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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097632/acquisition-and-adaptation-of-the-airway-microbiota-in-the-early-life-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#2
REVIEW
Sébastien Boutin, Alexander H Dalpke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which bacterial infections of the airways play a major role in the long-term clinical outcome. In recent years, a number of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies aimed at deciphering the structure and composition of the airways' microbiota. It was shown that the nasal cavity of CF patients displays dysbiosis early in life indicating a failure in the first establishment of a healthy microbiota. In contrast, within the conducting and lower airways, the establishment occurs normally first, but is sensitive to future dysbiosis including chronic infections with classical pathogens in later life...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#3
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095208/tale-of-the-huanglongbing-disease-pyramid-in-the-context-of-the-citrus-phytobiome
#4
Nian Wang, Lukasz Stelinski, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Jim H Graham, Yunzeng Zhang
The Huanglongbing (HLB) disease pyramid is composed of Liberibacters, psyllid vectors, citrus hosts and the environment. The epidemiological outcomes for Liberibacter-associated plant diseases are collectively determined by the inherent relationships between plant-Liberibacters and psyllids, and how various environment factors affect plant-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions. Citrus-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions occur in a complex microbiome system. In this review, we focus on the progress in understanding the HLB disease pyramid, and how the microbiome affects the HLB disease pyramid including the interaction between HLB and the citrus microbiome; the interaction between Liberibacters and psyllids; the interaction between Liberibacters and gut microbiota in psyllids, and the effect of HLB on selected above- and belowground citrus pathogens...
January 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092309/microbiota-targeted-therapies-on-the-intensive-care-unit
#5
Bastiaan W Haak, Marcel Levi, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition and diversity of the microbiota of the human gut, skin, and several other sites is severely deranged in critically ill patients on the ICU, and it is likely that these disruptions can negatively affect outcome. We here review new and ongoing studies that investigate the use of microbiota-targeted therapeutics in the ICU, and provide recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Practically every intervention in the ICU as well as the physiological effects of critical illness itself can have a profound impact on the gut microbiota...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088924/microbiology-of-otitis-media-in-indigenous-australian-children-review
#6
J Jervis-Bardy, A S Carney, R Duguid, A J Leach
OBJECTIVES: To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078319/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer
#7
Jun Sun, Ikuko Kato
Although genes contribute to colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota are an important player. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic infection and the ensuing inflammation contributes to tumor initiation and tumor progression. A variety of bacterial species and tumor-promoting virulence mechanisms have been investigated. Significant advances have been made in understanding the composition and functional capabilities of the gut microbiota and its roles in cancer. In the current review, we discuss the novel roles of microbiota in the progression of colon cancer...
June 2016: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077947/asthma-and-the-microbiome-defining-the-critical-window-in-early-life
#8
REVIEW
Leah T Stiemsma, Stuart E Turvey
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory immune disorder of the airways affecting one in ten children in westernized countries. The geographical disparity combined with a generational rise in prevalence, emphasizes that changing environmental exposures play a significant role in the etiology of this disease. The microflora hypothesis suggests that early life exposures are disrupting the composition of the microbiota and consequently, promoting immune dysregulation in the form of hypersensitivity disorders. Animal model research supports a role of the microbiota in asthma and atopic disease development...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#9
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073701/effect-of-asthma-therapies-on-the-natural-course-of-asthma
#10
REVIEW
Elissa M Abrams, Stanley J Szefler, Allan B Becker
OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review on the role of pharmacologic (inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, biologic therapies, aeroallergen immunotherapy) and nonpharmacologic therapies (environmental modifications, microbiome) in secondary and tertiary asthma prevention. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search for English-language publications regarding asthma and secondary or tertiary prevention was performed. Some articles cited in selected studies were also considered for inclusion in this review...
December 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072420/where-less-may-be-more-how-the-rare-biosphere-pulls-ecosystems-strings
#11
Alexandre Jousset, Christina Bienhold, Antonis Chatzinotas, Laure Gallien, Angélique Gobet, Viola Kurm, Kirsten Küsel, Matthias C Rillig, Damian W Rivett, Joana F Salles, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Noha H Youssef, Xiaowei Zhang, Zhong Wei, W H Gera Hol
Rare species are increasingly recognized as crucial, yet vulnerable components of Earth's ecosystems. This is also true for microbial communities, which are typically composed of a high number of relatively rare species. Recent studies have demonstrated that rare species can have an over-proportional role in biogeochemical cycles and may be a hidden driver of microbiome function. In this review, we provide an ecological overview of the rare microbial biosphere, including causes of rarity and the impacts of rare species on ecosystem functioning...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071925/gene-editing-and-genetic-engineering-approaches-for-advanced-probiotics-a-review
#12
Ruby Yadav, Vishal Kumar, Mehak Baweja, Pratyoosh Shukla
The applications of probiotics are significant and thus resulted in need of genome analysis of probiotic strains. Various omics methods and systems biology approaches enables us to understand and optimize the metabolic processes. These techniques have increased the researcher's attention towards gut microbiome and provided a new source for the revelation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways which enables novel metabolic engineering approaches. In recent years, the broad and quantitative analysis of modified strains relies on systems biology tools such as in silico design which are commonly used methods for improving strain performance...
