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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665886/antimicrobial-resistance-from-basic-science-to-translational-innovation
#1
Jun Lin
The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to animal agriculture and human health. To summarize and update current and emerging AMR issues that are significant for animal health and food safety, this issue presents a virtual AMR symposium consisting of seven review papers. These reviews cover a newly described AMR mechanism in Campylobacter, effects of AMR and microbiome on Campylobacter infection, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in food-producing animals, the impact of point source or antibiotic residues on the environmental resistome, and potential factors influencing horizontal gene transfer in the intestines of food animals...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665882/effects-of-antibiotic-resistance-ar-and-microbiota-shifts-on-campylobacter-jejuni-mediated-diseases
#2
Phillip T Brooks, Linda S Mansfield
Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen recently designated a serious antimicrobial resistant (AR) threat. While most patients with C. jejuni experience hemorrhagic colitis, serious autoimmune conditions can follow including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the acute neuropathy Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS). This review examines inter-relationships among factors mediating C. jejuni diarrheal versus autoimmune disease especially AR C. jejuni and microbiome shifts. Because both susceptible and AR C...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662485/our-environment-shapes-us-the-importance-of-environment-and-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-autoantibody-production
#3
REVIEW
Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660711/the-rhizosphere-microbiome-significance-in-rhizoremediation-of-polyaromatic-hydrocarbon-contaminated-soil
#4
REVIEW
Rhitu Kotoky, Jina Rajkumari, Piyush Pandey
Microbial communities are an essential part of plant rhizosphere and participate in the functioning of plants, including rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants. Rhizoremediation is a promising technology for removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons based on interactions between plants and microbiome in the rhizosphere. Root exudation in the rhizosphere provides better nutrient uptake for rhizosphere microbiome, and therefore it is considered to be one of the major factors of microbial community function in the rhizosphere that plays a key role in the enhanced PAH biodegradation...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660405/microbiome-mediated-bile-acid-modification-role-in-intestinal-drug-absorption-and-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Elaine F Enright, Brendan T Griffin, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce
Once regarded obscure and underappreciated, the gut microbiota (the microbial communities colonizing the gastrointestinal tract) is gaining recognition as an influencer of many aspects of human health. Also increasingly apparent is the breadth of interindividual variation in these co-evolved microbial-gut associations, presenting novel quests to explore implications for disease and therapeutic response. In this respect, the unearthing of the drug-metabolizing capacity of the microbiota has provided impetus for the integration of microbiological and pharmacological research...
April 13, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659479/oral-dysbiotic-communities-and-their-implications-in-systemic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Preethi Sudhakara, Abishek Gupta, Anshumouli Bhardwaj, Aruni Wilson
The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”, a state of community disturbance...
April 16, 2018: Dentistry journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651978/tracking-the-rules-of-transmission-and-introgression-with-networks
#7
Chloé Vigliotti, Cédric Bicep, Eric Bapteste, Philippe Lopez, Eduardo Corel
Understanding how an animal organism and its gut microbes form an integrated biological organization, known as a holobiont, is becoming a central issue in biological studies. Such an organization inevitably involves a complex web of transmission processes that occur on different scales in time and space, across microbes and hosts. Network-based models are introduced in this chapter to tackle aspects of this complexity and to better take into account vertical and horizontal dimensions of transmission. Two types of network-based models are presented, sequence similarity networks and bipartite graphs...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645277/insights-to-plant-microbe-interactions-provide-opportunities-to-improve-resistance-breeding-against-root-diseases-in-grain-legumes
#8
Lukas Wille, Monika M Messmer, Bruno Studer, Pierre Hohmann
Root and foot diseases severely impede grain legume cultivation worldwide. Breeding lines with resistance against individual pathogens exist, but these resistances are often overcome by the interaction of multiple pathogens in field situations. Novel tools allow to decipher plant-microbiome interactions in unprecedented detail and provide insights into resistance mechanisms that consider both simultaneous attacks of various pathogens and the interplay with beneficial microbes. Although it has become clear that plant-associated microbes play a key role in plant health, a systematic picture of how and to what extend plants can shape their own detrimental or beneficial microbiome remains to be drawn...
