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Acetyl-CoA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040017/aralia-elata-miq-seem-extract-decreases-o-glcnac-transferase-expression-and-retinal-cell-death-in-diabetic-mice
#1
Yoon Sook Kim, Minjun Kim, Mee Young Choi, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Ki Hun Park, Seong-Jae Kim, Ji-Myong Yoo, Wan Sung Choi
Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (AES) is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AES extract against high glucose-induced retinal injury in diabetic mice. AES extract (20 and 100 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to control mice or mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Protein levels of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) were analyzed by western blotting...
October 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031613/pathogenic-mutations-of-the-human-mitochondrial-citrate-carrier-slc25a1-lead-to-impaired-citrate-export-required-for-lipid-dolichol-ubiquinone-and-sterol-synthesis
#2
Homa Majd, Martin S King, Anthony C Smith, Edmund R S Kunji
Missense mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier, encoded by the SLC25A1 gene, lead to an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterised by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development, often resulting in early death. Here, we have measured the effect of all twelve known pathogenic mutations on the transport activity. The results show that nine mutations abolish transport of citrate completely, whereas the other three reduce the transport rate by more than 70%, indicating that impaired citrate transport is the most likely primary cause of the disease...
October 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024108/changes-in-hepatic-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-related-parameters-in-domestic-pigeon-columba-livia-during-incubation-and-chick-rearing
#3
X P Wan, P Xie, Z Bu, X T Zou
This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019085/the-arnon-buchanan-cycle-a-retrospective-1966-2016
#4
Bob B Buchanan, Reidun Sirevåg, Georg Fuchs, Ruslan N Ivanovsky, Yasuo Igarashi, Masaharu Ishii, F Robert Tabita, Ivan A Berg
For the first decade following its description in 1954, the Calvin-Benson cycle was considered the sole pathway of autotrophic CO2 assimilation. In the early 1960s, experiments with fermentative bacteria uncovered reactions that challenged this concept. Ferredoxin was found to donate electrons directly for the reductive fixation of CO2 into alpha-keto acids via reactions considered irreversible. Thus, pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate could be synthesized from CO2, reduced ferredoxin and acetyl-CoA or succinyl-CoA, respectively...
October 10, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993954/obesity-alleviating-potential-of-asiatic-acid-and-its-effects-on-acc1-ucp2-and-cpt1-mrna-expression-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
P Rameshreddy, V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, Parim Brahmanaidu, S Vadivukkarasi, Ramavat Ravindarnaik, Pothani Suresh, K Swapna, A Kalaivani, Parimi Parvathi, P Tamilmani, Ganapathy Saravanan
The present study evaluated the effects of asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Centella asiatica on lipid metabolism parameters in a rat model of obesity induced using a high fat diet (HFD) for 42 days. AA (20 mg/kg body weight [BW]) was administered orally once daily for 42 days, and an orlistat-treated group of rats (10 mg/kg BW) was included for comparison. Changes in BW, blood glucose levels, insulin resistance and leptin, adiponectin, amylase, and lipase levels in the blood; lipid profiles of plasma; liver antioxidants levels; and acetyl CoA carboxylase(ACC), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) mRNA expression were observed in the experimental rats...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993031/targeting-atp-citrate-lyase-in-hyperlipidemia-and-metabolic-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Stephen L Pinkosky, Pieter H E Groot, Narendra D Lalwani, Gregory R Steinberg
Chronic overnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle promote imbalances in metabolism, often manifesting as risk factors for life-threating diseases such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nucleocytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) has emerged as a central signaling node used to coordinate metabolic adaptations in response to a changing nutritional status. ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) is the enzyme primarily responsible for the production of extramitochondrial acetyl-CoA and is thus strategically positioned at the intersection of nutrient catabolism and lipid biosynthesis...
October 6, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993026/effects-of-physical-characteristics-of-carbon-black-on-metabolic-regulation-in-mice
#7
Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Ta-Chih Hsiao, Chii-Hong Lee, Justin Chun-Te Lin, Kai-Jen Chuang, Po-Hao Feng, Tsun-Jen Cheng
Potential adverse effects of human exposure to carbon black (CB) have been reported, but limited knowledge regarding CB-regulated metabolism is currently available. To evaluate how physical parameters of CB influence metabolism, we investigated CB and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and attempted to relate various physical parameters, including the hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, and particle number concentrations, to lung energy metabolism in female BALB/c mice. A body weight increase was arrested by 3 months of exposure to CB of smaller-size fractions, which was negatively correlated with pyruvate in plasma...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986998/a-synthetic-biology-approach-to-transform-yarrowia-lipolytica-into-a-competitive-biotechnological-producer-of-%C3%AE-carotene
#8
Macarena Larroude, Ewelina Celinska, Alexandre Back, Stephan Thomas, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro
The increasing market demands of β-carotene as colorant, antioxidant and vitamin precursor, requires novel biotechnological production platforms. Yarrowia lipolytica, is an industrial organism unable to naturally synthesize carotenoids but with the ability to produce high amounts of the precursor Acetyl-CoA. We first found that a lipid overproducer strain was capable of producing more β-carotene than a wild type after expressing the heterologous pathway. Thereafter, we developed a combinatorial synthetic biology approach base on Golden Gate DNA assembly to screen the optimum promoter-gene pairs for each transcriptional unit expressed...
