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microbiome review

Achim G Beule
The microbiome is defined as the total of cellular microorganisms of baczerial, viral or e. g., parasite origin living on the surface of a body. Within the anatomical areas of otorhinolaryngology, a significant divergence and variance can be demonstrated. For ear, nose, throat, larynx and cutis different interactions of microbiome and common factors like age, diet and live style factors (e. g., smoking) have been detected in recent years. Besides, new insights hint at a passible pathognomic role of the microbiome towards diseases in the ENT area...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Aleksandr Milshteyn, Dominic A Colosimo, Sean F Brady
Natural products have long played a pivotal role in the development of therapeutics for a variety of diseases. Traditionally, soil and marine environments have provided a rich reservoir from which diverse chemical scaffolds could be discovered. Recently, the human microbiome has been recognized as a promising niche from which secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential have begun to be isolated. In this Review, we address how the expansive history of identifying bacterial natural products in other environments is informing the approaches being brought to bear on the study of the human microbiota...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Melanie R Nicol, Joseph A Corbino, Mackenzie L Cottrell
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a powerful tool that, as part of a comprehensive prevention package, has potential to significantly impact the HIV epidemic. PrEP effectiveness is believed to be dependent on the exposure and efficacy of antiretrovirals at the site of HIV transmission. Clinical trial results as well as modeling and simulation indicate the threshold of adherence required for PrEP efficacy of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may differ between sites of HIV transmission with less forgiveness for missed doses in women exposed through genital tissue compared to people exposed through colorectal tissue...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Conor P Kerley
Evidence supporting the role of nutrition in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity is growing. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using relevant keywords to identify human studies including diet and HF. Several plant-based diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity, notably the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets. Several other plant-based dietary patterns, including low-fat diets and the rice diet, also show promise...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
Carine Poussin, Nicolas Sierro, Stéphanie Boué, James Battey, Elena Scotti, Vincenzo Belcastro, Manuel C Peitsch, Nikolai V Ivanov, Julia Hoeng
The microbiome is an important factor in human health and disease; and is investigated to develop novel therapeutics. Metagenomics leverages advances in sequencing technologies and computational analysis to identify and quantify the microorganisms present in a sample. This field has, however, not yet reached maturity and the international metagenomics community, aware of the current limitations and of the necessity for standardization, has started investigating sources of variability in experimental and computational workflows...
June 8, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Anwesha Laha, Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Suresh C Tyagi
Although homocysteine (Hcy), a part of the epigenome, contributes to cell death by pyroptosis and decreases PPARγ levels, the mechanisms are unclear. Hcy is found in high concentrations in the sera of obese individuals which can elicit an immune response as well by hypermethylating CpG islands of specific gene promoters, a marker of epigenetics. Hcy has also been established to chelate divalent metal ions like Cu+2 and Zn+2, but this role of Hcy has not been established in relationship with obesity. It has been known for a while that PPARγ dysregulation results in various metabolic disorders including glucose and lipid metabolism...
June 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Tzu-Wen L Cross, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Federico E Rey
BACKGROUND: Sex is one of the most powerful modifiers of disease development. Clear sexual dimorphism exists in cardiometabolic health susceptibility, likely due to differences in sex steroid hormones. Changes in the gut microbiome have been linked with the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis; however, the impact of microbes in sex-biased cardiometabolic disorders remains unclear. The gut microbiome is critical for maintaining a normal estrous cycle, testosterone levels, and reproductive function...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Vincent C Lombardi, Kenny L De Meirleir, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, Sam M Nourani, Ruben K Dagda, Shannon L Delaney, András Palotás
The gut-brain-axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. Mounting evidence supports the premise that the intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in its function and has led to the more common and perhaps more accurate term gut-microbiota-brain axis. Numerous studies have identified associations between an altered microbiome and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases. In most cases, it is unknown if these associations are cause or effect; notwithstanding, maintaining or restoring homeostasis of the microbiota may represent future opportunities when treating or preventing these diseases...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
James Jordan Johnston, Richard Douglas
Pathogenic bacteria associated with the adenoids and tonsils cause much morbidity in the paediatric population. Hyperplasia of the adenoids is associated with otitis media with effusion and hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils is associated with both recurrent tonsillitis and obstructive sleep apnoea. Most current knowledge of the microbiology of the upper airways has been derived from culture-based studies, which usually reflect only a small fraction of the bacteria present on the mucosal surface. Culture-independent molecular surveys based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing are now being employed to determine the microbiota on the surface and within the tissue of adenoids and palatine tonsils...
