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Acetyl-CoA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214243/synthetic-metabolic-bypass-for-a-metabolic-toggle-switch-enhances-acetyl-coa-supply-for-isopropanol-production-by-escherichia-coli
#1
Yuki Soma, Taiki Yamaji, Fumio Matsuda, Taizo Hanai
Almost all synthetic pathways for biofuel production are designed to require endogenous metabolites in glycolysis, such as phosphoenolpyruvate, pyruvate, and acetyl-CoA. However, such metabolites are also required for bacterial cell growth. To reduce the metabolic imbalance between cell growth and target chemical production, we previously constructed a metabolic toggle switch (MTS) as a conditional flux redirection tool controlling metabolic flux of TCA cycle toward isopropanol production. This approach succeeded to improve the isopropanol production titer and yield while ensuring sufficient cell growth...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212448/hepatic-transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-response-to-dietary-oxidized-fish-oil-in-loach-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus
#2
Yin Zhang, Yang Li, Xiao Liang, Xiaojuan Cao, Longfei Huang, Jie Yan, Yanxing Wei, Jian Gao
RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205597/the-influence-of-accd5-on-accd6-carboxyltransferase-essentiality-in-pathogenic-and-non-pathogenic-mycobacterium
#3
Jakub Pawelczyk, Albertus Viljoen, Laurent Kremer, Jaroslaw Dziadek
Malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is a crucial extender unit for the synthesis of mycolic and other fatty acids in mycobacteria, generated in a reaction catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase. We previously reported on the essentiality of accD6Mtb encoding the functional acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunit in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Strikingly, the homologous gene in the fast-growing, non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis - (accD6Msm) appeared to be dispensable, and its deletion did not influence the cell lipid content...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204983/application-of-acetyl-coa-acetyltransferase-atoad-in-escherichia-coli-to-increase-3-hydroxyvalerate-fraction-in-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate
#4
Jong-Min Jeon, Hyun-Joong Kim, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Changmin Sung, Hyung-Min Seo, Jung-Ho Kim, Hyung-Yeon Park, Dahye Lee, Christopher J Brigham, Yung-Hun Yang
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of biodegradable polymers, and incorporation of different monomers can alter its physical properties. To produce the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) containing a high level of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) by altering acetyl-CoA pool levels, we overexpressed an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (atoAD) in an engineered E. coli strain, YH090, carrying PHA synthetic genes bktB, phaB, and phaC. It was found that, with introduction of atoAD and with propionate as a co-substrate, 3HV fraction in PHA was increased up to 7...
February 16, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194879/ethanol-production-by-the-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-pyrococcus-furiosus-by-expression-of-bacterial-bifunctional-alcohol-dehydrogenases
#5
Matthew W Keller, Gina L Lipscomb, Diep M Nguyen, Alexander T Crowley, Gerrit J Schut, Israel Scott, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams
Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear...
February 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188954/comparative-glandular-trichome-transcriptome-based-gene-characterization-reveals-reasons-for-differential-menthol-biosynthesis-in-mentha-species
#6
Md Qussen Akhtar, Nida Qamar, Pallavi Yadav, Pallavi Kulkarni, Ajay Kumar, Ajit Kumar Shasany
The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome was carried out. In addition to the MVA and MEP pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPS) transcripts were identified from annotation in M...
February 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186407/x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy-reveals-an-organometallic-ni-c-bond-in-the-co-treated-form-of-acetyl-coa-synthase
#7
Mehmet Can, Logan J Giles, Stephen W Ragsdale, Ritimukta Sarangi
Acetyl CoA synthase (ACS) is a key enzyme in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO2 fixation, which has long been proposed to operate by a novel mechanism involving a series of protein-bound organometallic (Ni-CO, methyl-Ni, acetyl-Ni) intermediates. Here we report the first direct structural evidence for the proposed metal-carbon bond. We describe the preparation of highly active metal-replete enzyme and near quantitative generation of the kinetically competent carbonylated intermediate. This advance has enabled a combination of Ni- and Fe-K-edge XAS and EXAFS experiments along with DFT calculations...