October 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986507/a-conserved-mammalian-mitochondrial-isoform-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-acc1-provides-the-malonyl-coa-essential-for-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-tandem-with-acsf3
#9
Geoffray Monteuuis, Fumi Suomi, Juha M Kerätär, Ali J Masud, Alexander J Kastaniotis
Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is a highly conserved pathway essential for mitochondrial biogenesis. The mtFAS process is required for mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly and function, synthesis of the lipoic acid cofactor indispensable for the function of several mitochondrial enzyme complexes and essential for embryonic development in mice. Mutations in human mtFAS have been reported to lead to neurodegenerative disease. The source of malonyl-CoA for mtFAS in mammals has remained unclear...
October 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982698/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-pdc-subunits-moonlight-as-interaction-partners-of-phosphorylated-stat5-in-adipocytes-and-adipose-tissue
#10
Allison J Richard, Hardy Hang, Jacqueline M Stephens
STAT5 proteins play a role in adipocyte development and function, but their specific functions are largely unknown. To this end, we used an unbiased MS-based approach to identify novel STAT5-interacting proteins. We observed that STAT5A bound the E1β and E2 subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Whereas STAT5A typically localizes to the cytosol or nucleus, PDC normally resides within the mitochondrial matrix where it converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. We employed affinity purification and immunoblotting to validate the interaction between STAT5A and PDC subunits in murine and human cultured adipocytes, as well as in adipose tissue...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978999/low-dose-yc-1-combined-with-glucose-and-insulin-selectively-induces-apoptosis-in-hypoxic-gastric-carcinoma-cells-by-inhibiting-anaerobic-glycolysis
#11
Kota Wakiyama, Yoshihiko Kitajima, Tomokazu Tanaka, Masao Kaneki, Kazuyoshi Yanagihara, Shinichi Aishima, Jun Nakamura, Hirokazu Noshiro
This study aimed to establish a therapeutic strategy targeting hypoxic cancer cells in gastric carcinoma (GC). YC-1 is a HIF-1α inhibitor, and we revealed that low-dose YC-1 (10 µM) suppressed HIF-1α expression, and induced hypoxia-dependent apoptosis in the GC cell line 58As9. This hypoxia-specific apoptosis induction by YC-1 involved excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The apoptotic effect of 10 µM YC-1 was enhanced by additional glucose (G) and insulin (I) treatments. RT-PCR demonstrated that 10 µM YC-1 reduced hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α targets involved in anaerobic glycolysis...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978618/calcineurin-mediated-dephosphorylation-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-is-required-for-pban-induced-sex-pheromone-biosynthesis-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#12
Mengfang Du, Xiaoguang Liu, Nana Ma, Xiaoming Liu, Jizhen Wei, Xinming Yin, Shutang Zhou, Rafaeli Ada, Qisheng Song, Shiheng An
Chemical signaling plays a critical role in the behavior and physiology of many animals. Female insects, as a number of many other animals, release sex pheromones to attract males for mating. The evolutionary and ecological success of insects therefore hinges on their ability to precisely mediate (including initiation and termination) pheromone biosynthesis. Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) acts directly on pheromone glands to regulate sex pheromone production using Ca(2+) and cyclic-AMP as secondary messengers in the majority of species...
October 4, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976891/the-inhibition-of-the-mitochondrial-f1f0-atpase-activity-when-activated-by-ca2-opens-new-regulatory-roles-for-nad
#13
Salvatore Nesci, Fabiana Trombetti, Vittoria Ventrella, Maurizio Pirini, Alessandra Pagliarani
The mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase is uncompetitively inhibited by NAD+ only when the natural cofactor Mg2+ is replaced by Ca2+, a mode putatively involved in cell death. The Ca2+- dependent F1F0-ATPase is also inhibited when NAD+ concentration in mitochondria is raised by acetoacetate. The enzyme inhibition by NAD+ cannot be ascribed to any de-ac(et)ylation or ADP-ribosylation by sirtuines, being not reversed by nicotinamide. Moreover, the addition of acetyl-CoA or palmitate, which would favor the enzyme ac(et)ylation, does not affect he F1F0-ATPase activity...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973994/silibinin-restores-nad%C3%A2-%C2%BA-levels-and-induces-the-sirt1-ampk-pathway-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#14
Federico Salomone, Ignazio Barbagallo, Justyna Godos, Vincenzo Lembo, Walter Currenti, Diana Cinà, Roberto Avola, Nicolantonio D'Orazio, Filomena Morisco, Fabio Galvano, Giovanni Li Volti
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) homeostasis is emerging as a key player in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is tightly linked to the SIRT1/5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Silibinin, the main component of silymarin, has been proposed as a nutraceutical for the treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we aimed to identify whether silibinin may influence the NAD⁺/SIRT1 axis. To this end, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks, and were treated with silibinin or vehicle during the last 8 weeks...
