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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445161/zerumbone-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-adiposity-by-restoring-ampk-regulated-lipogenesis-and-microrna-146b-sirt1-mediated-adipogenesis
#1
Jiyun Ahn, Hyunjung Lee, Chang Hwa Jung, Won Hee Choi, Tae Youl Ha
Obesity is characterized by increased fat mass, as adipose tissue serves as a storage site for excess energy from food consumption. In obesity, altered lipid metabolism of adipose tissue, characterized by fatty acid uptake, de novo lipogenesis, and lipolysis, are induced. In this study, we examined the effect of zerumbone, a major sesquiterpene from wild ginger, on high-fat diet (HF)-induced obesity and dysregulated lipid metabolism in the white adipose tissues (WAT) of C57BL/6N mice. Dietary supplementation with zerumbone ameliorated HF-induced obesity and improved impaired lipid metabolism in WAT...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444662/early-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-and-obesity-resistance-differentially-regulated-by-high-fat-diet
#2
Jingyu Sun, Tao Huang, Zhengtang Qi, Songhui You, Jingmei Dong, Chen Zhang, Lili Qin, Yunhe Zhou, Shuzhe Ding
The mechanism for different susceptibilities to obesity after short-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding is largely unknown. Given the close association between obesity occurrence and mitochondrial dysfunction, the early events in skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations between HFD-induced obesity (DIO) and HFD-induced obesity resistant (DIO-R) lean phenotype under excess nutritional environment were explored.ICR/JCL male mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, as follows: low-fat diet (LFD) and HFD groups...
April 25, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443075/grim-19-restricts-hcv-replication-by-attenuating-intracellular-lipid-accumulation
#3
Jung-Hee Kim, Pil S Sung, Eun B Lee, Wonhee Hur, Dong J Park, Eui-Cheol Shin, Marc P Windisch, Seung K Yoon
Gene-associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19) targets multiple signaling pathways involved in cell death and growth. However, the role of GRIM-19 in the pathogenesis of hepatitis virus infections remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the restrictive effects of GRIM-19 on the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). We found that GRIM-19 protein levels were reduced in HCV-infected Huh7 cells and Huh7 cells harboring HCV replicons. Moreover, ectopically expressed GRIM-19 caused a reduction in both intracellular viral RNA levels and secreted viruses in HCVcc-infected cell cultures...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440456/tetrahydropalmatine-inhibits-lipid-accumulation-through-ampk-signaling-pathway-in-3t3%C3%A2-l1-adipocytes
#4
Guang-Chun Piao, Guan-Cheng Liu, Xue-Jun Jin, Dan Jin, Hai-Dan Yuan
Tetrahydropalmatine (THP), one of the active components of Rhizoma corydalis, has been reported to exert several pharmacological effects, including anti‑inflammatory, anti‑tumor and analgesic activities. However, its effect on obesity and the underlying molecular mechanisms that may be involved have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of THP on the adipogenesis in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes was examined using hstology, western blotting and RT‑qPCR. THP was identified to significantly suppress lipid accumulation in 3T3‑L1 cells and it inhibited pre‑adipocyte differentiation in a concentration‑dependent manner, as evidenced by the reduced formation of lipid droplets and decreased triglyceride levels and glycerol‑3‑phosphate dehydrogenase activity...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434739/the-effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-acetate-and-their-interaction-on-adipose-tissue-lipid-metabolism-in-nonlactating-cows
#5
N Urrutia, Y Ying, K J Harvatine
During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression, adipose tissue lipogenesis may be increased through nutrients spared from milk fat synthesis. However, the direct effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the indirect effect of spared nutrients on adipose tissue lipogenesis during milk fat depression is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the direct effect of CLA, spared acetate, and their interaction on adipose tissue lipogenesis using nonlactating dairy cows as an experimental model, which allows separation of the effect of CLA and nutrient sparing...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432553/cardiolipin-deficiency-causes-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
In yeast, the synthesis of cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) occurs mainly in mitochondria. CL and PE have overlapping functions, and they are required for mitochondrial function. PE is physiologically linked with triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, involving an acyl-CoA-independent pathway through the phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity of the Lro1 protein. There is no report on the physiological link between CL and TAG metabolism. Here we report a metabolic link between CL and TAG accumulation in the S...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432307/arsenic-metabolism-in-high-altitude-modern-stromatolites-revealed-by-metagenomic-analysis
#7
Daniel Kurth, Ariel Amadio, Omar F Ordoñez, Virginia H Albarracín, Wolfgang Gärtner, María E Farías
Modern stromatolites thrive only in selected locations in the world. Socompa Lake, located in the Andean plateau at 3570 masl, is one of the numerous extreme Andean microbial ecosystems described over recent years. Extreme environmental conditions include hypersalinity, high UV incidence, and high arsenic content, among others. After Socompa's stromatolite microbial communities were analysed by metagenomic DNA sequencing, taxonomic classification showed dominance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and a remarkably high number of unclassified sequences...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431322/xanthohumol-and-8-prenylnaringenin-ameliorate-diabetic-related-metabolic-dysfunctions-in-mice