February 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185100/effects-of-acetoacetyl-coa-synthase-expression-on-production-of-farnesene-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Stefan Tippmann, Raphael Ferreira, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen, Yun Chen
Efficient production of sesquiterpenes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires a high flux through the mevalonate pathway. To achieve this, the supply of acetyl-CoA plays a crucial role, partially because nine moles of acetyl-CoA are necessary to produce one mole of farnesyl diphosphate, but also to overcome the thermodynamic constraint imposed on the first reaction, in which acetoacetyl-CoA is produced from two moles of acetyl-CoA by acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Recently, a novel acetoacetyl-CoA synthase (nphT7) has been identified from Streptomyces sp...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180063/carnitine-acetyltransferase-crat-expression-in-macrophages-is-dispensable-for-nutrient-stress-sensing-and-inflammation
#9
Emily L Goldberg, Vishwa Deep Dixit
OBJECTIVE: Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages is thought to regulate inflammatory status and insulin-sensitivity. An important unanswered question in this field is whether carnitine acetyl-transferase (CrAT) that regulates fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial acetyl-CoA balance is required to integrate nutrient stress sensing to inflammatory response in macrophages. METHODS: Mice with myeloid lineage-specific Crat deletion were subjected to several metabolic stressors, including high-fat diet-induced obesity, fasting, and LPS-induced endotoxemia...
February 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179911/characterization-and-ectopic-expression-of-cowri1-an-ap2-erebp-domain-containing-transcription-factor-from-coconut-cocos-nucifera-l-endosperm-changes-the-seeds-oil-content-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#10
RuHao Sun, Rongjian Ye, Lingchao Gao, Lin Zhang, Rui Wang, Ting Mao, Yusheng Zheng, Dongdong Li, Yongjun Lin
Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a key tropical crop and a member of the monocotyledonous family Arecaceae (Palmaceae). Few genes and related metabolic processes involved in coconut endosperm development have been investigated. In this study, a new member of the WRI1 gene family was isolated from coconut endosperm and was named CoWRI1. Its transcriptional activities and interactions with the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (BCCP2) promoter of CoWRI1 were confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid approaches, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178309/ligand-binding-at-the-a-cluster-in-full-length-or-truncated-acetyl-coa-synthase-studied-by-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#11
Peer Schrapers, Julia Ilina, Christina M Gregg, Stefan Mebs, Jae-Hun Jeoung, Holger Dau, Holger Dobbek, Michael Haumann
Bacteria integrate CO2 reduction and acetyl coenzyme-A (CoA) synthesis in the Wood-Ljungdal pathway. The acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) active site is a [4Fe4S]-[NiNi] complex (A-cluster). The dinickel site structure (with proximal, p, and distal, d, ions) was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in ACS variants comprising all three protein domains or only the C-terminal domain with the A-cluster. Both variants showed two square-planar Ni(II) sites and an OH- bound at Ni(II)p in oxidized enzyme and a H2O at Ni(I)p in reduced enzyme; a Ni(I)p-CO species was induced by CO incubation and a Ni(II)-CH3- species with an additional water ligand by a methyl group donor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177317/structure-of-methylobacterium-extorquens-malyl-coa-lyase-coa-substrate-binding-correlates-with-domain-shift
#12
Javier M González, Ricardo Marti-Arbona, Julian C H Chen, Clifford J Unkefer
Malyl-CoA lyase (MCL) is an Mg(2+)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible cleavage of (2S)-4-malyl-CoA to yield acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. MCL enzymes, which are found in a variety of bacteria, are members of the citrate lyase-like family and are involved in the assimilation of one- and two-carbon compounds. Here, the 1.56 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of MCL from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 with bound Mg(2+) is presented. Structural alignment with the closely related Rhodobacter sphaeroides malyl-CoA lyase complexed with Mg(2+), oxalate and CoA allows a detailed analysis of the domain motion of the enzyme caused by substrate binding...
February 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167750/acss2-mediated-acetyl-coa-synthesis-from-acetate-is-necessary-for-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#13
Anna Vysochan, Arjun Sengupta, Aalim M Weljie, James C Alwine, Yongjun Yu
Recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can induce a robust increase in lipid synthesis which is critical for the success of infection. In mammalian cells the central precursor for lipid biosynthesis, cytosolic acetyl CoA (Ac-CoA), is produced by ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) from mitochondria-derived citrate or by acetyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) from acetate. It has been reported that ACLY is the primary enzyme involved in making cytosolic Ac-CoA in cells with abundant nutrients...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166201/downregulation-of-pck2-remodels-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-in-tumor-repopulating-cells-of-melanoma
#14
S Luo, Y Li, R Ma, J Liu, P Xu, H Zhang, K Tang, J Ma, N Liu, Y Zhang, Y Sun, T Ji, X Liang, X Yin, Y Liu, W Tong, Y Niu, N Wang, X Wang, B Huang
For cancer cells to proliferate, a balance must be built between biomass-forming, glucose-metabolized intermediates and ATP production. How intrinsic glucose carbon flow regulates this balance remains unclear. Here we show that mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2), the hub molecule linking tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by conversion of mitochondrial oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate, regulates glucose carbon flow direction in stem-like cells that repopulate tumors (tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs))...
