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Acetyl-CoA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678960/toxoplasma-gondii-acetyl-coa-synthetase-is-involved-in-fatty-acid-elongation-of-long-fatty-acid-chains-during-tachyzoite-life-stages
#1
David Dubois, Stella Fernandes, Souad Amiar, Sheena Dass, Nicholas J Katris, Cyrille Y Botte, Yoshiki Yamaryo-Botte
Apicomplexan parasites are pathogens responsible for major human diseases such as toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and malaria caused by Plasmodium spp.. Throughout their intracellular division cycle, the parasites require vast and specific amounts of lipids to divide and survive. This demand for lipids relies on a fine balance between de novo synthesized lipids and scavenged lipids from the host. Acetyl-CoA is a major and central precursor for many metabolic pathways especially for lipid biosynthesis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676471/vitamin-d3-regulates-steroidogenesis-in-granulosa-cells-through-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
Shabnam Bakhshalizadeh, Fardin Amidi, Reza Shirazi, Maryam Shabani Nashtaei
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine and metabolic disorder in reproductive-aged women. Hormonal abnormality caused by steroidogenesis disturbances appears to be the main culprit of the clinical picture in PCOS. Vitamin D3 could regulate steroidogenesis in granulosa cells, but the mechanism of action of vitamin D3 on steroidogenesis remains unknown. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a modulating role in steroid hormone production. We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 on steroidogenesis in cultured granulosa cells of dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS mice and studied the involvement of AMPK signalling pathway in the current process...
April 20, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675017/-de-novo-fatty-acid-synthesis-during-mycobacterial-infection-is-a-prerequisite-for-the-function-of-highly-proliferative-t-cells-but-not-for-dendritic-cells-or-macrophages
#3
Philipp Stüve, Lucía Minarrieta, Hanna Erdmann, Catharina Arnold-Schrauf, Maxine Swallow, Melanie Guderian, Freyja Krull, Alexandra Hölscher, Peyman Ghorbani, Jochen Behrends, Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Christoph Hölscher, Tim D Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is able to efficiently manipulate the host immune system establishing chronic infection, yet the underlying mechanisms of immune evasion are not fully understood. Evidence suggests that this pathogen interferes with host cell lipid metabolism to ensure its persistence. Fatty acid metabolism is regulated by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 and 2; both isoforms catalyze the conversion of acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA, but have distinct roles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674394/acetyl-coa-promotes-glioblastoma-cell-adhesion-and-migration-through-ca-2-nfat-signaling
#4
Joyce V Lee, Corbett T Berry, Karla Kim, Payel Sen, Taehyong Kim, Alessandro Carrer, Sophie Trefely, Steven Zhao, Sully Fernandez, Lauren E Barney, Alyssa D Schwartz, Shelly R Peyton, Nathaniel W Snyder, Shelley L Berger, Bruce D Freedman, Kathryn E Wellen
The metabolite acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is the required acetyl donor for lysine acetylation and thereby links metabolism, signaling, and epigenetics. Nutrient availability alters acetyl-CoA levels in cancer cells, correlating with changes in global histone acetylation and gene expression. However, the specific molecular mechanisms through which acetyl-CoA production impacts gene expression and its functional roles in promoting malignant phenotypes are poorly understood. Here, using histone H3 Lys27 acetylation (H3K27ac) ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] coupled with next-generation sequencing) with normalization to an exogenous reference genome (ChIP-Rx), we found that changes in acetyl-CoA abundance trigger site-specific regulation of H3K27ac, correlating with gene expression as opposed to uniformly modulating this mark at all genes...
