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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822775/the-clandestine-organs-of-the-endocrine-system
#1
Natàlia Garcia-Reyero
This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review...
August 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#2
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818081/what-makes-gouty-inflammation-so-variable
#3
REVIEW
Robert Terkeltaub
Acute gout arthritis flares contribute dominantly to gout-specific impaired health-related quality of life, representing a progressively increasing public health problem. Flares can be complex and expensive to treat, partly due to the frequent comorbidities. Unmet needs in gout management are more pressing given the markedly increasing gout flare hospital admission rates. In addition, chronic gouty arthritis can cause joint damage and functional impairment. This review addresses new knowledge on the basis for the marked, inherent variability of responses to deposited urate crystals, including the unpredictable and self-limited aspects of many gout flares...
August 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817963/lipoproteins-and-cardiovascular-redox-signaling-role-in-atherosclerosis-and-coronary-disease
#4
Arash Haghikia, Ulf Landmesser
SIGNIFICANCE: Lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), play a causal role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary disease. Recent Advances: Lipoproteins, e.g. LDL, can stimulate vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that have been identified as important signaling molecules in the cardiovascular systems, and are involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and atherosclerosis. CRITICAL ISSUES: Modified lipoproteins have emerged as important regulators of redox signaling, such as oxidized or carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL or cLDL) or modified high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), that contain oxidized lipids, an altered potein cargo and associated small molecules, such as symmetric dimethylarginine (HDLSDMA)...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815459/a-roadmap-for-reducing-cardiac-device-infections-a-review-of-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-actionable-risk-factors-to-guide-the-development-of-an-infection-prevention-program-for-the-electrophysiology-laboratory
#5
REVIEW
Westyn Branch-Elliman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are highly morbid, common, and costly, and rates are increasing (Sohail et al. Arch Intern Med 171(20):1821-8 2011; Voigt et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 48(3):590-1 2006). Factors that contribute to the development of CIED infections include patient factors (comorbid conditions, self-care, microbiome), procedural details (repeat procedure, contamination during procedure, appropriate pre-procedural prep, and antimicrobial use), environmental and organizational factors (patient safety culture, facility barriers, such as lack of space to store essential supplies, quality of environmental cleaning), and microbial factors (type of organism, virulence of organism)...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815394/shared-dysregulation-of-homeostatic-brain-body-pathways-in-depression-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Claire J Hoogendoorn, Juan F Roy, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of shared dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) axes associated with depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Clinical implications and future research are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Both depression and T2D are associated with dysregulation of the HPA and BGM axes. These pathways regulate immune function, glucose metabolism, and sleep, which are altered in both illnesses...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812256/the-potential-for-emerging-microbiome-mediated-therapeutics-in-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Ayse Bilge Ozturk, Benjamin Arthur Turturice, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma...
August 10, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812207/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-its-potential-to-impact-efficacy-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer Velloza, Renee Heffron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes existing evidence addressing the potential modulation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, specifically 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel and oral tenofovir-based PrEP, by vaginal dysbiosis and discusses future considerations for delivering novel, long-acting PrEP products to women at high risk for vaginal dysbiosis and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe results from analyses investigating the modification of PrEP efficacy by vaginal dysbiosis and studies of biological mechanisms that could render PrEP ineffective in the presence of specific microbiota...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807612/the-role-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-mediator-of-cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
James A P Tomlinson, David C Wheeler
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an enhanced risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality when compared with age- and gender-matched individuals with normal kidney function. Trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut-derived amine oxide that has been implicated in the causation of CV diseases. Plasma TMAO is cleared by the kidney, and TMAO levels are elevated in CKD. Experimental studies have identified pathogenic mechanisms by which TMAO may contribute to CV disease through dysregulation of lipid metabolism, enhanced macrophage foam cell formation, and platelet dysfunction...
August 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804689/the-role-of-the-skin-and-gut-microbiome-in-psoriatic-disease
#10
Di Yan, Naiem Issa, Ladan Afifi, Caleb Jeon, Hsin Wen Chang, Wilson Liao
PURPOSE: To understand the changes in the microbiome in psoriatic disease, we conducted a systematic review of studies comparing the skin and gut microbiota in psoriatic individuals and healthy controls. FINDINGS: Our review of studies pertaining to the cutaneous microbiome showed a trend towards an increased relative abundance of Streptococcus and a decreased level of Propionibacterium in psoriasis patients compared to controls. In the gut microbiome, the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes was perturbed in psoriatic individuals compared to healthy controls...
