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microbiome review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335862/modeling-infectious-diseases-in-the-context-of-a-developing-immune-system
#1
Samrah Masud, Vincenzo Torraca, Annemarie H Meijer
Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted studying the interaction between infection, development, and metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333867/determining-risk-of-severe-gastrointestinal-toxicity-based-on-pretreatment-gut-microbial-community-in-patients-receiving-cancer-treatment-a-new-predictive-strategy-in-the-quest-for-personalized-cancer-medicine
#2
Hannah R Wardill, Wim J E Tissing
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, our ability to accurately predict a patient's risk of developing severe gastrointestinal toxicity from their cancer treatment is limited. Risk stratification continues to rely on traditional patient-related and treatment-related factors including age, ethnicity, sex, comorbidities, genetics, agent, dose and schedule. Although informative, these crude measures continue to underestimate toxicity risk, and hence alternative methods of risk prediction must be investigated...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#3
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333226/exploring-the-human-microbiome-from-multiple-perspectives-factors-altering-its-composition-and-function
#4
David Rojo, Celia Méndez-García, Beata Anna Raczkowska, Rafael Bargiela, Andrés Moya, Manuel Ferrer, Coral Barbas
Our microbiota presents peculiarities and characteristics that may be altered by multiple factors. The degree and consequences of these alterations depend on the nature, strength and duration of the perturbations as well as the structure and stability of each microbiota. The aim of this review is to sketch a very broad picture of the factors commonly influencing different body sites, and which have been associated with alterations in the human microbiota in terms of composition and function. To do so, first, a graphical representation of bacterial, fungal and archaeal genera reveals possible associations among genera affected by different factors...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331613/systematic-evaluation-of-immune-regulation-and-modulation
#5
REVIEW
David F Stroncek, Lisa H Butterfield, Michael A Cannarile, Madhav V Dhodapkar, Tim F Greten, Jean Charles Grivel, David R Kaufman, Heidi H Kong, Firouzeh Korangy, Peter P Lee, Francesco Marincola, Sergio Rutella, Janet C Siebert, Giorgio Trinchieri, Barbara Seliger
Cancer immunotherapies are showing promising clinical results in a variety of malignancies. Monitoring the immune as well as the tumor response following these therapies has led to significant advancements in the field. Moreover, the identification and assessment of both predictive and prognostic biomarkers has become a key component to advancing these therapies. Thus, it is critical to develop systematic approaches to monitor the immune response and to interpret the data obtained from these assays. In order to address these issues and make recommendations to the field, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer reconvened the Immune Biomarkers Task Force...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326980/gene-sequence-analyses-of-the-healthy-oral-microbiome-in-humans-and-companion-animals
#6
Eric M Davis
It has long been accepted that certain oral bacterial species are responsible for the development of periodontal disease. However, the focus of microbial and immunological research is shifting from studying the organisms associated with disease to examining the indigenous microbial inhabitants that are present in health. Microbiome refers to the aggregate genetic material of all microorganisms living in, or on, a defined habitat. Recent developments in gene sequence analysis have enabled detection and identification of bacteria from polymicrobial samples, including subgingival plaque...
June 2016: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326070/antimicrobial-protection-of-marsupial-pouch-young
#8
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Cheng, Katherine Belov
Marsupials diverged from eutherian mammals about 148 million years ago and represent a unique lineage of mammals with distinctive morphological and reproductive characteristics. Marsupials have significantly shorter gestation periods than eutherians. Pregnancy typically ranges from 15 to 35 days, with young being born at a very early developmental stage and lacking differentiated lymphoid tissues and mature effector cells. Recent microbiome studies of the marsupial pouch revealed that marsupial young can face intense microbial challenges after birth, as the pouch contains a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322134/reproductive-microbiomes
#9
Michael L Power, Caroline Quaglieri, Jay Schulkin
Almost every part of our body has a coevolved microbial community. The expressed microbial genes comprise the various microbiomes that play important roles in normal physiology and development. The various microbiomes are separate, yet often connected, with the species composition of one affecting others. The female reproductive system microbiomes (eg, vaginal, placental, and mammary/milk) remain less well explored than the gut microbiome although they comprise a large proportion of the female microbial network...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321543/understanding-the-lung-abscess-microbiome-outcomes-of-percutaneous-lung-parenchymal-abscess-drainage-with-microbiologic-correlation
#10
Christopher Duncan, Gregory J Nadolski, Terence Gade, Stephen Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Lung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed...