April 19, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668854/prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-sulforaphane-in-a-preclinical-mouse-model-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-metabolism
#5
Krishna B Singh, Su-Hyeong Kim, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Subrata K Pore, Bruce L Jacobs, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a rather unique and targetable mechanism of human prostate cancer. We have shown previously that oral administration of sulforaphane (SFN) significantly inhibits the incidence and/or burden of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. The present study used cellular models of prostate cancer and archived plasma/adenocarcinoma tissues and sections from the TRAMP study to demonstrate inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by SFN treatment in vitro and in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667817/in-vitro-analysis-of-d-lactyl-coa-polymerizing-polyhydroxyalkanoate-synthase-in-polylactate-and-poly-lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate-syntheses
#6
Ken'ichiro Matsumoto, Midori Iijima, Chiaki Hori, Camila Utsunomia, Toshihiko Ooi, Seiichi Taguchi
Engineered D-lactyl-coenzyme A (LA-CoA)-polymerizing polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC1PsSTQK) efficiently produces poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(LA-co-3HB]) copolymer in recombinant Escherichia coli, while synthesizing tiny amounts of poly(lactate) (PLA)-like polymers in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the interesting phenomena, in vitro analysis of PhaC1PsSTQK was performed using homo- and co-polymerization conditions of LA-CoA and 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663332/enhanced-isobutanol-production-from-acetate-by-combinatorial-overexpression-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-and-anaplerotic-enzymes-in-engineered-escherichia-coli
#7
Hun-Suk Song, Hyung-Min Seo, Jong-Min Jeon, Yu-Mi Moon, Ju Won Hong, Yoon Gi Hong, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Jungoh Ahn, Hongweon Lee, Wooseong Kim, Yong-Cheol Park, Kwon Young Choi, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Acetic acid is an abundant material that can be used as a carbon source by microorganisms. Despite its abundance, its toxicity and low energy content make it hard to utilize as a sole carbon source for biochemical production. To increase acetate utilization and isobutanol production with engineered Escherichia coli, the feasibility of utilizing acetate and metabolic engineering was investigated. The expression of acs, pckA, and maeB increased isobutanol production by up to 26%, and the addition of TCA cycle intermediates indicated that the intermediates can enhance isobutanol production...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662056/neuronal-sphk1-acetylates-cox2-and-contributes-to-pathogenesis-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ju Youn Lee, Seung Hoon Han, Min Hee Park, Bosung Baek, Im-Sook Song, Min-Koo Choi, Yoh Takuwa, Hoon Ryu, Seung Hyun Kim, Xingxuan He, Edward H Schuchman, Jae-Sung Bae, Hee Kyung Jin
Although many reports have revealed the importance of defective microglia-mediated amyloid β phagocytosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanism remains to be explored. Here we demonstrate that neurons in the brains of patients with AD and AD mice show reduction of sphingosine kinase1 (SphK1), leading to defective microglial phagocytosis and dysfunction of inflammation resolution due to decreased secretion of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). Elevation of SphK1 increased SPMs secretion, especially 15-R-Lipoxin A4, by promoting acetylation of serine residue 565 (S565) of cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) using acetyl-CoA, resulting in improvement of AD-like pathology in APP/PS1 mice...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659970/cholic-acid-supplementation-of-a-high-fat-obesogenic-diet-suppresses-hepatic-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-mice-via-a-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-dependent-mechanism
#9
Siri M Ippagunta, Alexei Kharitonenkov, Andrew C Adams, F Bradley Hillgartner
Background: Supplementation of a high-fat obesogenic diet (HFD) with cholic acid (CA) suppresses the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in mice. Objective: We investigated the role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in mediating the beneficial actions of CA on metabolic syndrome. Methods: Male 7-wk-old wild-type (WT) mice and FGF21 knockout (FGF21KO) mice were fed an HFD for 12 wk followed by a 4-wk period in which the mice were fed the HFD alone or supplemented with 0...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644657/enhanced-isobutanol-production-from-acetate-by-combinatorial-overexpression-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-and-anaplerotic-enzymes-in-engineered-escherichia-coli
#10
Hun-Suk Song, Hyung-Min Seo, Jong-Min Jeon, Yu-Mi Moon, Ju Won Hong, Yoon Gi Hong, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Jungoh Ahn, Hongweon Lee, Wooseong Kim, Yong-Cheol Park, Kwon Young Choi, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Acetic acid is an abundant material that can be used as a carbon source by microorganisms. Despite its abundance, its toxicity and low energy content make it hard to utilize as a sole carbon source for biochemical production. To increase acetate utilization and isobutanol production with engineered Escherichia coli, the feasibility of utilizing acetate and metabolic engineering was investigated. The expression of acs, pckA, and maeB increased isobutanol production by up to 26%, and the addition of TCA cycle intermediates indicated that the intermediates can enhance isobutanol production...