June 2017: Current Dermatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#11
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801429/multicentric-randomised-study-of-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-and-pepsinogen-testing-for-prevention-of-gastric-cancer-mortality-the-gistar-study
#12
Marcis Leja, Jin Young Park, Raul Murillo, Inta Liepniece-Karele, Sergejs Isajevs, Ilze Kikuste, Dace Rudzite, Petra Krike, Sergei Parshutin, Inese Polaka, Arnis Kirsners, Daiga Santare, Valdis Folkmanis, Ilva Daugule, Martyn Plummer, Rolando Herrero
INTRODUCTION: Population-based eradication of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to be cost-effective and is recommended by international guidelines. However, the potential adverse effects of widespread antibiotic use that this would entail have not been sufficiently studied. An alternative way to decrease gastric cancer mortality is by non-invasive search for precancerous lesions, in particular gastric atrophy; pepsinogen tests are the best currently available alternative. The primary objective of GISTAR is to determine whether H pylori eradication combined with pepsinogen testing reduces mortality from gastric cancer among 40-64-year-old individuals...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799901/commensal-fungi-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jose J Limon, Joseph H Skalski, David M Underhill
Fungi are increasingly being recognized as common members of the microbiomes found on nearly all mucosal surfaces, and interest is growing in understanding how these organisms may contribute to health and disease. In this review, we investigate recent developments in our understanding of the fungal microbiota or "mycobiota" including challenges faced in characterizing it, where these organisms are found, their diversity, and how they interact with host immunity. Growing evidence indicates that, like the bacterial microbiota, the fungal microbiota is often altered in disease states, and increasingly studies are being designed to probe the functional consequences of such fungal dysbiosis on health and disease...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792444/role-of-microbial-modulation-in-management-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Lies Hulshof, Belinda Van't Land, Aline B Sprikkelman, Johan Garssen
The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and is a complex interrelationship between skin barrier, genetic predisposition, immunologic development, skin microbiome, environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and psychological factors. Several microbial modulations of the intestinal microbiome with pre- and/or probiotics have been used in AD management, with different clinical out-come (both positive, as well as null findings). This review provides an overview of the clinical evidence from trials in children from 2008 to 2017, aiming to evaluate the effect of dietary interventions with pre- and/or pro-biotics for the treatment of AD...
August 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792022/ambient-mass-spectrometry-in-metabolomics
#15
REVIEW
Chaevien S Clendinen, María Eugenia Monge, Facundo M Fernández
Since the introduction of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS), ambient MS methods have seen increased use in a variety of fields from health to food science. Increasing its popularity in metabolomics, ambient MS offers limited sample preparation, rapid and direct analysis of liquids, solids, and gases, in situ and in vivo analysis, and imaging. The metabolome consists of a constantly changing collection of small (<1.5 kDa) molecules. These include endogenous molecules that are part of primary metabolism pathways, secondary metabolites with specific functions such as signaling, chemicals incorporated in the diet or resulting from environmental exposures, and metabolites associated with the microbiome...
August 9, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791292/the-role-of-supplemental-complex-dietary-carbohydrates-and-gut-microbiota-in-promoting-cardiometabolic-and-immunological-health-in-obesity-lessons-from-healthy-non-obese-individuals
#16
REVIEW
Petra C Vinke, Sahar El Aidy, Gertjan van Dijk
Dietary supplementation with complex carbohydrates is known to alter the composition of gut microbiota, and optimal implementation of the use of these so called "prebiotics" could be of great potential in prevention and possibly treatment of obesity and associated cardiometabolic and inflammatory diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. An alternative to this "microbiocentric view" is the idea that health-promoting effects of certain complex carbohydrates reside in the host, and could secondarily affect the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790452/a-clinician-s-guide-to-microbiome-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Marcus J Claesson, Adam G Clooney, Paul W O'Toole
Microbiome analysis involves determining the composition and function of a community of microorganisms in a particular location. For the gastroenterologist, this technology opens up a rapidly evolving set of challenges and opportunities for generating novel insights into the health of patients on the basis of microbiota characterizations from intestinal, hepatic or extraintestinal samples. Alterations in gut microbiota composition correlate with intestinal and extraintestinal disease and, although only a few mechanisms are known, the microbiota are still an attractive target for developing biomarkers for disease detection and management as well as potential therapeutic applications...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783113/-omics-in-human-colostrum-and-mature-milk-looking-to-old-data-with-new-eyes
#18
REVIEW
Flaminia Bardanzellu, Vassilios Fanos, Alessandra Reali
Human Milk (HM) is the best source for newborn nutrition until at least six months; it exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-infective functions, promotes immune system formation and supports organ development. Breastfeeding could also protect from obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, human colostrum (HC) presents a peculiar role in newborn support as a protective effect against allergic and chronic diseases, in addition to long-term metabolic benefits. In this review, we discuss the recent literature regarding "omics" technologies and growth factors (GF) in HC and the effects of pasteurization on its composition...
August 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780492/known-unknowns-how-might-the-persistent-herpesvirome-shape-immunity-and-aging
#19
REVIEW
Janko Nikolich-Zugich, Felicia Goodrum, Kenneth Knox, Megan J Smithey
The microbial community that colonizes all living organisms is gaining appreciation for its contributions to both physiologic and pathogenic processes. The virome, a subset of the overall microbiome, large and diverse, including viruses that persistently inhabit host cells, endogenous viral elements genomically or epigenomically integrated into cells, and viruses that infect the other (bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and archaeal) microbiome phylla. These viruses live in the organism for its life, and therefore are to be considered part of the aging process experienced by the organism...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780386/salivary-microbiome-in-non-oral-disease-a-summary-of-evidence-and-commentary
#20
REVIEW
Aneesha Acharya, Yuki Chan, Supriya Kheur, Li Jian Jin, Rory M Watt, Nikos Mattheos
OBJECTIVE: The advent of high-throughput sequencing and 'omic' technologies is facilitating an 'open-ended' understanding of the human microbial community and its interplay with health. This commentary aims to present key perspectives and summarize current evidence from metagenomic studies of salivary microbiota in relation to general health and systemic diseases. DESIGN: A narrative review of studies that described salivary microbiome composition in relation to various general health conditions was conducted and the main results were summarized...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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