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Acetyl-CoA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732204/put-your-mark-where-your-damage-is-acetyl-coa-production-by-acly-promotes-dna-repair
#1
Samantha J Linder, Raul Mostoslavsky
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Sivanand et al. (2017) describe the importance for nuclear ACLY-mediated production of acetyl-CoA, which promotes histone acetylation, BRCA1 recruitment, and subsequent HR-mediated DNA repair in response to DNA damage, thus drawing a direct link between DNA repair and cellular metabolism.
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731202/on-the-brink-the-highly-reduced-plastomes-of-nonphotosynthetic-ericaceae
#2
Thomas W A Braukmann, Michael B Broe, Saša Stefanović, John V Freudenstein
Ericaceae (the heather family) is a large and diverse group of plants that forms elaborate symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi, and includes several nonphotosynthetic lineages. Using an extensive sample of fully mycoheterotrophic (MH) species, we explored inter- and intraspecific variation as well as selective constraints acting on the plastomes of these unusual plants. The plastomes of seven MH genera were analysed in a phylogenetic context with two geographically disparate individuals sequenced for Allotropa, Monotropa, and Pityopus...
July 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727003/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-ruminants-and-pigs-a-transcriptomics-perspective
#3
B P Dalrymple, B Guo
The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#4
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721586/homology-modeling-and-prediction-of-the-amino-acid-residues-participating-in-the-transfer-of-acetyl-coa-to-arylalkylamine-by-the-n-acetyltransferase-from-chryseobacterium-sp
#5
Shinji Takenaka, Takahiro Ozeki, Kosei Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
OBJECTIVES: To predict the amino acid residues playing important roles in acetyl-CoA and substrate binding and to study the acetyl group transfer mechanism of Chryseobacterium sp. 5-3B N-acetyltransferase (5-3B NatA). RESULTS: A 3-dimensional homology model of 5-3B NatA was constructed to compare the theoretical structure of this compound with the structures of previously reported proteins belonging to the bacterial GCN5 N-acetyltransferase family. Homology modeling of the 5-3B NatA structure and a characterization of the enzyme's kinetic parameters identified the essential amino acid residues involved in binding and acetyl-group transfer...
July 18, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718833/coconut-oil-aggravates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiomyopathy-without-inducing-obesity-systemic-insulin-resistance-or-cardiac-steatosis
#6
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Frank Jacobs, Olivier Gheysens, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Bart De Geest
Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717019/3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coa-hydrolase-involved-in-isoleucine-catabolism-regulates-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#7
Yufang Pan, Juan Yang, Yangmin Gong, Xiaolong Li, Hanhua Hu
Since methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase appears to be absent in the majority of photosynthetic organisms, including diatoms, (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA, the intermediate of isoleucine (Ile) catabolism, cannot be metabolized to (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA then to succinyl-CoA. In this study, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) RNAi silenced strains and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) overexpression strains were constructed to elucidate the Ile degradation pathway and its influence on lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum based on growth, neutral lipid content and metabolite profile analysis...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715115/membrane-topology-and-identification-of-key-residues-of-eadact-a-plant-mboat-with-unusual-substrate-specificity
#8
Tam N T Tran, Jennifer Shelton, Susan Brown, Timothy P Durrett
Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the sn-3 position of diacylglycerol (DAG) to form 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (acetyl-TAG). EaDAcT belongs to a small, plant-specific subfamily of the membrane bound O-acyltransferases (MBOAT) that acylate different lipid substrates. Sucrose gradient density centrifugation revealed that EaDAcT colocalizes to the same fractions as an endoplasmic reticulum specific marker. By mapping the membrane topology of EaDAcT, we obtained an experimentally determined topology model for a plant MBOAT...
July 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712316/disturbed-bovine-mitochondrial-lipid-metabolism-a-review
#9
J H van der Kolk, J J Gross, V Gerber, R M Bruckmaier
In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise and cannot be covered by feed intake. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids in disturbed energy metabolism of the bovine species. Long chain fatty acids regulate energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. β-Oxidation is the process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondria or peroxisomes to generate acetyl-CoA. Carnitine acts as a carrier of fatty acyl groups as long-chain acyl-CoA derivatives do not penetrate the mitochondrial inner membrane...