February 6, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163317/embelin-attenuates-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-through-activating-canonical-wnt-signaling-and-inhibits-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#15
Y Gao, J Li, X Xu, S Wang, Y Yang, J Zhou, L Zhang, F Zheng, X Li, B Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that Embelin, a natural plant extract might have the potential to prevent body weight gain in rats. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Effects of Embelin on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis were studied in murine ST2 stromal cells and C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells. The mechanisms through which Embelin regulates adipogenic differentiation and lipogenesis were explored. The in vivo anti-obesity effects of Embelin in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice and possible transcriptional impact were investigated...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160314/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-atf1p-is-an-alcohol-acetyltransferase-and-a-thioesterase-in-vitro
#16
Bethany Nancolas, Ian D Bull, Richard Stenner, Virginie Dufour, Paul Curnow
The alcohol-O-acyltransferases are bisubstrate enzymes that catalyse the transfer of acyl chains from an acyl-CoA donor to an acceptor alcohol. In the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae this reaction produces acyl esters that are an important influence on the flavor of fermented beverages and foods. There is also a growing interest in using acyltransferases to produce bulk quantities of acyl esters in engineered microbial cell factories. However, the structure and function of the alcohol-O-acyltransferases remain only partly understood...
February 3, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159797/homolactic-acid-fermentation-by-the-genetically-engineered-thermophilic-homoacetogen-moorella-thermoacetica-atcc39073
#17
Yuki Iwasaki, Akihisa Kita, Koichiro Yoshida, Takahisa Tajima, Shinichi Yano, Tomohiro Shou, Masahiro Saito, Junichi Kato, Katsuji Murakami, Yutaka Nakashimada
: For the efficient production of target metabolites from carbohydrates, syngas or H2-CO2 by genetically engineered Moorella thermoacetica, the control of acetate production (a main metabolite of M. thermoacetica) is desired. Although propanediol utilization protein (PduL) was predicted to be a phosphotransacetylase (PTA) involved in acetate production in M. thermoacetica, this has not been confirmed. Our findings described herein directly demonstrate that two putative PduL proteins, encoded by Moth_0864 (pduL1) and Moth_1181 (pduL2), respectively, are involved in acetate formation as PTAs...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159472/metformin-activation-of-ampk-suppresses-age-induced-inflammatory-response-in-hnscs
#18
Ming-Min Chung, Christopher J Nicol, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Kuan-Hung Lin, Yen-Lin Chen, Dee Pei, Chien-Hung Lin, Yi-Nuo Shih, Chia-Hui Yen, Shiang-Jiuun Chen, Rong-Nan Huang, Ming-Chang Chiang
A growing body of evidence suggests type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the precise mechanisms remain unclear, T2DM may exacerbate neurodegenerative processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling is an evolutionary preserved pathway that is important during homeostatic energy biogenesis responses at both the cellular and whole-body levels. Metformin, a ubiquitously prescribed anti-diabetic drug, exerts its effects by AMPK activation...
January 31, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154333/structural-and-biochemical-analyses-on-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-of-influenza-virus-for-development-of-novel-anti-influenza-agents
#19
Dai Hatakeyama
 The PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, components of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus, and the nucleoprotein (NP) interact with the genomic RNA of influenza viruses and form ribonucleoproteins. Especially, the PB2 subunit binds to the host RNA cap [7-methylguanosine triphosphate (m(7)GTP)] and supports the endonuclease activity of PA to "snatch" the cap from host pre-mRNAs. In this study, we describe a novel Val/Arg/Gly (VRG) site in the PB2 cap-binding domain, which is necessary for interaction with acetyl-CoA found in eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs)...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153019/the-effect-of-enhanced-acetate-influx-on-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-metabolism
#20
Kati Thiel, Eerika Vuorio, Eva-Mari Aro, Pauli Tapio Kallio
BACKGROUND: Acetate is a common microbial fermentative end-product, which can potentially be used as a supplementary carbon source to enhance the output of biotechnological production systems. This study focuses on the acetate metabolism of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 which is unable to grow on acetate as a sole carbon source but still can assimilate it via acetyl-CoA-derived metabolic intermediates. In order to gain insight into the acetate uptake, associated limitations and metabolic effects, a heterologous acetate transporter ActP from Escherichia coli was introduced into Synechocystis to facilitate the transport of supplemented acetate from the medium into the cell...
February 2, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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