April 12, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644016/the-effect-of-oxidative-stress-towards-the-expression-of-thiamine-biosynthesis-genes-thic-and-thi1-thi4-in-oil-palm-elaeis-guineensis
#11
Zainor Hafisah Che Idris, Aisamuddin Ardi Zainal Abidin, Atiqah Subki, Zetty Norhana Balia Yusof
Thiamine is known to be an important compound in human diet and it is a cofactor required for vital metabolic processes such as acetyl-CoA biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, Krebs and Calvin cycle. Besides that, thiamine has been shown to be involved in plant protection against stress. In this study, the level of expression of THIC and THI1/THI4, the genes for the first two enzymes in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway were observed when oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) was subjected to oxidative stress. Primers were designed based on the consensus sequence of thiamine biosynthesis genes obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana , Zea mays , Oryza sativa , and Alnus glutinosa ...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643369/allosteric-regulation-alters-carrier-domain-translocation-in-pyruvate-carboxylase
#12
Yumeng Liu, Melissa M Budelier, Katelyn Stine, Martin St Maurice
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate. The reaction occurs in two separate catalytic domains, coupled by the long-range translocation of a biotinylated carrier domain (BCCP). Here, we use a series of hybrid PC enzymes to examine multiple BCCP translocation pathways in PC. These studies reveal that the BCCP domain of PC adopts a wide range of translocation pathways during catalysis. Furthermore, the allosteric activator, acetyl CoA, promotes one specific intermolecular carrier domain translocation pathway...
April 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627851/metabolic-engineering-of-clostridium-tyrobutyricum-for-enhanced-butyric-acid-production-with-high-butyrate-acetate-ratio
#13
Yukai Suo, Mengmeng Ren, Xitong Yang, Zhengping Liao, Hongxin Fu, Jufang Wang
Butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium couples with the synthesis of acetic acid. But the presence of acetic acid reduces butyric acid yield and increases separation and purification costs of butyric acid. Hence, enhancing the butyrate/acetate ratio is important for economical butyric acid production. This study indicated that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux by overexpression of both the butyryl-CoA/acetate CoA transferase (cat1) and crotonase (crt) genes in C. tyrobutyricum could significantly reduce acetic acid concentration...
April 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626162/biotin-attachment-domain-containing-proteins-irreversibly-inhibit-acetyl-coa-carboxylase
#14
Jantana Keereetaweep, Hui Liu, Zhiyang Zhai, John Shanklin
The first committed step in fatty acid synthesis is mediated by Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), a biotin-dependent enzyme that carboxylates acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA. ACCase can be feedback-regulated by short-term or long-term exposure to fatty acids in the form of Tween80 (predominantly containing oleic acid; 18:1), which results in reversible or irreversible ACCase inhibition, respectively. Biotin-Attachment-Domain-Containing (BADC) proteins are inactive analogs of biotin carboxyl transfer proteins that lack biotin and their incorporation into ACCase downregulates its activity by displacing active (biotin-containing) biotin carboxyl transferase protein subunits...