#8
Raquel Costa, Ilda Rodrigues, Luísa Guardão, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Carolina Silva, José Magalhães, Manuel Ferreira-de-Almeida, Rita Negrão, Raquel Soares
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disturbances in specific tissues. The present work aimed to analyze the effects of xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), two beer-derived polyphenols, in liver and skeletal muscle lipid and glycolytic metabolism in T2DM mice model. Thirty C57Bl/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: standard diet (control), high-fat diet (DM), high-fat diet plus ethanol (DM-Ethanol), high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L XN (DM-XN) and high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L 8PN (DM-8PN) during 20 weeks...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430821/dietary-dha-epa-ratio-affected-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-antioxidant-capacity-hematological-characteristics-and-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii
#9
Min Jin, Óscar Monroig, You Lu, Ye Yuan, Yi Li, Liyun Ding, Douglas R Tocher, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth performance, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of some lipid metabolism related genes of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) of initial weight 9.47 ± 0.03 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (45% crude protein and 14% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded DHA/EPA ratios of 0.65, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429326/wax-ester-fermentation-and-its-application-for-biofuel-production
#10
Hiroshi Inui, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masahiro Tamoi
In Euglena cells under anaerobic conditions, paramylon, the storage polysaccharide, is promptly degraded and converted to wax esters. The wax esters synthesized are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 10-18, and the major constituents are myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Since the anaerobic cells gain ATP through the conversion of paramylon to wax esters, the phenomenon is named "wax ester fermentation". The wax ester fermentation is quite unique in that the end products, i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429316/c2-metabolism-in-euglena
#11
Masami Nakazawa
Euglenoids are able to assimilate fatty acids and alcohols with various carbon-chain lengths, and ethanol is known to be one of the best carbon sources to support the growth of Euglena gracilis. Ethanol is first oxidized to acetate by the sequential reactions of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in the mitochondria, and then converted to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). Acetyl-CoA is metabolized through the glyoxylate cycle which is a modified tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in which isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS) function to bypass the two decarboxylation steps of the TCA cycle, enabling the net synthesis of carbohydrates from C2 compounds...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428819/lipid-production-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-for-regulation-of-accd-gene-in-cyanobacteria-under-different-n-and-p-regimes
#12
Roshan Kumar, Koushik Biswas, Puneet Kumar Singh, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Sanniyasi Elumalai, Pratyoosh Shukla, Sunil Pabbi
BACKGROUND: Microalgae grown under different nutrient deficient conditions present a good source of natural lipids with applications for several types of biofuels. The expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene can further provide an insight to the mechanisms leading to enhanced lipid production under such stresses. In this study, two nutrients viz. nitrogen and phosphorus were modulated to see its effect on lipid productivity in selected cyanobacteria and its correlation with Accase followed by molecular dynamics simulation...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426747/metabolic-analysis-of-radioresistant-medulloblastoma-stem-like-clones-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#13
Lue Sun, Takashi Moritake, Kazuya Ito, Yoshitaka Matsumoto, Hironobu Yasui, Hidehiko Nakagawa, Aki Hirayama, Osamu Inanami, Koji Tsuboi
Medulloblastoma is a fatal brain tumor in children, primarily due to the presence of treatment-resistant medulloblastoma stem cells. The energy metabolic pathway is a potential target of cancer therapy because it is often different between cancer cells and normal cells. However, the metabolic properties of medulloblastoma stem cells, and whether specific metabolic pathways are essential for sustaining their stem cell-like phenotype and radioresistance, remain unclear. We have established radioresistant medulloblastoma stem-like clones (rMSLCs) by irradiation of the human medulloblastoma cell line ONS-76...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414174/iterative-integration-of-multiple-copy-pathway-genes-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-heterologous-%C3%AE-carotene-production
#14
Shuliang Gao, Yangyang Tong, Li Zhu, Mei Ge, Yian Zhang, Daijie Chen, Yu Jiang, Sheng Yang
β-Carotene is a terpenoid molecule with high hydrophobicity that is often used as an additive in foods and feed. Previous work has demonstrated the heterologous biosynthesis of β-carotene from an intrinsic high flux of acetyl-CoA in 12 steps through 11 genes in Yarrowia lipolytica. Here, an efficient biosynthetic pathway capable of producing 100-fold more β-carotene than the baseline construct was generated using strong promoters and multiple gene copies for each of the 12 steps. Using fed-batch fermentation with an optimized medium, the engineered pathway could produce 4g/L β-carotene, which was stored in lipid droplets within engineered Y...
