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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431920/the-microbiome-in-anti-cancer-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Timur Tuganbaev, Sara Federici, Eran Elinav
The commensal microbiome constitutes an important modulator of host physiology and risk of disease, including cancer development and progression. Lately, the microbiome has been suggested to modulate the efficacy of anti-cancer treatment. Examples include chemotherapy and total body irradiation-induced barrier function disruption, leading to microbial efflux that drives activation of anti-tumorigenic T cells; Microbiome-driven release of reactive oxygen species contributing to the efficacy of platinum salts; and microbiome-induced immune priming promoting the anti-tumor effects of alkylating chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
April 18, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423191/origins-and-evolution-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-wardens-of-barrier-immunity
#2
Daniel R Neill, Robin J Flynn
The identification, in the late 2000's, of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as a new class of non-B, non-T lymphocytes has led to global efforts to understand their functions, plasticity, and evolutionary origins and to define their place within the leukocyte family. Although this work has uncovered striking similarities in the developmental cues, lineage-specific transcription factors and functional capacities of innate and adaptive lymphocytes, it has become clear that ILCs play a unique and defining role as stewards of barrier defence and that this sets them apart from their adaptive cousins...
April 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421100/integrated-approach-of-agri-nanotechnology-challenges-and-future-trends
#3
REVIEW
Sandhya Mishra, Chetan Keswani, P C Abhilash, Leonardo F Fraceto, Harikesh Bahadur Singh
Nanotechnology representing a new frontier in modern agriculture is anticipated to become a major thrust in near future by offering potential applications. This integrating approach, i.e., agri-nanotechnology has great potential to cope with global challenges of food production/security, sustainability and climate change. However, despite the potential benefits of nanotechnology in agriculture so far, their relevance has not reached up to the field conditions. The elevating concerns about fate, transport, bioavailability, nanoparticles toxicity and inappropriateness of regulatory framework limit the complete acceptance and inclination to adopt nanotechnologies in agricultural sector...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419931/applying-the-design-build-test-paradigm-in-microbiome-engineering
#4
REVIEW
Hoang Long Pham, Chun Loong Ho, Adison Wong, Yung Seng Lee, Matthew Wook Chang
The recently discovered roles of human microbiome in health and diseases have inspired research efforts across many disciplines to engineer microbiome for health benefits. In this review, we highlight recent progress in human microbiome research and how modifications to the microbiome could result in implications to human health. Furthermore, we discuss the application of a 'design-build-test' framework to expedite microbiome engineering efforts by reviewing current literature on three key aspects: design principles to engineer the human microbiome, methods to engineer microbiome with desired functions, and analytical techniques to examine complex microbiome samples...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418713/defence-factors-of-vaginal-lactobacilli
#5
S Kovachev
Accurate knowledge of the composition and ecology of the vaginal microbial environment in healthy women is necessary for understanding lactobacilli-dominated normal microbiota and the mechanisms by which it reduces disease risk. The vagina and its microbiota form a balanced ecosystem; any movement outside the normal range for this ecosystem of obligate and/or facultative microbes, termed dysbacteriosis, can lead to infection and disease. This review summarizes recent research on the vaginal ecosystem, the Lactobacillus species that dominate it, and the means by which they suppress the growth, development, and/or proliferation of pathogenic microbial species...
April 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413624/recent-advances-in-understanding-spondyloarthritis
#6
REVIEW
J S H Gaston
This review is concerned with a number of recent publications that contribute to current thinking on the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. The areas covered include the lymphocyte population in the enthesis, which is thought to drive enthesitis, and hence clinical manifestations. The debate on how HLA-B27 is implicated in inflammation is also considered, together with recent and contradictory evidence on the effects of the peptide-trimming enzyme ERAP1 on B27 expression and hence susceptibility to spondylitis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407481/the-gut-microbiome-connecting-spatial-organization-to-function
#8
REVIEW
Carolina Tropini, Kristen A Earle, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Justin L Sonnenburg
The first rudimentary evidence that the human body harbors a microbiota hinted at the complexity of host-associated microbial ecosystems. Now, almost 400 years later, a renaissance in the study of microbiota spatial organization, driven by coincident revolutions in imaging and sequencing technologies, is revealing functional relationships between biogeography and health, particularly in the vertebrate gut. In this Review, we present our current understanding of principles governing the localization of intestinal bacteria, and spatial relationships between bacteria and their hosts...
April 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406324/evolving-paradigm-of-treatment-for-autoimmune-hepatitis
#9
Albert J Czaja
Current medications for autoimmune hepatitis have broad anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions, and their effects are short-lived and inconsistent. The goals of this review were to describe the actions and shortcomings of these medications, indicate the key pathogenic mechanisms that might be targeted by site-directed interventions, and present the pivotal studies supporting development of these alternative agents. Areas covered: Abstracts cited in PubMed from April 1964 to February 2017 were identified using the search words "treatment of autoimmune hepatitis"...