March 20, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321473/clinical-epidemiological-insights-into-urinary-incontinence
#11
Vatché A Minassian, Tony Bazi, Walter F Stewart
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Urinary incontinence (UI) is very common and heterogeneous among women with limited knowledge of progression or prognosis. Evidence based on clinical epidemiology can help to better understand the natural history of UI. METHODS: We examine the challenges of UI definition and its subtypes, its impact on quality of life and health-seeking behavior. We review the proposed pathophysiology of UI subtypes and known risk factors as they relate to our current knowledge of the disease state...
March 20, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321459/-the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity
#12
T Schröder, S Ibrahim
An abundant and diverse set of commensal microbial communities covers the body's surfaces, collectively so-called microbiome. It has a functional impact on various immune processes and modulates many health-related processes, including autoimmunity. An active site of microorganism-host interplay is the intestinal mucosa. Growing evidence has helped us to learn how a specific microbiota composition and its functionality determine the intestinal barrier function and, furthermore, modulate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune mechanisms in remote organs...
March 20, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321234/a-review-of-bioinformatics-tools-for-bio-prospecting-from-metagenomic-sequence-data
#13
REVIEW
Despoina D Roumpeka, R John Wallace, Frank Escalettes, Ian Fotheringham, Mick Watson
The microbiome can be defined as the community of microorganisms that live in a particular environment. Metagenomics is the practice of sequencing DNA from the genomes of all organisms present in a particular sample, and has become a common method for the study of microbiome population structure and function. Increasingly, researchers are finding novel genes encoded within metagenomes, many of which may be of interest to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. However, such "bioprospecting" requires a suite of sophisticated bioinformatics tools to make sense of the data...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320784/mechanisms-to-mitigate-the-tradeoff-between-growth-and-defense
#14
Talia Karasov, Eunyoung Chae, Jacob Herman, Joy Bergelson
Plants have evolved an array of defenses against pathogens. However, mounting a defense response frequently comes with the cost of a reduction in growth and reproduction, carrying critical implications for natural and agricultural populations. How costs are generated, and whether and how they can be mitigated is the focus of this review. Most well-characterized growth-defense tradeoffs stem from antagonistic crosstalk among hormones rather than an identified metabolic expenditure. A primary way plants mitigate such costs is through restricted expression of resistance; this can be achieved through inducible expression of defense genes or by the concentration of defense to particular times or tissues...
March 20, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#15
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318400/new-frontiers-in-fibers-innovative-and-emerging-research-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-bone-health
#16
Taylor C Wallace, Massimo Marzorati, Lisa Spence, Connie M Weaver, Patricia S Williamson
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emerging functional benefit from changes in the gut microbiome is increased calcium absorption, increased calcium retention, and improved indices of bone health. Prebiotic fibers enhance microbial fermentation in the gut, providing an ecological advantage to specific nonpathogenic bacteria that have the ability to modify an individual's metabolic potential...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317399/recent-advances-in-pediatric-celiac-disease
#17
Grace J Lee, John Y Kao
The incidence of celiac disease (CD) has increased over the last half-century, resulting in rising interest in identifying risk factors for CD. The necessity of duodenal biopsies in the diagnosis of CD has recently been challenged. Areas covered: This review covers the recent literature regarding the role of infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding and timing of gluten introduction, and the microbiota in the development of CD. Additionally, the application of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for a non-biopsy approach to the diagnosis of CD is reviewed...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#18
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316330/the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-gatekeeper-to-respiratory-health
#19
REVIEW
Wing Ho Man, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Debby Bogaert
The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity...
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
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