September 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972175/structural-insights-into-gdp-mediated-regulation-of-a-bacterial-acyl-coa-thioesterase
#15
Yogesh B Khandokar, Parul Srivastava, Nathan Cowieson, Subir Sarker, David Aragao, Shubagata Das, Kate M Smith, Shane R Raidal, Jade K Forwood
Thioesterases catalyze the cleavage of thioester bonds within many activated fatty acids and acyl-CoA substrates. They are expressed ubiquitously in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and are subdivided into 25 thioesterase families according to their catalytic active site, protein oligomerization, and substrate specificity. While many of these enzyme families are well characterized in terms of function and substrate specificity, regulation across most thioesterase families is poorly understood. Here, we characterized a TE6 thioesterase from the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971677/zerumbone-ameliorates-high-glucose-induced-reduction-in-amp-activated-protein-kinase-phosphorylation-in-tubular-kidney-cells
#16
Chomanahalli B Shrikanth, Nandini D Chilkunda
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. In recent years, its role in kidney as a therapeutic target in ameliorating diabetic kidney damage is receiving renewed attention. Efforts on identifying AMPK modulators from dietary sources have gained prominence because of the tremendous potential it harbors. We therefore, examined the effect of a few bioactives on AMPK phosphorylation in kidney tubular cells. AMPK phosphorylation at Thr(172) was reduced (0...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966618/sirt1-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-signaling-enhances-macrophage-polarization-to-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
So Youn Park, Sung Won Lee, Sang Yeob Lee, Ki Whan Hong, Sun Sik Bae, Koanhoi Kim, Chi Dae Kim
Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Macrophages of the M1 phenotype act as pro-inflammatory mediators in synovium, whereas those of the M2 phenotype suppress inflammation and promote tissue repair. SIRT1 is a class 3 histone deacetylase with anti-inflammatory characteristics. However, the role played by SIRT1 in macrophage polarization has not been defined in RA. We investigated whether SIRT1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating M1/M2 polarization in macrophages from RA patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965825/the-glia-neuron-lactate-shuttle-and-elevated-ros-promote-lipid-synthesis-in-neurons-and-lipid-droplet-accumulation-in-glia-via-apoe-d
#18
Lucy Liu, Kevin R MacKenzie, Nagireddy Putluri, Mirjana Maletić-Savatić, Hugo J Bellen
Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce the formation of lipids in neurons that are transferred to glia, where they form lipid droplets (LDs). We show that glial and neuronal monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs), and apolipoproteins are critical for glial LD formation. MCTs enable glia to secrete and neurons to absorb lactate, which is converted to pyruvate and acetyl-CoA in neurons. Lactate metabolites provide a substrate for synthesis of fatty acids, which are processed and transferred to glia by FATP and apolipoproteins...
September 27, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964523/expression-of-hepatic-genes-related-to-energy-metabolism-during-the-transition-period-of-holstein-and-f1-holstein-gir-cows
#19
J G Laguna, M S Cardoso, J A Lima, R B Reis, A U Carvalho, H M Saturnino, S M R Teixeira
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of genes encoding enzymes and other factors involved with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of 2 genetic groups of dairy cows during the transition period. We analyzed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT), β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase-2 (BDH2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 (CPT2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), glucose transporter-2 (SLC2A2), and the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962893/the-increase-in-fiber-size-in-male-rat-gastrocnemius-after-chronic-central-leptin-infusion-is-related-to-activation-of-insulin-signaling
#20
Emma Burgos-Ramos, Sandra Canelles, Amaia Rodríguez, Laura M Frago, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Julie A Chowen, Gema Frühbeck, Jesús Argente, Vicente Barrios
Insulin potentiates leptin effects on muscle accrual and glucose homeostasis. However, the relationship between leptin's central effects on peripheral insulin sensitivity and the associated structural changes remain unclear. We hypothesized that central leptin infusion modifies muscle size through activation of insulin signaling. Muscle insulin signaling, enzymes of fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fiber area were analyzed in the gastrocnemius of chronic central infused (L), pair-fed (PF) and control rats...
September 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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