April 13, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404738/microbiotal-host-interactions-and-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Galla, Saroj Chakraborty, Blair Mell, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure (BP), has been extensively researched over decades and clearly demonstrated to be caused due to a combination of host genetic and environmental factors. Although much research remains to be conducted to pin-point the precise genetic elements on the host genome that control BP, new lines of evidence are emerging to indicate that, besides the host genome, the genomes of all indigenous commensal micro-organisms, collectively referred to as the microbial metagenome or microbiome, are important, but largely understudied, determinants of BP...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403983/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-sepsis
#11
REVIEW
Bastiaan W Haak, W Joost Wiersinga
For decades, the gut was thought to play an important role in sepsis pathogenesis. Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Organ failure assessment for sepsis focuses on respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, neurological, and haematological systems. Unfortunately, symptoms of gut failure are non-specific and are therefore not assessed. The composition of the intestinal microbiome, however, is affected by sepsis, and might contribute to the development of organ failure...
February 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401932/inflammasomes-and-intestinal-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
N Zmora, M Levy, M Pevsner-Fischer, E Elinav
The inflammasome is a cytosolic multi-protein innate immune rheostat, sensing a variety of endogenous and environmental stimuli, and regulating homeostasis or damage control. In the gastrointestinal tract, inflammasomes orchestrate immune tolerance to microbial and potentially food-related signals or drive the initiation of inflammatory responses to invading pathogens. When inadequately regulated, intestinal inflammasome activation leads to a perpetuated inflammatory response leading to immune pathology and tissue damage...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397557/factors-associated-with-infectious-laryngitis-a-retrospective-review-of-15-cases
#13
Carissa M Thomas, Marie E Jetté, Matthew S Clary
OBJECTIVES: To identify the culturable microbes associated with infectious laryngitis and outline effective treatment strategies. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of adult patients with persistent dysphonia plus evidence of laryngeal inflammation who underwent biopsy for culture at a tertiary care medical center. Demographic factors, symptoms as reported on validated patient assessment tools, past medical history, social history, culture results, and treatment duration and response were reviewed...
May 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396640/vitamin-d-deficiency-as-a-potential-environmental-risk-factor-in-multiple-sclerosis-schizophrenia-and-autism
#14
REVIEW
Eva Kočovská, Fiona Gaughran, Amir Krivoy, Ute-Christiane Meier
In this short review, we want to summarize the current findings on the role of vitamin-D in multiple sclerosis (MS), schizophrenia, and autism. Many studies have highlighted hypovitaminosis-D as a potential environmental risk factor for a variety of conditions such as MS, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and, more recently, psychiatric diseases. However, whether hypovitaminosis-D is a potential causative factor for the development or activity in these conditions or whether hypovitaminosis-D may be due to increased vitamin-D consumption by an activated immune system (reverse causation) is the focus of intense research...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394824/from-microbiome-to-infectome-in-autoimmunity
#15
Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Lazaros I Sakkas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the pros and cons of the microbiome studies conducted in search of the association between microbiota and autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on the role of infectome and autoinfectome as a bridge to link the findings of microbiome studies with those emerging from investigations of the role of specific viruses and antiviral responses as triggers of autoimmunity (through various mechanisms such as molecular mimicry)...
April 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392403/matrix-metalloproteinases-outside-vertebrates
#16
Laura Marino-Puertas, Theodoros Goulas, F Xavier Gomis-Rüth
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia...
April 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390822/the-genetics-of-human-longevity-an-intricacy-of-genes-environment-culture-and-microbiome
#17
REVIEW
Serena Dato, Giuseppina Rose, Paolina Crocco, Daniela Monti, Paolo Garagnani, Claudio Franceschi, Giuseppe Passarino
Approximately one-quarter of the variation in lifespan in developed countries can be attributed to genetic factors. However, even large population based studies investigating genetic influence on human lifespan have been disappointing, identifying only a few genes accounting for genetic susceptibility to longevity. Some environmental and lifestyle determinants associated with longevity have been identified, which interplay with genetic factors in an intricate way. The study of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions can significantly improve our chance to disentangle this complex scenario...
April 5, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389566/microbial-metabolites-in-health-and-disease-navigating-the-unknown-in-search-of-function
#18
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa A Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of a number of chronic gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. These include inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic (i.e. obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes), and neurological diseases. The advanced understanding of host-microbe interactions has largely been due to new technologies such as 16S rRNA sequencing to identify previously unknown microbial communities and more importantly their functional characteristics through metagenomic sequencing, and other multi-omic technologies such as metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389564/natural-product-discovery-from-the-human-microbiome
#19
Matthew R Wilson, Li Zha, Emily P Balskus
Human-associated microorganisms have the potential to biosynthesize numerous secondary metabolites that may mediate important host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. However, there is currently a limited understanding of microbiome-derived natural products. A variety of complementary discovery approaches have begun to illuminate this microbial 'dark matter', which will in turn allow detailed mechanistic studies of these molecules' affects on microbiome and host. Herein, we review recent efforts to uncover microbiome-derived natural products and describe the key approaches that were used to identify and characterize these metabolites, discuss potential functional roles of these molecules, and discuss challenges related to this emerging research area...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388917/influence-of-diet-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-implications-for-human-health
#20
REVIEW
Rasnik K Singh, Hsin-Wen Chang, Di Yan, Kristina M Lee, Derya Ucmak, Kirsten Wong, Michael Abrouk, Benjamin Farahnik, Mio Nakamura, Tian Hao Zhu, Tina Bhutani, Wilson Liao
Recent studies have suggested that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in modulating risk of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. At the same time, it is now understood that diet plays a significant role in shaping the microbiome, with experiments showing that dietary alterations can induce large, temporary microbial shifts within 24 h. Given this association, there may be significant therapeutic utility in altering microbial composition through diet...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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