April 12, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644507/the-impact-of-obesity-on-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Daniel F Argolo, Clifford A Hudis, Neil M Iyengar
The rates of obesity are increasing worldwide and this condition is now recognized as a leading preventable cause of cancer. Several diseases are directly related to obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, and a diverse range of malignances-such as breast cancer. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and worse cancer-related outcomes for all breast tumor subtypes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the obesity-cancer link, including high levels of circulating and local estrogens, altered amounts of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), disrupted insulin/IGF signaling, modifications within the microbiome, and local and systemic effects of inflammation...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630137/the-cardiovascular-macrophage-a-missing-link-between-gut-microbiota-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#10
X Chen, L Zheng, Y-Q Zheng, Q-G Yang, Y Lin, F-H Ni, Z-H Li
The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is on the rise. Interventions that would aid prevention or treatment of these diseases are essential. The microbes residing in the gut, collectively called "gut microbiota", produce a plethora of compounds that enter the bloodstream and affect the cardiovascular system. Signals ascending from gut microbiome are believed to modulate differentiation and functional activity of macrophages residing in perivascular tissue, atherosclerotic plaques, and perivascular areas of the brain...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626219/smoking-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#11
REVIEW
Ziv Savin, Shaye Kivity, Hagith Yonath, Shoenfeld Yehuda
Studies are emerging alluding to the role of intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of diseases. Intestinal microbiome is susceptible to the influence of environmental factors such as smoking, and recent studies have indicated microbiome alterations in smokers. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the impact of smoking on the intestinal microbiome. A literature review of publications in PUBMED was performed using combinations of the terms "Intestinal/Gut/Gastrointestinal/Colonic" with "Microbiome/Microbiota/Microbial/Flora" and "Smoking/Smoker/Tobacco"...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623674/current-state-of-knowledge-on-implications-of-gut-microbiome-for-surgical-conditions
#12
Edmund B Chen, Cori Cason, Jack A Gilbert, Karen J Ho
The role of the microbiome in human health has become a central tenant of current medical research, infiltrating a diverse disciplinary base whereby microbiology, computer science, ecology, gastroenterology, immunology, neurophysiology and psychology, metabolism, and cardiovascular medicine all intersect. Traditionally, commensal gut microbiota have been assumed to play a significant role only in the metabolic processing of dietary nutrients and host metabolites, the fortification of gut epithelial barrier function, and the development of mucosal immunity...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623445/role-of-the-microbiome-in-food-allergy
#13
REVIEW
Hsi-En Ho, Supinda Bunyavanich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resident microbial communities likely modify risk for allergic disorders, including food allergy. We review epidemiologic studies linking microbial exposures to food allergy risk and discuss the mechanisms by which the microbiome may modulate oral tolerance. We additionally address ongoing translational efforts in human microbiome studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic studies and murine models support that altered microbial exposures and colonization in early life modify food allergy risk...
April 5, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621196/tannins-from-acacia-mearnsii-de-wild-bark-tannin-determination-and-biological-activities
#14
REVIEW
Sosuke Ogawa, Yoshikazu Yazaki
The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled "wattle tannin". Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for " Acacia species and their biological activities". An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica , even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name...
April 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620611/bleach-for-atopic-dermatitis-beyond-antimicrobials
#15
Melody Maarouf, Vivian Y Shi
Individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) have used bleach baths to treat superinfections, although their mechanism of action is not well understood. The ClinicalTrials.gov, National Eczema Association, and PubMed databases were searched for studies that investigate the role bleach plays in modulating AD. Fifteen studies were included in this review. Bleach bath improves clinical symptoms of AD and restores surface microbiome by eradicating bacteria, most notably Staphylococcus aureus. Many studies have noted that this antimicrobial effect has reduced the need for topical corticosteroids or topical antibiotics...
April 3, 2018: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615954/microbiome-mediated-upregulation-of-microrna-146a-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Yuhai Zhao, Walter J Lukiw
The first indication of a potential mechanistic link between the pathobiology of the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbiome and its contribution to the pathogenetic mechanisms of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) came a scant 4 years ago (1). Ongoing research continues to strengthen the hypothesis that neurotoxic microbial-derived components of the GI tract microbiome can cross aging GI tract and blood-brain barriers and contribute to progressive proinflammatory neurodegeneration, as exemplified by the AD-process...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614380/serotonin-as-a-link-between-the-gut-brain-microbiome-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is, however, often associated with medical comorbidities and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is among the most common. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between GI dysfunction and the degree of social impairment in ASD. The etiology of GI abnormalities in ASD is unclear, though the association between GI dysfunction and ASD-associated behaviors suggest that overlapping developmental defects in the brain and the intestine and/or a defect in communication between the enteric and central nervous systems (ENS and CNS, respectively), known as the gut-brain axis, could be responsible for the observed phenotypes...
March 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613948/on-the-complexity-of-shark-bite-wounds-from-associated-bacteria-to-trauma-management-and-wound-repair
#18
Evren Tevfik Isci, Erich Ritter
The mouth of a shark is a breeding ground for a large variety of bacteria which can easily get transferred onto a human body in the event of a shark bite. Here, we review infections originating from shark oral bacterial flora, which originate from the microbiome of its prey, as well as from the surroundings where an incident takes place. We use the example of an incident which occurred in an aquarium involving a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus. In addition to a succinct analysis and interpretation of the wound and recovery process, an overview of currently known bacteria associated with shark bite wounds is given, as well as a summary of the effects of various previously tested antibiotics on bacteria derived from blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, bull sharks, C...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611114/of-genes-and-microbes-solving-the-intricacies-in-host-genomes
#19
REVIEW
Jun Wang, Liang Chen, Na Zhao, Xizhan Xu, Yakun Xu, Baoli Zhu
Microbiome research is a quickly developing field in biomedical research, and we have witnessed its potential in understanding the physiology, metabolism and immunology, its critical role in understanding the health and disease of the host, and its vast capacity in disease prediction, intervention and treatment. However, many of the fundamental questions still need to be addressed, including the shaping forces of microbial diversity between individuals and across time. Microbiome research falls into the classical nature vs...
April 2, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609655/host-microbe-interactions-in-octocoral-holobionts-recent-advances-and-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Jeroen A J M van de Water, Denis Allemand, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
Octocorals are one of the most ubiquitous benthic organisms in marine ecosystems from the shallow tropics to the Antarctic deep sea, providing habitat for numerous organisms as well as ecosystem services for humans. In contrast to the holobionts of reef-building scleractinian corals, the holobionts of octocorals have received relatively little attention, despite the devastating effects of disease outbreaks on many populations. Recent advances have shown that octocorals possess remarkably stable bacterial communities on geographical and temporal scales as well as under environmental stress...
April 2, 2018: Microbiome
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