April 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408661/multiomics-of-tomato-glandular-trichomes-reveals-distinct-features-of-central-carbon-metabolism-supporting-high-productivity-of-specialized-metabolites
#15
Gerd Balcke, Stefan Bennewitz, Nick Bergau, Benedikt Athmer, Anja Henning, Petra Majovsky, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Wolfgang Hoehenwarter, Alain F Tissier
Glandular trichomes are metabolic cell factories with the capacity to produce large quantities of secondary metabolites. Little is known about the connection between central carbon metabolism and metabolic productivity for secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes. To address this gap in our knowledge, we performed comparative metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and 13C-labeling of type VI glandular trichomes and leaves from a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum LA4024) and a wild (Solanum habrochaites LA1777) tomato accession...
April 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407230/acyl-coa-synthetase-short-chain-family-member-2-acss2-is-regulated-by-srebp-1-and-plays-a-role-in-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-caprine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#16
Huifen Xu, Jun Luo, Gongzhen Ma, Xueying Zhang, Dawei Yao, Ming Li, Juan J Loor
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is well-known as the master regulator of lipogenesis in rodents. Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) plays a key role in lipogenesis by synthesizing acetyl-CoA from acetate for lipogenesis. ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to acetyl-CoA, hence, it is also important for lipogenesis. Although ACSS2 function in cancer cells has been elucidated, its essentiality in ruminant mammary lipogenesis is unknown...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406580/low-glucose-induces-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-via-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-bovine-aortic-endothelial-cells
#17
Nobuhiro Kajihara, Daisuke Kukidome, Kiminori Sada, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Noboru Furukawa, Takeshi Matsumura, Takeshi Nishikawa, Eiichi Araki
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells (ECs) plays a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction. Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) is one of the key players in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Hypoglycemia is linked to increased ROS production and vascular events; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether and how low glucose (LG) mediates mtROS generation in ECs and to examine the impact of LG-induced mtROS on endothelial dysfunction...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406521/dissection-of-the-neocarazostatin-a-c4-alkyl-side-chain-biosynthesis-by-in-vitro-reconstitution
#18
Li Su, Rui Zhang, Kwaku Kyeremeh, Zixin Deng, Hai Deng, Yi Yu
Neocarazostatin A (1) is a potent free radical scavenger possessing an intriguing tricyclic carbazole nucleus with a C4 alkyl side chain attached to ring "A". Although the biosynthetic gene cluster of 1 (nzs) has been identified, and several key steps of the pathway have been well characterized, the enzyme(s) involved in the biosynthesis of the C4 unit still remains obscure. In this work, we demonstrate that three enzymes, including one (MA37-FabG) from primary fatty acid metabolism and two pathway-specific ones (NzsE and NzsF), are responsible for the formation of the side chain precursor...
April 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405929/thermodynamics-in-cancers-opposing-interactions-between-ppar-gamma-and-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway
#19
REVIEW
Yves Lecarpentier, Victor Claes, Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Louis Hébert
Cancer cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamic abnormalities. We focus this review on the interactions between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) in cancers and their implications from an energetic and metabolic point of view. In numerous tissues, PPAR gamma activation induces inhibition of beta-catenin pathway, while the activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway inactivates PPAR gamma. In most cancers but not all, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403011/emerging-roles-of-lipid-metabolism-in-cancer-progression
#20
Cyril Corbet, Olivier Feron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipid metabolism in cancer cells and tumor-associated stromal cells was recently identified to contribute to disease progression particularly in response to changes in tumor microenvironment such as acidosis and hypoxia. RECENT FINDINGS: New molecular mechanisms driving lipid metabolism in various cancers were elicited through genetic silencing, pharmacological inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, including those involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis, and modulation of diet composition...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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