June 8, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Valentina Caputi, Maria Cecilia Giron
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by α-synucleinopathy, which involves all districts of the brain-gut axis, including the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems. The highly bidirectional communication between the brain and the gut is markedly influenced by the microbiome through integrated immunological, neuroendocrine and neurological processes. The gut microbiota and its relevant metabolites interact with the host via a series of biochemical and functional inputs, thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nicola E Natsis, Philip R Cohen
Coagulase-negative staphylococcus organisms may be normal flora of human skin, however these bacteria can also be pathogens in skin and soft tissue infections. A summary of skin and soft tissue infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococcus species is provided in this review. We conducted a search of the PubMed database using the following terms: abscess, auricularis, biofilm, capitis, cellulitis, coagulase, contaminant, cyst, draining, epidermidis, felon, folliculitis, furuncle, haemolyticus, hominis, indolent, infection, lugdunensis, mecA, microbiome, negative, osteomyelitis, paronychia, saprophyticus, skin, simulans, sinus, soft, staphylococcus, systemic, tissue, virulence, virulent, and vulvar...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Christina Tsigalou, Elisavet Stavropoulou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease, among the most common ones, that targets mainly the exocrine glands as well as extra-glandular epithelial tissues. Their lymphocytic infiltration leads to manifestations from other organs (e.g., kidneys, lungs, liver, or thyroid), apart from sicca symptoms (xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis). SS is more prevalent in women than in men (9:1). Moreover, p.SS patients are in increased risk to develop lymphoma. Certain autoantibodies (e.g., antibodies against ribonucleoprotein autoantigens Ro-SSA and La-SSB) are ultimate hallmarks for the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marco Ceresoli, Giulia Lo Bianco, Luca Gianotti, Luca Nespoli
The pathogenesis of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis is still unclear and many different hypotheses have been formulated. Seemingly, there are several related factors such as chronic inflammation, gut microbiome, obesity and the immunogenic properties of fat tissue and diet. Inflammation plays a pivotal role in diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. The aim of the present review is to investigate the role of inflammation in diverticular disease as well as in mild and complicated acute diverticulitis with a focus on current research and treatment perspectives...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
T van der Kolk, H E C van der Wall, C Balmforth, M B A Van Doorn, R Rissmann
AIMS: To explore the potential of the skin microbiome as biomarker in six dermatological conditions i.e. atopic dermatitis (AD), acne vulgaris (AV), psoriasis vulgaris (PV), hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), seborrheic dermatitis/pityriasis capitis (SD/PC) and ulcus cruris (UC). METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Two investigators independently reviewed the included studies and ranked the suitability microbiome implementation for early phase clinical studies in an adapted GRADE method...
June 7, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Bhagya R Yeluri Jonnala, Paul L H McSweeney, Jeremiah J Sheehan, Paul D Cotter
The microbiota of cheese plays a key role in determining its organoleptic and other physico-chemical properties. It is essential to understand the various contributions, positive or negative, of these microbial components in order to promote the growth of desirable taxa and, thus, characteristics. The recent application of high throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) facilitates an even more accurate identification of these microbes, and their functional properties, and has the potential to reveal those microbes, and associated pathways, responsible for favorable or unfavorable characteristics...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Praveen Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Gail A M Cresci
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease, with prevalence increasing in parallel with the rising incidence in obesity. Believed to be a "multiple-hit" disease, several factors contribute to NAFLD initiation and progression. Of these, the gut microbiome is gaining interest as a significant factor in NAFLD prevalence. In this paper, we provide an in-depth review of the progression of NAFLD, discussing the mechanistic modes of hepatocyte injury and the potential role for manipulation of the gut microbiome as a therapeutic strategy in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD...
June 5, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Carla R Taddei, Ramon V Cortez, Rosiane Mattar, Maria Regina Torloni, Silvia Daher
This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. We review and discuss new findings on changes in the richness and diversity of the microbiota of pregnant women with term or preterm births, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Brandie D Wagner, Gary K Grunwald, Gary O Zerbe, Susan K Mikulich-Gilbertson, Charles E Robertson, Edith T Zemanick, J Kirk Harris
Identification of the majority of organisms present in human-associated microbial communities is feasible with the advent of high throughput sequencing technology. As substantial variability in microbiota communities is seen across subjects, the use of longitudinal study designs is important to better understand variation of the microbiome within individual subjects. Complex study designs with longitudinal sample collection require analytic approaches to account for this additional source of variability. A common approach to assessing community changes is to evaluate the change in alpha diversity (the variety and abundance of organisms in a community) over time...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Benjamin Chin-Yee, S V Subramanian, Amol A Verma, Andreas Laupacis, Fahad Razak
Policy Points: Significant advances in clinical medicine that have broader societal relevance may be less accessible to population health researchers and policymakers because of increased specialization within fields. We describe important recent clinical advances and discuss their broader societal impact. These advances include more expansive strategies for disease prevention, the rise of precision medicine, applications of human microbiome research, and new and highly successful treatments for hepatitis C infection...
June 2018: Milbank Quarterly
Qiyao Chai, Yong Zhang, Cui Hua Liu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is an extremely successful pathogen that adapts to survive within the host. During the latency phase of infection, M. tuberculosis employs a range of effector proteins to be cloud the host immune system and shapes its lifestyle to reside in granulomas, sophisticated, and organized structures of immune cells that are established by the host in response to persistent infection. While normally being restrained in immunocompetent hosts, M...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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