Lp(a) can be attributed to the presence of apo(a). Several decades of research has improved our understanding of the structure, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of Lp(a) associated diseases. Genetic, epidemiological, and translational data indicate that elevated Lp(a) levels are likely in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well as calcification of the aortic valves...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930568/medical-imaging-diagnosis-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Fatma El-Zahraa A El-Gamal, Mohammed M Elmogy, Mohammed Ghazal, Ahmed Atwan, Manual F Casanova, Gregory N Barnes, Ayman El-Baz, Hassan Hajjdiab
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases that influences the central nervous system, often leading to dire consequences for quality of life. The disease goes through some stages mainly divided into early, moderate, and severe. Among them, the early stage is the most important as medical intervention has the potential to alter the natural progression of the condition. In practice, the early diagnosis is a challenge since the neurodegenerative changes can precede the onset of clinical symptoms by 10-15 years...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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