April 6, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625945/structural-and-functional-annotation-of-citrate-synthase-from-aspergillus-niger-anj-120
#15
Ghulam Mustafa, Rawaba Arif, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Muhammad Ali, Sumaira Sharif, Asia Atta
Citrate synthase (CS) is involved in citric acid biosynthesis which is a well-established metabolic pathway. The condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CS. Citric acid (CA) has a number of applications in pharmaceutical industry. CA in combination with bicarbonates is used as an effervescent in the preparations of tablets and powders. It has also been used as an anticoagulant and acidulant to form mild astringent. In current study, detailed structural and functional analyses of CS protein were carried out using various bioinformatics tools...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624768/gnat-toxins-of-bacterial-toxin-antitoxin-systems-acetylation-of-charged-trnas-to-inhibit-translation
#16
Chew Chieng Yeo
GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) is a huge superfamily of proteins spanning the prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains of life. GNAT proteins usually transfer an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to a wide variety of substrates ranging from aminoglycoside antibiotics to large macromolecules. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are typically bicistronic and widespread in bacterial and archael genomes with diverse cellular functions. Recently, a novel family of type II TA toxins was described which presents a GNAT-fold and functions by acetylating charged tRNA thereby precluding translation...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617384/a-group-of-populus-trichocarpa-duf231-proteins-exhibit-differential-o-acetyltransferase-activities-toward-xylan
#17
Ruiqin Zhong, Dongtao Cui, Zheng-Hua Ye
Wood represents the most abundant biomass produced by plants and one of its major components is acetyl xylan. Acetylation in xylan can occur at O-2 or O-3 of a xylosyl residue, at both O-2 and O-3 of a xylosyl residue, and at O-3 of a xylosyl residue substituted at O-2 with glucuronic acid. Acetyltransferases responsible for the regiospecific acetylation of xylan in tree species have not yet been characterized. Here we report the biochemical characterization of twelve Populus trichocarpa DUF231-containing proteins, named PtrXOATs, for their roles in the regiospecific acetylation of xylan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614883/bergamottin-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-weight-regulation-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Dongwoo Nam, Jae-Young Um, Sang Hoon Jung, Kwang Seok Ahn
Obesity is a serious and increasing health problem worldwide, and the inhibition of adipogenesis is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for it. Bergamottin (BGM), a component of grapefruit juice, has been reported to regulate lipolysis. However, the physiological role of BGM in obesity has not been evaluated so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BGM on obesity in 3T3-L1 cells and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). BGM inhibited adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells along with a significant decrease in the lipid content by downregulating the expression of two critical adipogenic factors, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP[Formula: see text]) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR[Formula: see text])...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610354/observation-of-acetyl-phosphate-formation-in-mammalian-mitochondria-using-real-time-in-organelle-nmr-metabolomics
#19
Wen Jun Xu, He Wen, Han Sun Kim, Yoon-Joo Ko, Seung-Mo Dong, In-Sun Park, Jong In Yook, Sunghyouk Park
Recent studies point out the link between altered mitochondrial metabolism and cancer, and detailed understanding of mitochondrial metabolism requires real-time detection of its metabolites. Employing heteronuclear 2D NMR spectroscopy and13 C3 -pyruvate, we propose in-organelle metabolomics that allows for the monitoring of mitochondrial metabolic changes in real time. The approach identified acetyl phosphate from human mitochondria, whose production has been largely neglected in eukaryotic metabolism since its first description about 70 years ago in bacteria...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605868/6-gingerol-ameliorates-behavioral-changes-and-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-apoe-mice-exposed-to-chronic-mild-stress
#20
Shuai Wang, Miao Tian, Ronglai Yang, Yating Jing, Wei Chen, Jinliang Wang, Xian Zheng, Fengrong Wang
Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been demonstrated to contribute to atherosclerosis. 6-gingerol (6-Gin), a phenolic component of ginger (Zingiber officinale), has been shown to exert numerous pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. Here we investigated the role of CMS in the development of atherosclerosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE-/- mice and evaluated the potential therapeutic effects of 6-Gin. Mice were exposed to CMS for 20 weeks, at week 5, they were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), then received 6-Gin (20 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) treatment...
March 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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