July 17, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707470/enhancement-of-naringenin-biosynthesis-from-tyrosine-by-metabolic-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Xiaomei Lyu, Kuan Rei Ng, Jie Lin Lee, Rita Mark, Wei Ning Chen
Flavonoids are a class of plant polyphenols that possess a variety of essential health properties. In this work, the capacity of microbial naringenin synthesis from tyrosine in S. cerevisiae was explored and optimized through metabolic engineering on precursor supply and promoter control within three modules. Specifically, in Module 1, a modified GAL system was employed for pathway construction and the synergistic action of constituent genes was investigated for yield improvement. In Module 2, the effect of malonyl-CoA supply on fatty acid/naringenin production was explored through up-regulation of acetyl-CoA production and down-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706879/multiple-substrate-usage-of-coxiella-burnetii-to-feed-a-bipartite-metabolic-network
#11
Ina Häuslein, Franck Cantet, Sarah Reschke, Fan Chen, Matteo Bonazzi, Wolfgang Eisenreich
The human pathogen Coxiella burnetii causes Q-fever and is classified as a category B bio-weapon. Exploiting the development of the axenic growth medium ACCM-2, we have now used (13)C-labeling experiments and isotopolog profiling to investigate the highly diverse metabolic network of C. burnetii. To this aim, C. burnetii RSA 439 NMII was cultured in ACCM-2 containing 5 mM of either [U-(13)C3]serine, [U-(13)C6]glucose, or [U-(13)C3]glycerol until the late-logarithmic phase. GC/MS-based isotopolog profiling of protein-derived amino acids, methanol-soluble polar metabolites, fatty acids, and cell wall components (e...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706006/integration-of-flux-measurements-to-resolve-changes-in-anabolic-and-catabolic-metabolism-in-cardiac-myocytes
#12
Andrew A Gibb, Pawel K Lorkiewicz, Yu-Ting Zheng, Xiang Zhang, Aruni Bhatnagar, Steven P Jones, Bradford G Hill
Although ancillary pathways of glucose metabolism are critical for synthesizing cellular building blocks and modulating stress responses, how they are regulated remains unclear.  In this study, we used radiometric glycolysis assays, [(13)C6]-glucose isotope tracing, and extracellular flux analysis to understand how phosphofructokinase (PFK)-mediated changes in glycolysis regulate glucose carbon partitioning into catabolic and anabolic pathways. Expression of kinase-deficient or phosphatase-deficient 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes coordinately regulated glycolytic rate and lactate production...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705633/transcriptome-analysis-of-helicoverpa-armigera-male-hairpencils-alcohol-biosynthesis-and-requirement-for-mating-success
#13
Mengfang Du, Wenhui Zhao, Russell Jurenka, Xiaoguang Liu, Xinming Yin, Qisheng Song, Shiheng An
Many female animals use different strategies to assess male quality to increase their own reproductive fitness. In moths, females usually use chemical signals (sex pheromones) to attract males from a distance. Once males approach a female, they release close range pheromones from hairpencils to facilitate female acceptance. However, detailed mechanisms involved in male sex pheromone biosynthesis and its action in promoting female acceptance have not yet been fully characterized. This study screened a series of candidate genes via a transcriptome analysis of the male hairpencil of Helicoverpa armigera...
July 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704952/the-inhibitory-effect-of-tartary-buckwheat-extracts-on-adipogenesis-and-inflammatory-response
#14
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sunyoon Jung, Seog-Young Kim, Young-Hee Jo, Chong-Tai Kim, Min-Kyu Yun, Sung-Jin Lee, Johann Sohn, Heui-Jong Yu, Yangha Kim
Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) has been established globally as a nutritionally important food item, particularly owing to high levels of bioactive compounds such as rutin. This study investigated the effect of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBEs) on adipogenesis and inflammatory response in 3T3-L1 cells. TBEs inhibited lipid accumulation, triglyceride content, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3 L1 cells. The mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBP-α), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1), were suppressed by TBEs...