January 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070176/advances-in-ibs-2016-a-review-of-current-and-emerging-data
#13
Philip S Schoenfeld
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic intermittent abdominal pain and associated diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), or both. IBS can significantly impact patient function and quality of life. The diagnosis of IBS is based on the presence of characteristic symptoms, the exclusion of concerning features, and selected tests to exclude organic diseases that can mimic IBS. The pathophysiology of IBS remains incompletely understood, and new contributing factors have been identified over the past decade...
August 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069756/inside-out-hiv-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-mucosal-immune-system
#14
REVIEW
Jay Liu, Brett Williams, Daniel Frank, Stephanie M Dillon, Cara C Wilson, Alan L Landay
The components of the human gut microbiome have been found to influence a broad array of pathologic conditions ranging from heart disease to diabetes and even to cancer. HIV infection upsets the delicate balance in the normal host-microbe interaction both through alterations in the taxonomic composition of gut microbial communities as well as through disruption of the normal host response mechanisms. In this article we review the current methods of gut microbiome analysis and the resulting data regarding how HIV infection might change the balance of commensal bacteria in the gut...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069754/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-type-1-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Alexandra Paun, Christopher Yau, Jayne S Danska
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. The rapid rise in T1D incidence during the past 50 y suggests environmental factors contribute to the disease. The trillion symbiotic microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract (i.e., the microbiota) influence numerous aspects of host physiology. In this study we review the evidence linking perturbations of the gut microbiome to pancreatic autoimmunity. We discuss data from rodent models demonstrating the essential role of the gut microbiota on the development and function of the host's mucosal and systemic immune systems...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069752/microbiome-modulated-metabolites-at-the-interface-of-host-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Eran Blacher, Maayan Levy, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Eran Elinav
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract and associated mucosal immune system harbor a large repertoire of metabolites of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin that play important roles in eukaryotic development and physiology. These often bioactive small molecules originate from nutrition- and environmental-related sources, or are endogenously produced and modulated by the host and its microbiota. A complex network of interactions exists between the intestinal mucosal immune system and the microbiota. This intimate cross-talk may be driven by metabolite secretion and signaling, and features profound influences on host immunity and physiology, including the endocrine, metabolic, and nervous system function in health and disease...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067835/an-integrated-view-of-the-effects-of-wine-polyphenols-and-their-relevant-metabolites-on-gut-and-host-health
#17
REVIEW
Carolina Cueva, Irene Gil-Sánchez, Begoña Ayuda-Durán, Susana González-Manzano, Ana María González-Paramás, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Begoña Bartolomé, M Victoria Moreno-Arribas
Over the last few decades, polyphenols, and flavonoids in particular, have attracted the interest of researchers, as they have been associated with the health-promoting effects derived from diets rich in vegetables and fruits, including moderate wine consumption. Recent scientific evidence suggests that wine polyphenols exert their effects through interactions with the gut microbiota, as they seem to modulate microbiota and, at the same time, are metabolized by intestinal bacteria into specific bioavailable metabolites...
January 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067676/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-optimal-management
#18
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Several efforts have been implemented to achieve better outcomes, but an important proportion of patients continue dying. This review focuses on the newest research on prognostic factors and diagnostics, opening new perspectives in the management of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP survival improved in recent years despite an increasing incidence of severe presentations...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063650/performing-skin-microbiome-research-a-method-to-the-madness
#19
REVIEW
Heidi H Kong, Björn Andersson, Thomas Clavel, John E Common, Scott A Jackson, Nathan D Olson, Julia A Segre, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann
Growing interest in microbial contributions to human health and disease has increasingly led investigators to examine the microbiome in both healthy skin and cutaneous disorders, including acne, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. The need for common language, effective study design, and validated methods is critical for high-quality standardized research. Features, unique to skin, pose particular challenges when conducting microbiome research. This review discusses microbiome research standards and highlights important factors to consider, including clinical study design, skin sampling, sample processing, DNA sequencing, control inclusion, and data analysis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059614/western-diets-gut-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-diseases-are-they-linked
#20
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
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