July 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704556/a-comparative-study-revealed-first-insights-into-the-diversity-and-metabolisms-of-the-microbial-communities-in-the-sediments-of-pacmanus-and-desmos-hydrothermal-fields
#15
Hai-Liang Wang, Jian Zhang, Qing-Lei Sun, Chao Lian, Li Sun
Currently, little is known about the microbial diversity in the sediments of Pacmanus and Desmos hydrothermal fields in Manus Basin. In this study, Illumina-based sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and metagenomic analysis were conducted to investigate the microbial populations and metabolic profiles in the sediments from four different regions in Pacmanus and Desmos hydrothermal fields. It was found that Gammaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota were the most abundant bacterial and archaeal populations, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695583/quantitative-13-c-isotope-labelling-based-analysis-to-elucidate-the-influence-of-environmental-parameters-on-the-production-of-fermentative-aromas-during-wine-fermentation
#16
Stéphanie Rollero, Jean-Roch Mouret, Audrey Bloem, Isabelle Sanchez, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Jean-Marie Sablayrolles, Sylvie Dequin, Carole Camarasa
Nitrogen and lipids are key nutrients of grape must that influence the production of fermentative aromas by wine yeast, and we have previously shown that a strong interaction exists between these two nutrients. However, more than 90% of the acids and higher alcohols (and their acetate ester derivatives) were derived from intermediates produced by the carbon central metabolism (CCM). The objective of this study was to determine how variations in nitrogen and lipid resources can modulate the contribution of nitrogen and carbon metabolisms for the production of fermentative aromas...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693220/remodeling-of-energy-metabolism-by-a-ketone-body-and-medium-chain-fatty-acid-suppressed-the-proliferation-of-ct26-mouse-colon-cancer-cells
#17
Yui Kadochi, Shiori Mori, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Yi Luo, Yukiko Nishiguchi, Shingo Kishi, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Hiroki Kuniyasu
Normal and cancerous cells are suggested to have differential utilization of fatty acids and ketone bodies, which could be exploited in cancer therapy. The present study examined the effect of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HBA), which is a ketone body generating acetyl-CoA, and lauric acid (LAA, C12:0), which is a medium-chain saturated fatty acid translocated to mitochondria in a carnitine-independent manner to produce acetyl-CoA, on the energy metabolism of mouse CT26 colon cancer cells. In CT26 cells expressing 3-HBA and LAA transporters, 3-HBA and LAA reduced cell proliferation, mitochondrial volume and lactate production, and increased oxidative stress, particularly in low-glucose conditions...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690621/different-mutations-endowing-resistance-to-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-inhibitors-results-in-changes-in-ecological-fitness-of-lolium-rigidum-populations
#18
Maor Matzrafi, Ofri Gerson, Baruch Rubin, Zvi Peleg
Various mutations altering the herbicide target site (TS), can lead to structural modifications that decrease binding efficiency and results in herbicide resistant weed. In most cases, such a mutation will be associated with ecological fitness penalty under herbicide free environmental conditions. Here we describe the effect of various mutations, endowing resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors, on the ecological fitness penalty of Lolium rigidum populations. The TS resistant populations, MH (substitution of isoleucine 1781 to leucine) and NO (cysteine 2088 to arginine), were examined and compared to a sensitive population (AL)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689661/nuclear-acetyl-coa-production-by-acly-promotes-homologous-recombination
#19
Sharanya Sivanand, Seth Rhoades, Qinqin Jiang, Joyce V Lee, Joseph Benci, Jingwen Zhang, Salina Yuan, Isabella Viney, Steven Zhao, Alessandro Carrer, Michael J Bennett, Andy J Minn, Aalim M Weljie, Roger A Greenberg, Kathryn E Wellen
While maintaining the integrity of the genome and sustaining bioenergetics are both fundamental functions of the cell, potential crosstalk between metabolic and DNA repair pathways is poorly understood. Since histone acetylation plays important roles in DNA repair and is sensitive to the availability of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), we investigated a role for metabolic regulation of histone acetylation during the DNA damage response. In this study, we report that nuclear ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is phosphorylated at S455 downstream of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and AKT following DNA damage...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689265/aerobic-glycolysis-hypothesis-through-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-in-exudative-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inflammatory processes are associated with upregulation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway in exudative AMD. We focus this review on the link between WNT/beta-catenin pathway activation and neovascular progression in exudative AMD through activation of aerobic glycolysis for production of angiogenic factors. Increased WNT/beta-catenin pathway involves hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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